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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 93

§93. Paradigms of Masculine Nouns.[1]

Masculine nouns from the simple stem may, as regards their form and the vowel changes connected with it, be divided into four classes. A synopsis of them is given on pp. 264, 265, and they are further explained below. Two general remarks may be premised:

(a) That all feminines without a distinctive termination (§122h) are treated like these masculine nouns, e.g. חֶ֫רֶב‎ f. sword, like מֶ֫לֶךְ‎ m. king, except that in the plural they usually take the termination ־וֹת‎; thus חֲרָבוֹת‎, constr. חַרְבוֹת‎ (and so always before suffixes, see §95).

(b) That in the plural of the first three classes a changeable vowel is always retained even before the light suffixes as a lengthened pretonic vowel, whenever it also stands before the plural ending ־ִים‎. All suffixes, except כֶם‎, כֶן‎, הֶם‎, הֶן‎ (־ֵיכֶם‎, ־ֵיכֶן‎, ־ֵיהֶם‎, ־ֵיהֶן‎), are called light. Cf. §92e.

Explanations of the Paradigms (see pp. 264, 265).

1. Paradigm I comprises the large class of segholate nouns (§84aaa). In the first three examples, from a strong stem, the ground-forms, mălk, sĭphr, qŭdš have been developed by the adoption of a helping Seghôl to מֶ֫לֶךְ‎ (with ă modified to è), סֵ֫פֶר‎ (ĭ lengthened to ē), קֹ֫דֶשׁ‎ (ŭ lengthened to ō).[2] The next three examples, instead of the helping Seghôl, have a helping Pathaḥ, on account of the middle (d, f) or final guttural (e). In all these cases the constr. st. sing. coincides exactly with the absolute. The singular suffixes are added to the ground-form; but in c and f an ŏ takes the place of the original ŭ, and in d and f the guttural requires a repetition of the ă and ŏ in the form of a Ḥaṭeph (נַֽעֲרִי‎, פָּֽעֳלִי‎); before a following Še this Ḥaṭeph passes into a simple helping vowel (ă, ŏ), according to §28c; hence נַֽעַרְךָ‎, &c.

In the plural an a-sound almost always appears before the tone-bearing affix ־ִים‎ (on the analogy of forms with original a in the second syllable; cf. §84aa), in the form of a pretonic Qameṣ, whilst the short vowel of the first syllable becomes vocal Še. The original a of the 2nd syllable is elided in the construct state, so that the short vowel under the first radical then stands in a closed syllable. The omission of Dageš in a following Begadkephath (מַלְכֵי‎, not מַלְכֵּי‎, &c.) is due to the loss of a vowel between ל‎ and כ‍‎. On the other hand, the pretonic Qames of the absolute state is retained before the light plural suffixes, whilst the grave suffixes are added to the form of the construct state.—The ending of the absolute state of the dual is added, as a rule, to the ground-form (so in a–d and h, but cf. k). The construct state of the dual is generally the same as that of the plural, except, of course, in cases like m.

Paradigms g and h exhibit forms with middle u and i (§84ac, γ and δ); the ground forms maut and zait are always contracted to môth, zêth, except in the absol. sing., where u and i are changed into the corresponding consonants ו‎ and י‎.

Paradigm i exhibits one of the numerous forms in which the contraction of a middle u or i has already taken place in the absol. sing. (ground-form šauṭ).

Paradigm k is a formation from a stem ל״ה‎ (§84ac, ε).

Paradigms l, m, n are forms from stems ע״ע‎, and hence (see §67a) originally biliteral, yam, ʾim, ḥuq, with the regular lengthening to יָם‎, אֵם‎, חֹק‎. Before formative additions a sharpening, as in the inflexion of verbs ע״ע‎, takes place in the second radical, e.g. אִמִּי‎, יַמִּים‎, &c. (see §84ac, β).


1. A. On I. a and d (ground-form qaṭl). In pause the full lengthening to ā generally takes place, thus כָּ֫רֶם‎ vineyard, נָ֫עַר‎, זָ֫רַע‎ seed (from זֶ֫רַע‎), and so always (except Psalms 48:11), in אֶ֫רֶץ‎ earth with the article, הָאָ֫רֶץ‎, according to §35o (cf. also in the LXX the forms Ἀβέλ, Ἰαφέθ for הֶ֫בֶל‎, יֶ֫פֶת‎). However, the form with è is also sometimes found in pause, along with that in ā, e.g. חֶ֫סֶד‎ together with חָ֫סֶד‎; and very frequently only the form with Seghôl, e.g. מֶ֫לֶךְ‎, דֶּ֫שֶׁא‎ grass, נֶ֫צַח‎ perpetuity, פֶּ֫לֶא‎ a wonder, צֶ֫דֶק‎ righteousness, קֶ֫דֶם‎ the East, יֶ֫שַׁע‎ help, &c.—With two Seghôls, although with a middle guttural, we find לֶ֫חֶם‎ bread (in pause לָ֫חֶם‎) and רֶ֫חֶם‎ womb (in pause רָ֫חֶם‎), besides רַ֫חַם‎ Judges 5:30 (in pause רָ֫חַם‎). A helping Seghôl always stands before a final א‎, as דֶּ֫שֶׁא‎, טֶ֫נֶא‎ (with suff. טַנְאֲךָ‎), פֶּ֫לֶא‎, פֶּ֫רֶא‎ (also written פֶּ֫רֶה‎), except in גַּיְא‎, see v.

B. The constr. st. is almost always the same as the absolute. Sometimes, however, under the influence of a final guttural or ר‎, Pathaḥ appears in the second syllable as the principal vowel (see below, §93s), e.g. גְּבַר‎ Psalms 18:26; זְרַע‎

Paradigms of Masculine Nouns.

a. b. c. d. e. f.
Sing. absolute מֶ֫לֶךְ‎ סֵ֫פֶר‎ קֹ֫דֶשׁ‎ נַ֫עַר‎ נֵ֫צַח‎ פֹּ֫עַל‎
(king) (book) (sanctuary) (a youth) (perpetuity) (work)
" construct מֶ֫לֶךְ‎ סֵ֫פֶר‎ קֹ֫דֶשׁ‎ נַ֫עַר‎ נֵ֫צַח‎ פֹּ֫עַל‎
" with light suff. מַלְכִּי‎ סִפְרִי‎ קָדְשִׁי‎ נַֽעֲרִי‎ נִצְתִי‎ פָּֽעֳלִי‎
מַלְכְּךָ‎ סִפְרְךָ‎ קָדְשְׁךָ‎ נַֽערְךָ‎ נִצְחֲךָ‎ פָּֽעָלְךָ‎
" with grave suff. מַלְכְּכֶם‎ סִפְרְכֶם‎ קָדְשְׁכֶם‎ נַעַֽרְכֶם‎ נִצְחֲכֶם‎ פָּֽעָלְכֶם‎
Plur. absolute מְלָכִים‎ סְפָרִים‎ [קֳדָשִׁים]‎ נְעָרִים‎ נְצָחִים‎ פְּעָלִים‎
" construct מַלְכֵי‎ סִפְרֵי‎ קָדְשֵׁי‎ נַֽעֲרֵי‎ נִצְחֵי‎ פָּֽעֳלֵי‎
" with light suff. מְלָכַי‎ סְפָרַי‎ [קֳדָשַׁי]‎ נְעָרַי‎ נְצָחַי‎ פְּעָלַי‎
" with grave suff. מַלְכֵיכֶם‎ סִפְרֵיכֶם‎ קָדְשֵׁיכֶם‎ נַֽעֲרֵיכֶם‎ נִצְחֵיכֶם‎ פָּֽעֳלֵיכֶם‎
Dual absolute רַגְלַ֫יִם‎ קִבְצַ֫יִם‎ מָתְנַ֫יִם‎ נַֽעֲלַ֫יִם‎
(feet) (two heaps) (loins) (sandals)
[proper name.]
" construct רַגְלֵי‎ מָתְנֵי‎ נַֽעֲלֵי‎
a. b. c. d. e. f.
Sing. absolute דָּבָר‎ חָכָם‎ זָקֵן‎ כָּתֵף‎ חָצֵר‎ שָׂדֶה‎
(word) (wise) (an old man) (shoulder) (court) (field)
" construct דְבַר‎ חֲכַם‎ זְקַן‎ כֶּ֫תֶף‎ חֲצַר‎ שְׂדֵה‎
" with light suff. דְּבָרִי‎ חֲכָמִי‎ זְקֵנִי‎ כְּתֵפִי‎ חֲצֵרִי‎ שָׂדִי‎
דְּבָֽרְךָ‎ חֲכָֽמְךָ‎ שָֽׂדְךָ‎
" with grave suff. דְּבַרְכֶם‎ חֲכַמְכֶם‎
Plur. absolute דְּבָרִים‎ חֲכָמִים‎ זְקֵנִים‎ חֲצֵרִים‎ פָּנִים‎
" construct דִּבְרֵי‎ חַכְמֵי‎ זִקְנֵי‎ חַצְרֵי‎ פְּנֵי‎
" with light suff. דְּבָרַי‎ חֲכָמַי‎ זְקֵנַי‎ חֲצֵרַי‎ פָּנַי‎
" with grave suff. דִּבְרֵיכֶם‎ חַכְמֵיכֶם‎ זִקְנֵיכֶם‎ חַצְרֵיכֶם‎ פְּנֵיכֶם‎
Dual absolute כְּנָפַ֫יִם‎ חֲלָצַ֫יִם‎ יְרֵכַ֫יִם‎
(wings) (loins) (thighs) (face)
" construct כַּנְפֵי‎
g. h. i. k. l. m. n.
Sing. absolute מָ֫וֶת‎ זַ֫יִת‎ שׁוֹט‎ פְּרִי‎ יָם‎ אֵם‎ חֹק‎
(death) (olive) (whip) (fruit) (sea) (mother) (statute)
" construct מוֹת‎ זֵית‎ שׁוֹט‎ פְּרִי‎ יָם‎, יַם‎ אֵם‎ חָק־‎
" with light suff. מוֹתִי‎ זֵיתִי‎ שׁוֹטִי‎ פִּרְיִי‎ יַמִּי‎ אִמִּי‎ חֻקִּי‎
מֽוֹתְךָ‎ זֵֽיתְךָ‎ שֽׁוֹטְךָ‎ פֶּרְיְךָ‎ יַמְּךָ‎ אִמְּךָ‎ חָקְךָ‎
" with grave suff. מֽוֹתְכֶם‎ זֵֽיתְכֶם‎ שֽׁוֹטְכֶם‎ פֶּרְיְכֶם‎ יַמְּכֶם‎ אִמְּכֶם‎ חָקְכֶם‎
Plur. absolute [מוֹתִים]‎ זֵיתִים‎ שׁוֹטִים‎ גְּדָיִים‎ יַמִּים‎ אִמּוֹת‎ חֻקִּים‎
" construct מוֹתֵי‎ זֵיתֵי‎ שׁוֹטֵי‎ גְּדָיֵי‎ יַמֵּי‎ אִמּוֹת‎ חֻקֵּי‎
" with light suff. זֵיתַי‎ שׁוֹטַי‎ (kids) יַמַּי‎ אִמּוֹתַי‎ חֻקַּי‎
" with grave suff. זֵיֽתֵיכֶם‎ שֽׁוֹטֵיכֶם‎ יַמֵּיכֶם‎ אִמּֽוֹתֵיכֶם‎ חֻקֵּיכֶם‎
Dual absolute עֵינַיִם‎ יוֹמַ֫יִם‎ לְחָיַ֫יִם‎ כַּפַּ֫יִם‎ שִׁנַּ֫יִם‎
(eyes) (two days, (cheeks) (hands) (teeth)
" construct עֵינֵי‎ לְחָיֵי‎ כַּפֵּי‎ שִׁנֵּי‎
a. b. c. a. b. c.
Sing. absolute עוֹלָם‎ אֹיֵב‎ חֹזֶה‎ פָּקִיד‎ עָנִי‎ כְּתָב‎
(eternity) (enemy) (seer) (overseer) (poor) (writing)
" construct עוֹלַם‎ אֹיֵב‎ חֹזֵה‎ פְּקִיד‎ עֲנִי‎ כְּתָב‎
" with light suff. עֽוֹלָמִי‎ אֹֽיְבִי‎ חֹזִי‎ פְּקִידִי‎ כְּתָבִי‎
עוֹלָֽמְךָ‎ אֹֽיִבְךָ‎ חֹֽזְךָ‎ פְּקִֽידְךָ‎ כְּתָֽבְךָ‎
" with grave suff. עֽוֹלַמְכֶם‎ אֹֽיִבְכֶם‎ חֹֽזְכֶם‎ פְּקִֽירְכֶם‎ כְּתָֽבְכֶם‎
Plur. absolute עֽוֹלָמִים‎ אֹֽיְבִים‎ חֹזִים‎ פְּקידִים‎ עֲנִיִּים‎ [כְּתָבִים]‎
" construct עֽוֹלְמֵי‎ אִֽיְבֵי‎ חִזֵי‎ פְּקִידֵי‎ עֲנִיֵּי‎ [כְּתָבֵי]‎
" with light suff. עֽוֹלָמַי‎ אֹֽיְבַי‎ חֹזַי‎ פְּקִידַי‎ [כְּתָבַי]‎
" with grave suff. עֽוֹלְמֵיכֶם‎ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶם‎ חֹֽזֵיכֶם‎ פְּקִֽידֵיכֶם‎ עֲנִיֵּיכֶם‎ [כְּתָֽבֵיכֶם]‎
Dual absolute מֶלְקָחַ֫יִם‎ מֹֽאזְנַ֫יִם‎ שְׁבֻעַ֫ים‎
(pair of tongs) (balance) (two weeks)
" construct מֹֽאזְנֵי‎
(only in Numbers 11:7, before Maqqeph), חֲדַר‎ Judges 3:24 (but Song of Solomon 3:4 חֶ֫דֶר‎), נְטַע‎, סְחַר‎ as well as זֶ֫רַע‎, &c.; cf., moreover, קְחַת‎ 2 Kings 12:9 (for קַ֫חַת‎, infin. constr. from לָקַח‎).

C. The ־ָה‎ locale is, according to §90i, regularly added to the already developed form, e.g. נֶ֫גְדָה‎ Psalms 116:1418: הַפֶּ֑תְחָה‎ Genesis 19:6, to the door; but also with a firmly closed syllable נֶ֫גְבָּה‎ Exodus 40:24; under the influence of a guttural or ר‎, חַ֫דְרָה‎, אַ֫רְצָה‎, in pause אָ֫רְצָה‎ (cf. גָּ֫זְרָה‎ 1 Chronicles 14:16, from גֶּ֫זֶר‎).

D. The suffixes of the singular are likewise added to the ground-form, but forms with middle guttural take Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ instead of the Šewâ quiescens; נַֽעֲרִי‎, &c. (but also לַחְמִי‎, זַעְמִי‎, &c.). In a rather large number of qăṭl-forms, however, before suffixes in the sing., as well as in the constr. st. plur. and dual, the ă of the first syllable is attenuated to ĭ,[3] thus בִּטְנִי‎ my womb, יִתְרוֹ‎; so in בֶּ֫גֶד‎, בֶּ֫צַע‎, גֶּ֫זַע‎, זֶ֫בַח‎, טֶ֫בַח‎, פֶּ֫שַׁע‎, פֶּ֫תַח‎, צֶ֫דֶק‎, קֶ֫בֶר‎, קֶ֫רֶב‎, רֶ֫שַׁע‎, שֶׁ֫מֶשׁ‎, and many others. In some cases of this kind besides the form with ă there most probably existed another with original ĭ in the first syllable; thus certainly with יֵ֫שַׁע‎ beside יֶ֫שַׁע‎, נֵ֫צַח‎ beside נֶ֫צַ֫ח‎, &c. (According to the Diqduqe ha-ṭeamim, § 36, the absolute st. in such cases takes è, the constr. ē; cf. נֶ֫דֶר‎ Numbers 30:4 (absol.) and נֵ֫דֶר‎ Numbers 30:10 (constr.); שֶׁ֫בֶר‎ Leviticus 24:20 (absol.) and שֵׁ֫בֶר‎ Amos 6:6 (constr.). According to this theory[4] פֵּ֫לֶא‎ (so the best authorities) Isaiah 9:5 would be the constr. st., although the accentuation requires an absol. st.)—A weakening of the firmly closed syllable occurs in בִּגְדִי‎, &c. from בֶּ֫גֶד‎ and יִקְבֶ֫ךָ‎ Deuteronomy 15:14, Deuteronomy 16:13, in both cases evidently owing to the influence of the palatal in the middle of the stem. With Seghôl for ĭ: הֶבְלִי‎, יֶשְׁעֲךָ‎, נֶגְדִּי‎, &c.

E. In the plural the termination וֹת‎ is found as well as ־ִים‎, e.g. נְפָשׁוֹת‎, עֲצָמוֹת‎ together with נְפָשִׁים‎ (Ezekiel 13:20 [but read חָפְשִׁים‎; see comm.]), &c., constr. st. נַפְשׁוֹת‎. Other nouns have only the ending וֹת‎, e.g. אֲרָצוֹת‎, constr. אַרְצוֹת‎ from אֶ֫רֶץ‎. Without Qaṃeṣ before the ending ־ִים‎ we find רַֽחֲמִים‎ '(bowels) mercy. On the numerals עֶשְׂרִים‎ twenty, &c., cf. §97f, note 2. Moreover a is not inserted before plural suffixes with the tone on the penultima in אַשְׁרֶ֫יךָ‎, &c., properly thy happiness! (a word which is only used in the constr. st. pl. and at an early period became stereotyped as a kind of interjection).

F. In the constr. st. plural a firmly closed syllable is sometimes found, contrary to the rule, e.g. כַּסְפֵּיהֶם‎ Genesis 42:2535; רִשְׁפֵּי‎ Song of Solomon 8:6 (רִשְׁפֵי‎ Psalms 76:4); טַרְפֵּי‎ Ezekiel 17:9; צִמְדֵּי‎ Isaiah 5:10, and so always in נִסְכֵּיכֶם‎ Numbers 29:39, נִסְכֵּיהֶם‎ Psalms 16:4, &c. (on the other hand, according to the best authorities not in חַסְדֵי‎ Isaiah 55:3, &c., though in Psalms 107:43 Ginsburg reads חַסְדֵּי‎); cf. §46d. Even with a middle guttural בַּעְלֵיהֶן‎ Esther 1:1720.—The attenuation of ă to ĭ also occurs sometimes in this form (see above, k), e.g. זִבְחֵי‎, &c., even יִלְדֵי‎ Isaiah 57:4 beside יַלְדֵי‎ Hosea 1:2, &c.

G. In the dual absol. beside forms like רַגְלַ֫יִם‎ feet, with suff. רַגְלֶ֫יךָ‎, רַגְלָיו‎, &c. אַלְפַּ֫יִם‎ two thousand, נַֽעֲלַ֫יִם‎ sandals, בִּרְכַּ֫יִם‎ knees (ă attenuated to ĭ, constr. st. בִּרְכֵּי‎ with a firmly closed syllable), with suffixes בִּרְכַּי‎, &c. (cf., however, בִּרְכֵיהֶם‎ Judges 7:6), forms with pretonic Qameṣ are also found (in consequence of the tendency to assimilate the dual to the plural in form: so König, Lehrgeb., ii. 17), as קְרָנַ֫יִם‎ horns, with suff. קְרָנָיו‎ (Daniel 8:3 ff.; elsewhere always קַרְנַ֫יִם‎, קַרְנָיו‎, &c.), and so always דְּלָתַ֫יִם‎, constr. st. דַּלְתֵי‎ folding-doors, דְּרָכַ֫יִם‎ (?) double way.

2. On Paradigms b and e. With a final א‎ rejected (but retained orthographically) we find חֵטְא‎ sin. An initial guttural before suffixes generally receives Seghôl instead of the original ĭ, e.g. חֶלְקִי‎, עֶזְרִי‎, &c., so in the constr. st. plur. עֶגְלֵי‎, &c.; חֵטְא‎ forms חֲטָאֵי‎ 2 Kings 10:29, &c., retaining the Qameṣ of חֲטָאִים‎ before the weak א‎.—The pausal forms סָ֫תֶר‎ and שָׁ֫בֶט‎ (out of pause always סֵ֫תֶר‎, שֵׁ֫בֶט‎) go back to by-forms סֶ֫תֶר‎, שֶׁ֫בֶט‎.—On עִשְּׂבוֹת‎ (constr. st. plur. of עֵ֫שֶׂב‎) Proverbs 27:25, cf. §20h; שִׁקְמִים‎ sycamores, without Qameṣ before the termination ־ִים‎ (see above, l), is probably from the sing. שִׁקְמָה‎ found in the Mišna.

3. On Paradigms c and f. קשְׁטְ‎ occurs in Proverbs 22:21 without a helping vowel; with a middle guttural פֹּ֫עַל‎, &c., but with ה‎ also אֹ֫הֶל‎, בֹּ֫הֶן‎; with a final guttural גֹּ֫בַהּ‎, רֹ֫בַע‎ &c., but with א‎, גֹּ֫מֶא‎; with a firmly closed syllable אָסְפֵּי‎ Micah 7:1.

Before suffixes the original ŭ sometimes reappears in the sing., e.g. גֻּדְלוֹ‎ (Psalms 150:2) beside גָּדְלוֹ‎, from גֹּ֫דֶל‎ greatness; סֻבֳּלוֹ‎ (with Dageš forte dirimens, and the ŭ repeated in the form of a Ḥaṭeph-Qameṣ, cf. §10h) Isaiah 9:3, &c.; גֻּשְׁמָהּ‎ Ezekiel 22:24.—Corresponding to the form פָּֽעָלְכֶם‎ pŏʿŏlekhèm we find קָֽטָבְךָ‎ Hosea 13:14, even without a middle guttural; similarly קָֽטֳנִי‎ (so Jablonski and Opitius) 1 Kings 12:10, 2 Chronicles 10:10, from קֹ֫טֶן‎ little finger; but the better reading is, no doubt, קָֽטָנִּי‎ (so ed. Mant., ‘the ק‎ proleptically assuming the vowel of the following syllable’; König, Lehrgeb., ii. 69), and the form is to be derived, with König, from קְטֹן‎, not qŭtŭn, as Brockelmann quotes him, in Grundriss, p. 103. The reading קָֽטֳנִּי‎ (Baer and Ginsburg) is probably not due to a confusion of the above two readings, but ־ֳ‎ is merely intended to mark the vowel expressly as ŏ. In the forms פֹּֽעֲלוֹ‎ Isaiah 1:31 (for פָּֽעֳלוֹ‎) and תֹּֽאֲרוֹ‎ Isaiah 52:14 (for תָּֽאֳרוֹ‎ 1 Samuel 28:14), the lengthening of the original ŭ to ō has been retained even before the suffix; cf. §63p and §74h (בְּמֹצַֽאֲכֶם‎ Genesis 32:20).—In the same way ō remains before ־ָה‎ locale, e.g. גּ֫ׄרְנָה‎, הָאֹהֱלָה‎ Genesis 18:6, Genesis 24:67, &c. Dissimilation of the vowel (or a by-form נֶ֫כַח‎?) seems to occur in נִכְחוֹ‎ Exodus 14:2, Ezekiel 46:9, for נָכְחוֹ‎.

In the absol. st. plur. the original ŭ generally becomes Še before the Qameṣ, e.g. בְּקָרִים‎ from בֹּ֫קֶר‎ morning, פְּעָלִים‎ works, רְמָחִים‎ lances, שְׁעָלִים‎ handfuls (constr. st. שַֽׁעֲלֵי‎ Ezekiel 13:19); on the other hand, with an initial guttural the ŭ-sound reappears as Ḥaṭeph Qameṣ, e.g. חֳדָשִׁים‎ months, עֳפָרִים‎ gazelles, אֳרָחוֹת‎ ways; and so even without an initial guttural, הַגֳּרָנוֹת‎ the threshing-floors, 1 Samuel 23:1, Joel 2:24; קָֽדָשִׁים‎ sanctuaries, and שָֽׁרָשִׁים‎ roots (qŏdhāšîm, &c., with ŏ for ־ֳ‎); also קָֽדָשַׁי‎ [but קֳדָשֶׁ֫יךָ‎, קֳדָשָׁיו‎, once קָֽ׳‎], where, however, the reading frequently fluctuates between קָֽ׳‎ and קֳ׳‎; with the article הַקֳּ׳‎, בַּקֳּ׳‎, לַקֳּ׳‎, according to Baer and Ginsburg. On these forms cf. especially §9v. From אֹ֫הֶל‎ tent, both בָּֽאֳהָלִים‎ and אֹֽהָלִים‎ (cf. §23h and פֹּֽעֲלוֹ‎ above) are found; with light suffixes אֹֽהָלַי‎, &c.; so from אֹרַח‎ way, אֹֽרְחֹתָיו‎ (also אָרְחֹתַי‎)—hence only with initial א‎, ‘on account of its weak articulation’ (König, Lehrgeb., ii. 45). It seems that by these different ways of writing a distinction was intended between the plural of אֹרְחָה‎ caravan, and of אֹרַח‎ way; however, אָרְחוֹת‎ is also found in the former sense (in constr. st. Job 6:19) and אֹֽרְחוֹת‎ in the latter (e.g. Job 13:27 according to the reading of Ben Naphtali and Qimḥi); cf. also אֽוֹנִיּוֹת‎ 2 Chronicles 8:18 Keth. (אֳנ׳‎ Qe).—The constr. st. plural of בֹּ֫הֶן‎ thumb is בְּהֹנוֹת‎ Judges 1:6 f., as if from a sing. בְּהֹן‎: of נׄ֫גַהּ‎ brightness, Isaiah 59:9 נְגׄהוֹת‎ (on these qeṭōl-forms, cf. t).—If אָפְנָיו‎ Proverbs 25:11 is not dual but plural (see the Lexicon) it is then analogous to the examples, given in l and 0, of plurals without a pretonic Qameṣ; cf. בָּטְנִים‎ pistachio nuts, probably from a sing. בָּטְנָה‎. According to Barth, ZDMG. xlii, 345 f. אָפְנָיו‎ is a sing. (אָפְנַי‎, the ground-form of אָפְנֶה‎, with suffix).

In the constr. st. plur. the only example with original ŭ is רֻכְסֵי‎ Psalms 31:21; otherwise like קָדְשֵׁי‎, אָֽהֳלֵי‎, &c.

4. Besides the forms treated hitherto we have to consider also a series of formations, which have their characteristic vowel under the second radical, as is ordinarily the case in Aramaic (on the origin of these forms see further, §84ae). Thus (a) of the form קְטַל‎; דְּבַשׁ‎ honey, מְעַט‎ little; in pause, דְּבָשׁ‎, מְעָט‎; גְּבַר‎ man (as constr. st., see above, h), Psalms 18:26 (elsewhere always גֶּ֫בֶר‎), and infinitives like שְׁכַב‎ (§45c; on קְחַת‎, see above, h); שְׁכֶם‎ shoulder, ă being modified to è (but in pause שֶׁ֫כֶם‎); locative שְׁכֶ֫מָה‎, also שֶׁ֫כְמָה‎ Hosea 6:9. With suffixes in the usual manner שִׁכְמִי‎, שִׁכְבָהּ‎ Genesis 19:3335 (an infin. with suffix, therefore not שִׁכְבָּהּ‎). On the other hand, the ă is retained in the plur. absol. by sharpening the final consonant: אֲגַמִּים‎ (constr. אַגְמֵי‎) marshes, הֲדַסִּים‎ myrtles, מְעַטִּים‎ few.

(b) Of the form קְטֵל‎: בְּאֵר‎ a well, זְאֵב‎ wolf, &c.[5]; locative בְּאֵרָה‎, with suff. בְּאֵרִי‎, plur. זְאֵבִים‎, זְאֵבֵי‎; but בְּאֵרוֹת‎, constr. בֶּֽאֱרוֹת‎; on the infin. constr. שְׂאֵת‎, cf. §76b.

(c) of the form קְטֹל‎: בְּאשׁ‎ stench (with suff. בָּאְשׁוֹ‎, just as סֻבְּכוֹ‎ occurs in Jeremiah 4:7 along with the constr. st. סְבָךְ־‎ Psalms 74:5; cf. for the Dageš, §20h), perhaps also לְאֹם‎ nation, pl. לְאֻמִּים‎.

5. Paradigms g–i comprise the segholate forms with middle ו‎ or י‎: (a) of the form qăṭl with Wāw as a strong consonant, in which cases the original ă is almost always lengthened to ā (Paradigm g), thus מָ֫וֶת‎, אָ֫וֶן‎ vanity, עָ֫וֶל‎ iniquity, תָּ֫וֶךְ‎ midst; with final א‎, שָׁוְא‎ falsehood; cf. however, also רֶ֫וַח‎ space. In the constr. st. contraction always occurs, מוֹת‎, &c. (from original maut), and likewise before suffixes מוֹתוֹ‎, &c. Exception, עָ֫וֶל‎ as constr. st. Ezekiel 28:18 (according to Qimḥi) and with suff. עַוְלוֹ‎. The contraction remains also in all cases in the plural (but see below, w).

(b) Of the form qăṭl with consonantal Yôdh (Paradigm h). With final א‎, גַּיְא‎ (also גַּי‎), in Isaiah 40:4 גֶּיא‎, in the constr. st. (also absol. Zechariah 14:4) גֵּיא‎ (also גֵּי‎); plur. 2 Kings 2:16 and Ezekiel 6:3 Keth. according to Baer גאות‎, i.e. doubtless גֵּאוֹת‎ (cf. גֵּֽיאוֹתֶיךָ‎ Ezekiel 35:8; according to another reading [and so Ginsburg] גיאות‎, i.e. doubtless גְּיָאוֹת‎), but in Qe, and all other passages, נֵּֽאָיוֹת‎. The uncontracted form (in the absol. st. with helping Ḥireq) remains also before ־ָה‎ locale, e.g. בַּ֫יְתָה‎ (but in the constr. st. e.g. בֵּ֫יתָה יוֹסֵף‎).—עִירֹה‎ (from עַ֫יִר‎) Genesis 49:11 is peculiar, so also שִׁיתוֹ‎ Isaiah 10:17 (from שַׁ֫יִת‎).—In the plural absol. uncontracted forms occur, like חֲיָלִים‎ hosts, עֲיָנוֹת‎ springs, עֲיָרִים‎ young asses, תְּיָשִׁים‎ he-goats, &c.; as constr. st. Proverbs 8:28 עִינוֹת‎ for עֵינוֹת‎.

(c) With the contraction of the ו‎ and י‎ even in the absol. st. sing. (Paradigm i). In this way there arise formations which are unchangeable throughout; thus from the ground-form qăṭl: יוֹם‎ (cf., however, §96), סוֹף‎, שׁוֹר‎, &c.; with middle Yôdh, חֵיל‎ 1 Chronicles 9:13 (elsewhere חַ֫יִל‎), לֵיל‎ Isaiah 21:11 (elsewhere לַ֫יִל‎, in prose לַ֫יְלָה‎, see above, §90f); from the ground-form qĭṭl, דִּין‎, שִׁיר‎, עִיר‎ (see, however, §96); from the ground-form qŭṭl, גּוּר‎, רוּחַ‎ &c. The plurals דְּוָדִים‎ pots, שְׁוָקִים‎ streets, שְׁוָרִים‎ oxen, have a strong formation (but for חֲוָחִים‎ 1 Samuel 13:6 read חוֹרִים‎ as in 1 Samuel 14:11). Finally, forms with a quiescent middle א‎ also belong to this class, such as רֹאשׁ‎ head (obscured from רָאשׁ‎=raʾš, see §96) and צֹאן‎ sheep.

6. On Paradigm k: segholate forms from ל״ה‎ stems. Besides the formations mentioned in §84ac, ε, like בֶּ֫כֶה‎, &c., and שָׂ֫חוּ‎ Ezekiel 47:5, with the original ו‎ resolved, according to §24d (cf. the constr. plur. חַגְוֵי‎ clefts, Obadiah 1:3, &c., and קַצְוֵי‎ ends, Psalms 48:11, &c., where the ו‎ becomes again a strong consonant,[6] from חֶ֫גֶו‎ and קֶ֫צֶו‎ or חָ֫גוּ‎ and קָ֫צוּ‎), there occur also (a) commonly, of the ground-form qaṭl, forms like פְּרִי‎, בְּכִי‎, גְּדִי‎, לְחִי‎, צְבִי‎, אֲרִי‎, &c.; in pause פֶּ֫רִי‎, בֶּ֫כִי‎, לֶ֫חִי‎, צֶ֫בִי‎ (cf. §29m), but אֲרִ֑י‎ Judges 14:18; with suffixes פִּרְיוֹ‎ (attenuated from păryô), בִּכְיִי‎ Psalms 6:9, but also פֶּרְיְךָ‎, לֶחְיוֹ‎ &c.; before a grave suffix פְּרִיהֶם‎, but also פֶּרְיְכֶם‎. Plur. גְּדָיִים‎ (constr. גְּדָיֵי‎, see above, o, חֲטָאֵי‎), אֲרָיִים‎ and אֲרָיוֹת‎; with softening of the י‎ to א‎ (as elsewhere in בְּלוֹאֵי‎ Jeremiah 38:12 for which there is בְּלוֹיֵ‎ in verse 11, according to §8k; עַרְבִיאִים‎ 2 Chronicles 17:11, cf. 2 Chronicles 26:7 Keth.; probably in דּֽוּדָאִים‎, לֻֽלָאוֹת‎ from דּוּדַי‎ and לוּלַי‎; also חלכאים‎ Psalms 10:10 Keth., divided into two words by the Masora, is to be referred to a sing. חֶלְכַּי‎ hapless): חֲלָאִים‎ jewels, Song of Solomon 7:2 (from חֲלִי‎), טְלָאִים‎ lambs, Isaiah 40:11 (from טְלִי‎); but instead of פְּתָאִים‎ and צְבָאִים‎ (from פֶּ֫תִי‎ and צְבִי‎) the Masora requires פְּתָאיִם‎ and צְבָאיִם‎; dual: לְחָיַ֫יִם‎, constr. st. לְחָיֵי‎, with suff. לְחָיַי‎, &c. On דַּל‎ door, cf. §95f, and on such formations generally, see Barth on biliteral nouns in ZDMG. 1887, p. 603 ff., and Nominal-bildung (isolated nouns), p. 1 ff.

(b) From the ground-form qiṭl, חֲצִי‎ half, in pause חֵ֫צִי‎, with suff. חֶצְיוֹ‎, &c.—From stems with middle Wāw arise such forms as אִי‎ (from ʾiwy), עִי‎, צִי‎ ship, plur. אִיִּים‎, צִיִּים‎, &c.; instead of the extraordinary plur. צִים‎ Numbers 24:24 read with the Samaritan יֽוֹצְאִים‎, and for בַּצִּים‎ Ezekiel 30:9 read probably with Cornill אָצִים‎.

(c) From the ground-form qŭṭl sometimes forms like תֹּ֫הוּ‎, בֹּ֫הוּ‎ (from tŭhw, bŭhw), sometimes like חֳלִי‎, עֳנִי‎, and even without an initial guttural דֳּמִי‎, יֳפִי‎, צֳרִי‎ (also יְפִי דְּמִי‎, צְרִי‎), רָאִי‎, &c; in pause חֹ֫לִי‎, &c., with suff. חָלְיוֹ‎, plur. חֳלָיִים‎. From עֳפִי‎ branch, there occurs in Psalms 104:12 the plur. עֳפָאיִם‎ (analogous to פְּתָאיִם‎, &c., see above, x); the Keeth. evidently intends עֳפָאִים‎ (so Opitius and others). Dual, with suff. דָּלְיָו‎ Numbers 24:7, bucket (from דְּלִי‎, for דֳּלִי‎), more correctly, with the Masora, דָּ֣לְיָו‎ with Munaḥ for Metheg. This unusual Metheg is to be treated as following the analogy of the cases mentioned in §9v.

7. On Paradigms l–n: segholate forms from stems ע״ע‎ (see §84ac, β).

(a) In the qaṭl-form the ă of the contracted formation is sometimes lengthened in the absol. st., sing. as in יָם‎ (so also in the constr. st., except in the combination יַם־סוּף‎ the Red sea; and even before Maqqeph, יָֽם־הַמֶּ֫לַח‎ the salt sea), sometimes it remains short, e.g. פַּת‎ morsel, עַם‎ people, but even these formations generally have Qameṣ in pause, as well as after the article (e.g. הָעָם‎). Adjectives under the influence of a guttural either have forms like לַחִים‎, צַחִים‎, or, with compensatory lengthening, רָעִים‎, רָעֵי‎. In the constr. st. חַי‎ living (in the plural חַיִּים‎ also a substantive, life), and דַּי‎ sufficiency, are contracted to חֵי‎[7] and דֵּי‎. As a locative form notice הֶ֫רָה‎ to the mountain, Genesis 14:10 (see §27q) beside הָהָ֫רָה‎. The stem is expanded to a triliteral form in הֲרָרִי‎ (unless it is simply derived from a by-form הָרָר‎ on the analogy of qătăl-forms) Jeremiah 17:3 (but in Psalms 30:8 for הַֽרֲרִי‎ read הַֽרֲרֵי‎) and הַֽרֲרָם‎ Genesis 14:6; plur. constr. הַֽרֲרֵי‎ Numbers 23:7, &c. (but only in poetical passages), with suffix, הֲרָרֶ֫יהָ‎ Deuteronomy 8:9; עֲמָמִים‎ Judges 5:14 (where, however, read probably בְּעַמֶּ֫ךָ‎), Nehemiah 9:22; עַֽמֲמֵי‎ Nehemiah 9:24: elsewhere עַמִּים‎, עַמֵּי‎.—Before suffixes and in the plur. ă is sometimes attenuated to ĭ, e.g. פִּתִּי‎, פִּתִּים‎, from פַּת‎; סִפִּים‎ and סִפּוֹת‎ (also סַפּוֹת‎ 2 Samuel 17:28) from סַף‎. Before ח‎ ă is retained in a virtually sharpened syllable, e.g. פַּחִים‎ traps.

(b) Qiṭl-forms: אֵם‎, אֵשׁ‎ fire (with suff. אִשִּׁי‎, but cf. also אֶשְׁכֶם‎ Isaiah 50:11), חֵן‎ favour, &c.; of a triliteral form, the plur. חֲצָצֶ֫יךָ‎ Psalms 77:18.

(c) Qŭṭl-forms: חֹק‎, כֹּל‎ totality, before Maqqeph חָק־‎, כָּל־‎, with suff. חֻקִּי‎, &c., with omission of Dageš forte (according to §20m) always חָקְךָ‎, חָקְכֶם‎, but from עֹז‎, עֻזִּי‎, עֻזְּךָ‎, עֻזְּכֶם‎, for which עָזִּי‎ and עָזְּךָ‎ are also found. חִקְקֵי‎, expanded to a triliteral form, Judges 5:15 and Isaiah 10:1, generally explained as a secondary form of חֻקְקֵי‎ with abnormal weakening of the ŭ to ĭ, is more probably to be referred to a qiṭl-form=Arabic ḥiqq.

The forms with assimilated middle Nûn likewise follow the analogy of Paradigms l–n, e.g. אַף‎ nose, anger (אַפִּי‎, dual אַפַּ֫יִם‎, also face) for ʾanp; חֵךְ‎ palate for ḥink, זִקִּים‎ fetters, עֵז‎ goat, plur. עִזִּים‎, for ʿinz, probably also אֵב‎ green herb, for ʾinb.

2. Paradigm II comprises all formations with original short vowels, whether in the first or second syllable; cf. §84aff, and the general laws of formation, §92bg. Rem. 1. On Paradigms a and b: ground-form qătăl. The lengthening of the second ă to ā is maintained in the constr. st. sing. only in ל״א‎-forms, e.g. צָבָא‎ army, צְבָא‎. For the construct forms חֲלֵב‎ milk, לְבֶן־‎ white, Genesis 49:12, instead of the ordinary absolutes חָלָב‎, לָבָן‎, a secondary form חָלֵב‎, לָבֵן‎ must be assumed; from עָשָׁן‎ smoke, the constr. st. עֶ֫שֶׁן‎ occurs once, Exodus 19:18, beside עֲשַׁן‎, from הָדָר‎ ornament the constr. st. הֶ֫דֶר‎ Daniel 11:20, beside the common form הֲדַר‎.—The plur. פָּֽרָשִׁים‎ horses, Isaiah 21:7 (instead of פְּרָשִׁים‎, ground-form părăš) is no doubt due to a confusion with the qaṭṭâl-form פָּרָשׁ‎ horseman.

A. Sometimes a sharpening of the third radical takes place, in order to keep the preceding vowel short, e.g. גְּמַלִּים‎ camels, קְטַנִּים‎ small ones, פְּלַגּוֹת‎ brooks (see §20a).—The attenuation of the ă of the first syllable to ĭ does not take place in the constr. st. plur. as a rule after an initial guttural, as חַכְמֵי‎, עַנְוַי‎, but חִזְקֵי‎, and never before a middle guttural, e.g. נַֽהֲרֵי‎; nor (according to König, owing to the influence of the nasal) in the non-guttural forms זַנְבוֹת‎ tails, כַּנְפוֹת‎, and (in the dual) כַּנְפֵי‎ wings, from זָנָב‎, כָּנָף‎.—The dual נַֽהֲרַ֫יִם‎ from נָהָר‎ river, shows an abnormal omission of the lengthening of the ă before a tone-bearing termination, but cf. §88c.

B. From ע״ע‎ stems, forms like חָלָל‎, עָנָן‎, &c., belong to this class.

C. The few nouns of the ground-form qĭṭăl follow the same analogy, such as לֵבָב‎ heart, שֵׁכָר‎ strong drink, עֵנָב‎ grape, &c. From שֵׂעָר‎ hair, in the constr. st. besides שְׂעַר‎ the form שַׂ֫עַר‎ is also found (perhaps a survival of a secondary form like those in Paradigm I, d); so from צֵלָע‎ rib, צֶ֫לַע‎ and even צֵ֫לַע‎ 2 Samuel 16:13 (so ed. Mant., Ginsb.; but Baer צֶ֫לַע‎), both, probably, old secondary forms (also used for the absol. st.) of צֵלָע‎; cf. also צַלְעִי‎ and צַלְעוֹ‎, as well as the constr. st. plur. צַלְעוֹת‎; also from נֵכָר‎ strangeness, the constr. st. נֵ֫כַר־‎ is found, Deuteronomy 31:16.

2. On Paradigms c–e: ground-form qăṭĭl, developed to qāṭēl; with a final guttural, e.g. שָׂבֵעַ‎ satisfied. In the constr. st. the original ĭ of the second syllable, probably on the analogy of the forms discussed in §69c, becomes ă, e.g. זְקַן‎, חֲדַל‎, חֲסַר‎, &c., but not before suffixes, כְּתֵפִי‎, &c., nor in forms from ל״א‎ stems, e.g. מָלֵא‎ full, מְלֵא‎; cf., moreover, עֲקֵב‎ Genesis 25:26 from עָקֵב‎ heel, and אֲבֶל־‎ Psalms 35:14, mourning. Paradigm d represents forms which in the constr. st. instead of the ordinary כְּתַף‎, &c., have a segholate form, as אֶ֫רֶךְ‎, גֶּ֫דֶר‎, יֶ֫רֶךְ‎, גֵּ֫זֶל‎, עֶ֫רֶל‎ (Ezekiel 44:9), constr. st. of אָרֵךְ‎ long, גָּדֵר‎ wall, יָרֵךְ‎ thigh, גָּזֵל‎ robbery, עָרֵל‎ uncircumcised. In Isaiah 11:14 בְּכָתֵף‎ would be altogether without precedent as a constr. st. (for בְּכֶ֫תֶף‎); most probably the absol. st. is intended by the Masora (according to Nöldeke, Gött. Gel. Anzeigen, 1871, No. 23 [p. 896] for בכ׳ אֶחָד‎ with one shoulder, i.e. shoulder to shoulder); [cf. Driver, Tenses, § 190, Obs.].

In the plur. constr. the ē lengthened from ĭ is frequently retained in verbal adjectives of this formation, e.g. שְׁכֵחֵי‎, שְׂמֵחֵי‎, אֲבֵלֵי‎, יְשֵׁנֵי‎, חֲפֵצֵי‎; cf. also יְתֵֽדֹתָיו‎ (with ē under the protection of the secondary tone) from יָתֵד‎ tent-peg. On the other hand from יָרֵא‎ fearing, always יִרְאֵי‎; cf. also רִגְעֵי‎ Psalms 35:20 from רָגֵעַ‎.—With ă retained in the initial syllable cf. אַחֵר‎ alius (with a virtual sharpening of the ח‎).—From ע״וּ‎ stems come forms like מֵת‎ dead person, גֵּר‎ resident stranger, עֵד‎ witness, with unchangeable Qameṣ; hence מֵתִים‎, מֵתֵי‎, &c.

Kindred in character are the formations from the ground-form qăṭŭl. This ground-form is regularly lengthened to qāṭōl, e.g. עָנֹל‎ round, עָמֹק‎ deep, אָדֹם‎ red; but before formative additions the short ŭ returns, protected by the sharpening of the following consonant (see ee above), as עֲגֻלִּים‎, &c. (but in stems with a third guttural or ר‎, גְּבֹהָה‎, שְׁחֹרִים‎). The form עָגוֹל‎, 1 Kings 10:19, is abnormal; likewise עֲמוּקָה‎ Proverbs 23:27, Jablonski (ed. Mant. עֲמֻקָה‎, Baer and Ginsburg עֲמֻקָּה‎).

3. On Paradigm f: ground-form qăṭăl from ל״ה‎ stems. As in verbs ל״ה‎ §75h, the general rule is that before the terminations of the plur. and dual and before suffixes beginning with a vowel, the third radical is usually elided altogether. But besides שָׂדֶה‎ the form שָׂדַי‎, with the final Yôdh retained, is also found in poetry (cf. also the singulars with suffixes, like מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם‎, in ss); in the same way final ו‎ is retained in עֲנָוִים‎ the poor, constr. עַנְוֵי‎. The plur. of שָׂדֶה‎ is שָׂדוֹת‎, constr. שְׂדוֹת‎ (also שְׂדֵי‎, unless this is a sing., contracted from שְׂדַי‎; so Barth, ZDMG. xlii, p. 351). The qĭṭăl-form (see §84ai) רֵעֶה‎ 2 Samuel 15:37, 2 Samuel 16:16, 1 Kings 4:5 is remarkable as a constr. st. (the reading רֵעֵה‎ of Opitius and others is opposed to the express statement of the Masora). To the category of these forms also belongs without doubt פָּנִים‎ face (only in plur.), פְנֵי‎, פָּנַי‎, פְּנֵיכֶם‎, &c.

In a few formations of this kind the vowel of the second syllable appears to have been already lost in the absol. st. sing.; so according to the ordinary view, in יָד‎ hand, constr. יַד‎, with suff. יָדוֹ‎, but יֶדְכֶם‎; plur. יָדוֹת‎, constr. יְדוֹת‎, dual יָדַ֫יִם‎, יְדֵי‎, with suff. יָדַי‎, יְדֵיכֶם‎, &c., and in דָּם‎ blood, constr. דַּם‎, with suff. דָּמִי‎, but דִּמְכֶם‎ (ă attenuated to ĭ), plur. דָּמִים‎, דְּמֵי‎. But perhaps both these nouns are to be regarded as primitive (§81), and as original monosyllabic formations.

3. Paradigm III comprises forms with an unchangeable vowel in the first syllable, whilst the vowel of the second syllable has been lengthened from an original short vowel, and is therefore changeable. The special cases are to be distinguished in which the original short vowel is lengthened both in and before the tone, but in an open syllable becomes Še (Paradigm a, but cf. also examples like אֽוֹפַנִּים‎ wheels, for אֽוֹפָנִים‎, and אֻֽלַמִּים‎ porches), secondly, the cases in which the vowel becomes Še even before the tone (Paradigm b), and finally, those in which the termination of ל״ה‎ formations is entirely lost (Paradigm c).

Rem. 1. On the model of עוֹלָם‎ (which, moreover, is obscured from ʿâlăm), the following forms also are inflected: מִקְמָל‎ (§85h), in some cases with virtual sharpening of the third radical (see §20a), as מִבְטַחוֹ‎ Jeremiah 17:7, Psalms 40:5, Job 8:14, &c.; ל״א‎ nouns of this form maintain the Qameṣ in the constr. st. plur., e.g. מִקְרָאֵי‎ from מִקְרָא‎[8]; on the other hand, in the plur. of the participles Niph. (§85n) of verbs ל״אֹ‎ (which likewise belong to this class), are found not only regular forms like נִקְרָאִים‎ but also נֶחְבְּאִים‎ Joshua 10:17, נִטְמְאִים‎ Ezekiel 20:30 f., and so always נִבְּאִים‎ (except Ezekiel 13:2 הַנִּבָּאִ֑ים‎) and נִמְצְאִים‎ 1 Samuel 13:15, 2 Kings 14:14, &c. (except Ezra 8:25 הַנִּמְצָאִֽים‎ in pause).[9]

Moreover, the other participles in ā also follow the analogy of עוֹלָם‎ as regards the final syllable (מְקֻטָּל‎, מָקְטָל‎; cf., however, הַמּוּשַׁב‎ Genesis 43:12 in close connexion; see the analogous cases in §65d); also שֻׁלְחָן‎ table (§85u; plur. שֻׁלְחָנוֹת‎, constr. שֻׁלְחֲנוֹת‎), קָרְבָּן‎, constr. קָרְבַּן‎, hence in plur. constr. with suff. קָרְבְּנֵיהֶם‎ Leviticus 7:38; עַקְרָב‎ (§85w), plur. עַקְרַבִּים‎ (with sharpening of the final consonant for עַקְרָבִים‎, cf. also עֵירֹם‎ naked, plur. עֵֽירֻמִּים‎ Genesis 3:7 [but in Genesis 2:25 עֲרוּמִּים‎, according to §9o an orthographic licence for עֲרֻמִּים‎ from עָרֹם‎, מַֽעֲרֻמִּים‎ nakedness, 2 Chronicles 28:15; קַרְדֹּם‎, קַרְדֻּמּוֹ‎; מַֽעֲמַקֵּי‎ Isaiah 51:10; נִכְבַּדֵּי‎ Isaiah 23:8 f.; מִשְׂגַּבִּי‎ Psalms 18:3; even with attenuation of the ă to ĭ, מֽוֹרִגִּים‎ threshing instruments, 2 Samuel 24:22, 1 Chronicles 21:23, from מוֹרָג‎), מַתָּן‎ (§85g), מָגֵן‎ (§85i), מָעֹז‎ (§85k), inasmuch as they retain the ā of the first syllable, contrary to rule, even when not pretonic, e.g. מָֽגִנִּי‎, מָֽעֻזִּי‎; מוֹשָׁב‎ (§85g); תּוֹשָׁב‎ (§85p), constr. st. plur. תּֽשָׁבֵי‎ 1 Kings 17:1; also isolated forms according to §84at, and §84bb, c, k, m, n, o. Cf. finally, צַוָּאר‎ neck (from ṣăwʾăr), constr. st. צַוַּאר‎ Jeremiah 28:10 ff., constr. st. plur. צַוְּארֵי‎ Genesis 45:14, &c.

2. (Paradigm b; cf. §84as.) Instead of the original ĭ in such forms as אֹֽיִבְכֶם‎ (cf. 2 Kings 22:29), the second syllable more frequently has ĕ, e.g. יֽׄצֶרְךָ‎ thy creator; with a closing guttural (according to §91d; but cf. also אֹבַד‎ Deuteronomy 32:28) forms are found sometimes like שֹׁלֵֽחֲךָ‎, sometimes like בֹּרַֽאֲךָ‎; constr. st. without suff. נֹטַ֫ע‎ Psalms 94:9 (according to §65d); with a middle guttural גּֽׄאַלְךָ‎ Isaiah 48:17; cf. Isaiah 43:14.—The same analogy also is followed in the flexion of the other participles which have ē in the final syllable (מְקַטֵּל‎, מִתְקַטֵּל‎, &c.), see further, in §84bd, גִּבֵּן‎, &c. (but with exceptions, as שִׁלֵּשִׁים‎, רִבֵּעִים‎), and ibid. l, p; §85i, k (מִזְבֵּחַ‎ altar, constr. st. מִזְבַּח‎, plur. מִזְבְּחוֹת‎), and ibid. q , but here also there are exceptions like מַקְהֵלִים‎ Psalms 26:12, מוֹסֵרוֹת‎ Jeremiah 5:5, רִבֵּעִים‎, שִׁלֵּשִׁים‎ Exodus 20:5, שֹׁמֵמוֹת‎ Isaiah 49:8, שֹׁמֵמִים‎ Lamentations 1:16 (cf. König, ii. 109).

3. (Paradigm c: part. Qal of verbs ל״ה‎, differing from Paradigm II, f in the unchangeableness of the vowel of the first syllable.) In Ezekiel 17:15 ē in the absol. st. is abnormal, and Seghôl in the constr. st. in 2 Samuel 24:11 (so Opitius, Ginsburg; but Baer חֹזֵה‎), Ecclesiastes 2:15 (according to Baer, but not the Mantua ed.; מִקְרֶה‎ Ecclesiastes 3:19 is in the absol. st.). To this class belong, as regards their formation, the ל״ה‎-forms mentioned in §84ar, §85g (with suff., e.g. הַמַּֽעַלְךָ‎ Deuteronomy 20:1, which brought thee up), and h.

In a few instances, before a suffix beginning with a consonant, the original ăy of the termination has been contracted to ê, and thus there arise forms which have apparently plural suffixes; as מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם‎ Isaiah 5:12, Daniel 1:1016; מַרְאֵיהֶם‎ their appearance, Daniel 1:15, Genesis 41:21, cf. Nahum 2:5; נֽוֹטֵיהֶם‎ who stretched them forth, Isaiah 42:5; defectively אֹֽפֵהֶם‎ Hosea 7:5 (cf. נְוֵהֶם‎ Ezekiel 34:14); on the other hand, the examples in Isaiah 14:11, Genesis 47:17, which were formerly classed with the above, are really plurals. But מַֽחֲנֶ֫יךָ‎ thy camp, Deuteronomy 23:15 (מַֽחֲנֶ֫ךָ‎ occurs just before), מִקְנֶ֫יךָ‎ thy cattle, Isaiah 30:23 (probably also שָׂדֶ֫יךָ‎ 1 Kings 2:26), מַרְאַ֫יִךְ‎ Song of Solomon 2:14, and מַרְאָיו‎ the sight of him, Job 41:1 (with the י‎ here retained orthographically), מַֽעֲלָיו‎ Ezekiel 40:31, &c., are still to be explained as singulars.—On a few other examples which may perhaps be thus explained, see §124k. Before the plural ending the original termination ay reappears in מְמֻֽחָיִם‎ Isaiah 25:6 (part. Pu. from מָחָה‎).

4. Paradigm IV comprises the forms with a changeable vowel (a, b), or a vowel which has already become Še (c), in the first syllable, and an unchangeable vowel in the second. With Paradigm c (which, however, for the most part consists merely of forms based on analogy, without biblical parallels) are also connected all the forms which have unchangeable vowels in both syllables, and therefore (like כְּתָב‎) cannot undergo any vowel changes.

Rem. 1. Analogous to פָּקִיד‎ (ground-form păqîd) are §84ak, גָּדוֹל‎, &c. (with ô, not changeable ô for ŭ); in substantives like שָׁלוֹם‎, this ̂ is demonstrably obscured from â (Arab. sălâm); ibid. k, m, אָסוּר‎, אָסִיר‎, &c.; §85u, זִכָּרוֹן‎, constr. זִכְרוֹן‎; חִזָּיוֹן‎, constr. חֶזְיוֹן‎; כִּלָּיוֹן‎, constr. כִּלְיוֹן‎ (cf., however, the forms in the constr. st. עִצְּבוֹן‎, קִנְּמוֹן‎, and with the plural suffix עִזְּבוֹנַ֫יִךְ‎ Ezekiel 27:12 ff.); §85w, חַלָּמִישׁ‎, constr. חַלְמִישׁ‎; §85l, מָקוֹם‎, &c.

2. עָנִי‎ (ground-form ʿănîy, stem עָנָה‎) represents forms in which a final Yôdh has been resolved into î; before formative additions the original Yôdh under the protection of a Dageš forte again becomes audible as a firm consonant, whilst the (originally short) vowel of the first Syllable becomes Še; cf. §84al, נָקִי‎, plur. נְקִיִּים‎, and §87a.

3. כְּתָב‎ with unchangeable â in the second syllable, whilst the Še is weakened from a short vowel (Arab. kĭtâb); constr. st. כְּתָֽב־‎ Esther 4:8 (readings like כְּתַב‎ 2 Chronicles 35:4 are incorrect, although יְקַר‎ Esther 1:4 and כְּתַב־‎ Esther 4:8 are supported by fairly good authority; however, these qeṭâl-forms in Hebrew are probably all loan-words from the Aramaic). The only plural form found in the O.T. is עֲבָֽדֵיהֶם‎ their deeds, Ecclesiastes 9:1. In a narrower sense the forms enumerated in §84anp belong to this class; in a wider sense all those which have unchangeable vowels throughout, thus §84au, §84be (קַטָּל‎, cf., however, the anomalous forms mentioned there), ibid. fi, m (No. 34 f.), n (No. 39), p (No. 44), also partly §85bw (especially l and r).

In opposition to the anomalous shortening of the form קַטָּל‎ (see above), cases are also found where pretonic vowels are retained even in the antepenultima (with the secondary tone); cf. above, ii and pp, also of the form קָטִיל‎ (properly qăṭîl) the examples סָֽרִיסִים‎, פָּֽרִיצִים‎, שָֽׁלִישִׁים‎, whilst the constr. st. sing. according to the rule, changes the ā into Se (סְרִיס‎, פְּרִיץ‎). (These are not to be confounded with forms like עָרִיץ‎ tyrant, which is for עַרִּיץ‎, and consequently has an unchangeable Qameṣ.) Of the form קָטוּל‎ (qăṭûl) in this class are שָׁבוּעַ‎ week, plur. שָֽׁבֻעִים‎ and שָֽׁבֻעוֹת‎, constr. שְׁבֻעוֹת‎, but with Metheg of the secondary tone in the fifth syllable from the end, שָֽׁבֻעֹֽתֵיבֶם‎.—On מָעוֹז‎, מָֽעֻזִּי‎, &c., cf. §85k.

  1. A sort of detailed commentary on the following scheme of Hebrew declensions is supplied by E. König in his Hist.-krit. Lehrgeb. der hebr. Spr., it. 1, p. 1 ff.
  2. According to P. Haupt ‘The book of Nahum’ in the Journ. of bibl. Lit., 1907, p. 29, the e in סֵ֫פֶר‎ and the o in קֹ֫דֶשׁ‎ are not long but accented, and hence to be pronounced σέφρ, ὄζν (אֹ֫זֶן‎), a theory unknown at any rate to the Jewish grammarians.
  3. According to M. Lambert, REJ. 1896, p. 21, a tends to remain with labials; so in 14 cases out of 22 masculines, and in 3 out of 6 feminines.
  4. Probably only a theory of one particular school and not generally accepted, or at any rate not consistently carried out; cf. König, Lehrgeb., ii. 22.
  5. The proposal of Haupt (SBOT. ‘Proverbs’, p. 34, l. 44 ff.) to read בֵּאר‎, זֵאב‎, &c., does not seem to be warranted. The case here is quite different from that in Proverbs 1:22 where the Masora requires תְּאֵֽהֲבוּ‎, no doubt on the analogy of בְּאֵר‎, &c., for תֵּֽאהֲבוּ‎, which was probably intended, see §63m.
  6. Nöldeke, Beiträge, p. 58: the direct or indirect retention of this ו‎ is hardly a feature of early Hebrew. The true Hebrew forms from קָצֶה‎ would be קְצֵה‎, קָצוֹת‎, קְצוֹת‎, the aramaizing forms קָצָה‎, קְצָת‎, קְצָווֹת‎.
  7. חֵי‎ only in Daniel 12:7 as constr. st., since in the asseverative formulae (cf. §149) חֵי פַרְעֹה‎, חֵי נַפְשְׁךָ‎ (otherwise only in 2 Samuel 15:21, after חַי יהוה‎, and Amos 8:14), חֵי‎ is a contracted form of the absol. st. (prop. living is Pharaoh! &c.). It is evidently only a rabbinical refinement which makes the pronunciation חַי‎ distinctive of an oath by God (or of God by himself), as in the regular formulae חַי אָ֫נִי‎ (חַי אָֽנֹכִי‎ Deuteronomy 32:40) and חַי יְהֹוָה‎ (=חַי אֲדֹנָי‎).
  8. מְקַדְשֵׁיהֶם‎ Ezekiel 7:24 for מִקְדְּשׁ׳‎ (from מִקְדָּשׁ‎) is wholly irregular; perhaps, however, the part. Piʿēl is intended, without Dageš in the ד‎ (according to §20m).
  9. Brockelmann, Grundriss, p. 659, observes that except in 2 Chronicles 5:11, 2 Chronicles 35:17 הַנִּמְצְאִים‎ is always followed by a preposition governing a word, so that the punctuators perhaps intended to indicate a sort of constr. st.
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