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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
#546 - ἀπειλέω
ἀπειλέω (A), Elean ἀποϝηλέω,
I keep away, ἀπὸ τῶ βωμῶ GDI 1159, cf. 1150; ἀπὸ μαντείας 1154: — Pass., ἐς ἀπορίην ἀπειληθείς or ἀπειλημένος brought into great straits, Hdt. 1.24, 2.141; ἐς ἀναγκαίην ἀπειλημένος Id. 8.109; ἀπειληθέντες ἐς στεινόν forced into narrow compass, Id. 9.34.
II unroll, roll off, Hero Aut. 5.5.
ἀπειλέω (B), 3 dual impf. Act. ἀπειλήτην, for ἠπειλείτην, Od. 11.313: later pres. ἀπειλείω Musae. 122, Nonn. D. 20.204: — hold out either in the way of promise or threat, and therefore:
I sts. in good sense, promise, οὐδ' ἠπείλησεν ἄνακτι.. ῥέξειν κλειτὴν ἑκατόμβην Il. 23.863, cf. 872; also, boast or brag, ὥς ποτ' ἀπειλήσει.1; ἦ μὲν ἀπείλησας βητάρμονας εἶναι ἀρίστους Od. 8.383, cf. Jul. Or. 2.57a.
II commonly in bad sense,
1. threaten, in Hom. either abs., as Il. 2.665, Od. 21.368: or (more freq.) c. dat. pers., ib. 20.272, etc.: c.acc. cogn., αἶψα δ' ἀναστὰς ἠπείλησεν μῦθον spake a threatening speech, Il. 1.388; ἀπειλὰς ἀ., v. ἀπειλή; δείν' ἀπειλήσων ἔπη E. Supp. 542: freq. with neut. Pron. or Adj., ἀ. τόγε θυμῷ Il. 15.212; ταῦτα, πολλὰ ἀ., Hdt. 7.18, 1.111, Th. 8.33, etc.; πύργοις ἀ. δεινά A. Th. 426; τοῦτ' ἀπειλήσας ἔχεις S. OC 817.
2. with acc. of the thing threatened, θάνατον ἀ. ὃς ἂν.. Hdt. 4.81; ξίφος Plu. Pomp. 47; ζημίας ἀ. κατά τινος Id. Cam. 39; ἠπείλησαν τοὺς ἄρχοντας threatened them with the prefects, Lib. Or. 47.7.
3. dependent clauses were added in fut. inf., γέρας.. ἀφαιρήσεσθαι ἀπειλεῖς Il. 1.161, cf. 15.179, Od. 11.313; σφέας.. ἀπείλεε ἐκτρίψειν Hdt. 6.37; ἀ. δράσειν τι E. Med. 287; ἀ. ἀποκτενεῖν Lys. 3.28: rarely in pres. inf., ἠπ... ἑλκέμεν Il. 9.682: after Hom. in aor. inf., X. Mem. 3.5.4, HG 5.4.7, Theoc. 24.16.
4. ἀ. ὅτι.., ὡς.., Ar. Pl. 88, X. An. 5.5.22, etc.; ἀ. τινί, εἰ μή.. Id. Cyr. 4.5.12.
III Pass., ἀπειλοῦμαι,
1. of persons, to be terrified by threats, Id. Smp. 4.31.
2. of things, τὰ ἀπειληθέντα, = ἀπειλαί, Pl. Lg. 823c. later in Med., with aor. 1 -ησάμην App. BC 3.29, Polyaen. 7.35.2: c. inf., forbid with threats, ἀπειλησώμεθα αὐτοῖς μηκέτι λαλεῖν Acts 4:17.
P Oxy II. 237vi. 4 (A.D. 186) μήτε ἐμοὶ ἔτι ἀ ̣π ̣ε ̣[ιλεῖν ]. P Grenf I. 53.9 (iv/A.D.) (= Chrest. I. 131) ἀσπάζεται τὰ παιδία σου καὶ Ἀλ ̣λ ̣οῦς πολλά σοι ἀπειλ (εῖ). Vettius Valens, p. 5.31, has ἀπειλητικοί ";men given to using threats,"; which comes from a verbal ἀπειλητός. Since this verb, with its rather commoner noun, might have had a large use in the innumerable papyrus petitions, we seem bound to infer that it was going out of popular speech. It occurs nine times in LXX and twice in NT. Its use in Acts 4:17, where one is strongly tempted to accept from E and P the characteristic ἀπειλῇ ἀπειλησώμεθα, clearly reflects the literal rendering of a Semitic original reported to Luke from an eye-witness—was it Paul? Homœoteleuton and unfamiliarity to Greek ears would account for the loss of the noun in אABD Pesh., etc. (so Blass).
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