the Fifth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #3754 - ὅτι
- that, because, since
ὅττῐ (both in Hom.):
Conj., to introduce an objective clause, that, after Verbs of seeing or knowing, thinking or saying; in Hom. freq. strengthd. ὅτι ῥα, and ὅτι δή: —
1. when ὅτι introduces a statement of fact: in Hom. always with ind., the tense following the same rules as in English, ἤγγειλ' ὅττι ῥά οἱ πόσις ἔκτοθι μίμνε πυλάων Il. 22.439. in Att., ὅτι takes ind. after primary tenses, ind. or opt. after secondary tenses, e.g. ἐνδείκνυμαι ὅτι οὐκ ἔστι σοφός Pl. Ap. 23b; ᾔσθετο ὅτι τὸ Μένωνος στράτευμα ἤδη ἐν Κιλικίᾳ ἦν X. An. 1.2.21, cf. 2.2.15, al.; ἔλεγον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθῶς αἱ σπονδαὶ γένοιντο Th. 5.61, cf. Pl. Phd. 59e, etc.; ἠπείλησ' ὅτι.. βαδιοίμην Ar. Pl. 88: the ind. is freq. retained in the same tense which the speaker used or would have used, ἠγγέλθη.. ὅτι Μέγαρα ἀφέστηκε news came that Megara had (lit. has) revolted, Th. 1.114; ἀποκρινάμενοι ὅτι πέμψουσι ib. 90: sts. opt. and ind. are found in the same sentence, ἔλεγον, ὅτι Κῦρος μὲν τέθνηκεν, Ἀριαῖος δὲ πεφευγὼς.. εἴη X. An. 2.1.3; Περικλῆς.. προηγόρευε.. ὅτι Ἀρχίδαμος μέν οἱ ξένος εἴη.., τοὺς δ' ἀγροὺς τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ καὶ οἰκίας.., ἀφίησιν αὐτὰ δημόσια εἶναι Th. 2.13, cf. Pl. Phd. 61b, etc.: also ὅτι.. and the acc. with inf. are found together, Th. 3.25, X. Cyr. 1.3.13.
2. when ὅτι introduces a conditional sentence, the Constr. after ὅτι is the same as in independent conditional sentences, εἴ τις ἔροιτο, καθ' ὁποίους νόμους δεῖ πολιτεύεσθαι, δῆλον ὅτι ἀποκρίναισθ' ἄν.. it is manifest that you would answer.., D. 46.12, cf. X. Mem. 1.6.12.
1. ὅτι is freq. inserted pleon. in introducing a quotation (where we use no Conj. and put inverted commas), λόγον τόνδε ἐκφαίνει ὁ Πρωτεύς, λέγων ὅτι ἐγὼ εἰ μὴ περὶ πολλοῦ ἡγεύμην.. Hdt. 2.115; καὶ ἐγὼ εἶπον, ὅ. ἡ αὐτή μοι ἀρχή ἐστι.. Pl. Prt. 318a, cf. 356a, 361a, etc.; even where the quotation consists of one word, ib. 330c, Men. 74b, 74c.
2. ὅ. is also used pleon. with the inf. and acc. (cf. ὡς B. I.I), εἶπον ὅτι πρῶτον ἐμὲ χρῆναι πειραθῆναι κατ' ἐμαυτόν (which is in fact a mixture of two constrr.) Id. Lg. 892d, cf. Phd. 63c, X. HG 2.2.2, etc.; but ὅτι has freq. been wrongly inserted by the copyists, as if εἶπεν or λέγουσιν must be followed by it, as in Th. 4.37 (om. Pap.), X. Cyr. 5.4.1, etc.
1. ὅτι in Att. freq. represents a whole sentence, esp. in affirm. answers, οὐκοῦν.. τὸ ἀδικεῖν κάκιον ἂν εἴη τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι. Answ. δῆλον δὴ ὅτι (i.e. ὅτι κάκιον ἂν εἴη, or ὅτι ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχει) Pl. Grg. 475c; cf. οἶδ' ὅτι, ἴσθ' ὅτι, οἶσθ' ὅτι, S. Ant. 276, 758, Pl. Grg. 486a, etc.: hence arose the practice of using δηλονότι (q.v.) as Adv.
2. what we make the subject of the Verb which follows ὅτι freq. stands in the preceding clause, Αυκάονας δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ εἴδομεν, ὅτι.. καρποῦνται (for εἴδομεν, ὅτι Λυκάονες καρποῦνται) X. An. 3.2.23, cf. 3.2.29, etc. ὅτι sts.= with regard to the fact that, ὅτι.. οὔ φησι.. ὄνομα εἶναι, ὑποπτεύω αὐτὸν σκώπτειν Pl. Cra. 384c, cf. Prt. 330e, etc. οὐχ ὅ..., ἀλλὰ or ἀλλὰ καὶ.., οὐχ ὅ. ὁ Κρίτων ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ ἦν, ἀλλὰ οἱ φίλοι αὐτοῦ not only Crito.., but his friends, X. Mem. 2.9.8; more fully, οὐ μόνον ὅ. ἄνδρες, ἀλλὰ καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες Pl. Smp. 179b: so folld. by ἀλλ' οὐδὲ.., ταύτῃ ἀδύνατα ἐξισοῦσθαι οὐχ ὅ. τὰ ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ, ἀλλ' οὐδ' ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ not only the powers in Europe, but.., Th. 2.97: οὐχ ὅ., not folld. by a second clause, means although, οὐχ ὅ. παίζει καί φησι Pl. Prt. 336d, cf. Grg. 450e, Tht. 157b; cf. ὅπως A. II. 2.
2. for ὅτι μή, v. ὅ τι 11.
1. as a causal Particle, for that, because, generally after Verbs of feeling, Il. 1.56, 14.407, al.; οὐδὲν ἐκπλαγείς, ὅτι.. εἶδες Jul. Or. 1.31a: but without such a Verb, ὃν περὶ πάσης τῖεν ὁμηλικίης, ὅτι οἱ φρεσὶν ἄρτια ᾔδη Il. 5.326, cf. 9.76, al.; μάλιστα δ' αὐτοὺς ἐπεκαλέσαντο ὅτι τειχομαχεῖν ἐδόκουν δυνατοὶ εἶναι Th. 1.102, cf. And. 1.75, Aeschin. 3.231; so ὅτιπερ Th. 4.14. folld. by τί, ὅτι τί; why? (lit. because why?) D. 23.214; ὅτι τί δή; Ar. Pl. 136, Luc. Dem.Enc. 22; ὅτι δὴ τί μάλιστα; Pl. R. 343a; ὅτι δὴ τί γε; Id. Chrm. 161c; cf. ὁτιή.
2. seeing that, in giving the reason for saying what is said, γλαυκὴ δέ σε τίκτε θάλασσα.. ὅτι τοι νόος ἐστὶν ἀπηνής as is proved by the fact that.., Il. 16.35, cf. 21.488, Od. 22.36. [The last syll. is never elided in Att., prob. to avoid confusion with ὅτε: in Hom. ὅτ' (ὅ τ') prob. always represents ὅτε (ὅ τε): there are no examples of ὅττ': hiatus after ὅτι is permitted in Com., Ar. Lys. 611, Ach. 516.]
ὅτι (properly neuter of ὅστις), a conjunction (from Homer down) (Latinquod (cf. Winers Grammar, § 53, 8 b.; Buttmann, § 139, 51; § 149, 3)), marking:
I. the substance or contents (of a statement), that;
1. joined to verbs of saying and declaring (where the accusative and infinitive is used in Latin): ἀναγγέλλειν, Acts 14:27; διηγεῖσθαι, Acts 9:27; εἰπεῖν, Matthew 16:20; Matthew 28:7, 13; John 7:42; John 16:15; 1 Corinthians 1:15; λέγειν, Matthew 3:9; Matthew 8:11; Mark 3:28; Luke 15:7; John 16:20; Romans 4:9 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets ὅτι);
2. in elliptical formulas (Buttmann, 358 (307); (Winer's Grammar, 585 (544) note)): τί ὅτι etc., equivalent to τί ἐστιν ὅτι (A. V. how is it that), wherefore? Mark 2:16 R G L (others omit τί; cf. 5 below, and see ὅστις, 4); Luke 2:49; Acts 5:4, 9. οὐχ ὅτι for οὐ λέγω ὅτι, our not that, not as though, cf. Buttmann, § 150, 1; (Winer's Grammar, 597 (555)); thus, John 6:46; John 7:22; 2 Corinthians 1:24; 2 Corinthians 3:5; Philippians 3:12; Philippians 4:11. ὅτι is used for εἰς ἐκεῖνο ὅτι (in reference to the fact that (English seeing that, in that")): thus in John 2:18; (Meyer (see his note on 1 Corinthians 1:26) would add many other examples, among them John 9:17 (see below)); for ἐν τούτῳ ὅτι, Romans 5:8; for περί τούτου ὅτι, concerning this, that: so after λαλεῖν, Mark 1:34; Luke 4:41 (others take ὅτι, in these examples and those after διαλογ. which follow in a causal sense; cf. Winer's Grammar, as below (Ellicott on 2 Thessalonians 3:7)); after λέγειν, John 9:17 (see above); after διαλογίζεσθαι, Matthew 16:8; Mark 8:17 (after ἀποστέλλειν σπιστολας, 1 Macc. 12:7). See examples from classic authors in Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 248f; (Meyer, as above; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 53, 8b.).
3. Noteworthy is the attraction, not uncommon, by which the noun that would naturally be the subject of the subjoined clause, is attracted by the verb of the principal clause and becomes its object (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 66, 5; B § 151, 1 a.); as, οἴδατε τήν οἰκίαν Στεφανᾶ, ὅτι ἐστιν ἀπαρχή, for οἴδατε, ὅτι ἡ οἰκία Στεφανᾶ, κτλ., 1 Corinthians 16:15; also after εἰδέναι and ἰδεῖν, Mark 12:34; 1 Thessalonians 2:1; so after other verbs of knowing, declaring, etc.: Matthew 25:24; John 9:8; Acts 3:10; Acts 9:20; 1 Corinthians 3:20; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 17:8, etc.; ὅν ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι Θεός ὑμῶν ἐστι, for περί οὐ (cf. Luke 21:5) ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι, John 8:54.
4. As respects construction, ὅτι is joined in the N. T.
a. to the indicative even where the opinion of another is introduced, and therefore according to classical usage the optative should have been used; as, διεστείλατο ... ἵνα μηδενί εἴπωσιν, ὅτι αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ Χριστός, Matthew 16:20; add,
b. to that subjunctive after ὀυτ μή which differs scarcely at all from the future (see μή, IV. 2, p. 411a; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 508 (473))): Matthew 5:20; Matthew 26:29 (R G; others omit ὅτι); Mark 14:25; Luke 21:32; John 11:56 (where before ὅτι supply δοκεῖτε, borrowed from the preceding δοκεῖ); but in Romans 3:8 ὅτι before ποιήσωμεν (hortatory subjunctive (cf. Winers Grammar, § 41 a. 4 a.; Buttmann, 245 (211))) is recitative (see 5 below), depending on λέγουσι (Winers Grammar, 628 (583); Buttmann, § 141, 3).
c. to the infinitive, by a mingling of two constructions, common even in classic Greek, according to which the writer beginning the construction with ὅτι falls into the construction of the accusative with an infinitive: Acts 27:10; cf. Winers Grammar, 339 (318) N. 2; (sec. 63, 2c.; Buttmann, 383 (328)). On the anacoluthon found in 1 Corinthians 12:2, according to the reading ὅτι ὅτε (which appears in the Sinaiticus manuscript also (and is adopted by L brackets T Tr WH (yet cf. their note))), cf. Buttmann, 383f (328f).
5. ὅτι is placed before direct discourse (`recitative' ὅτι) (Buttmann,sec. 139, 51; Winer's Grammar, § 65, 3 c.; § 60, 9 (and Moulton's note)): Matthew 2:23(?);
II. the reason why anything is said to be or to be done, because, since, for that, for (a causal conjunc.; Latinquod,quia,quom,nam); (on the difference between it and γάρ cf. Westcott, Epistles of John, p. 70);
a. it is added to a speaker's words to show what ground he gives for his opinion; as, μακάριος etc. ὅτι, Matthew 5:4-12; Matthew 13:16; Luke 6:20; Luke 14:14; after οὐαί, Matthew 11:21; Matthew 23:13-15, 23, 25, 27, 29; Luke 6:24; Luke 10:13; Luke 11:42-44, 46, 52; Jude 1:11; cf. further, Matthew 7:13; Matthew 17:15; Matthew 25:8; Mark 5:9; Mark 9:38 (G Tr marginal reading omit; Tr text brackets the clause); Luke 7:47; Luke 23:40; John 1:30; John 5:27; John 9:16; John 16:9-11, 14, 16 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets the clause); Acts 1:5, and often; — or is added by the narrator, to give the reason for his own opinion: Matthew 2:18; Matthew 9:36; Mark 3:30; Mark 6:34; John 2:25; Acts 1:17; — or, in general, by a teacher, and often in such a way that it relates to his entire statement or views: Matthew 5:43; 1 John 4:18; 2 John 1:7; Revelation 3:10.
b. ὅτι makes reference to some word or words that precede or immediately follow it (cf. Winers Grammar, § 23, 5; § 53, 8 b.; Buttmann, § 127, 6); as, διά τοῦτο, John 8:47; John 10:17; John 12:39; 1 John 3:1, etc. διά τί; Romans 9:32; 2 Corinthians 11:11. χάριν τίνος; 1 John 3:12. οὕτως, Revelation 3:16. ἐν τούτῳ, 1 John 3:20. ὅτι in the protasis, John 1:50(
III. On the combination ὡς ὅτι see ὡς, I. 3.
STRONGS NT 3754: ὅτι (interrog) [ὅτι (interrog) interrogative, i. e. ὁ, τί or ὁ τί, see ὅστις, 4 (and at the beginning).) ὅστις, 4 (and at the beginning).]
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
ὅτι , conic. (prop. neut. of ὅστις ).
I. As conic., introducing an objective clause, that;
1. after verbs of seeing, knowing, thinking, saying, feeling: Matthew 3:9; Matthew 6:32; Matthew 11:25, Mark 3:28, Luke 2:49, John 2:22, Acts 4:13, Romans 1:13; Romans 8:38; Romans 10:9, Philippians 4:15, James 2:24, al.; elliptically, John 6:46, Philippians 3:12, al.
2. After εἶναι (γίνεσθαι ): defining a demonstr. or pers. prop., John 3:19; John 16:19, Romans 9:6, 1 John 3:16, al.; c. pron. interrog., Matthew 8:27, Mark 4:41, Luke 4:36, John 4:22, al.; id. elliptically, Luke 2:49, Acts 5:4; Acts 5:9, al.;
3. Untranslatable, before direct discourse (ὅτι recitantis): Matthew 7:23, Mark 2:16, Luke 1:61, John 1:20, Acts 15:1, Hebrews 11:18, al. (on the pleonastic ὡς ὅτι , see ὡς ).
II. As causal particle, for that, because: Matthew 5:4-12, Luke 6:20-21, John 1:30; John 5:27, Acts 1:5, 1 John 4:18, Revelation 3:10, al. mult.; διὰ τοῦτο ὅτι , John 8:47; John 10:17, al.; answering a question (διὰ τί ), Romans 9:32, al.; οὐχ ὅτι . . . ἀλλ ' ὅτι , John 6:26; John 12:6.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The use of παραγίνομαι as a synonym for ἔρχομαι, which Thackeray (Gr. i. p. 267) thinks may be of Ionic origin, is common in the LXX and later Greek generally (cf. Glaser De ratione, p. 36 f.). In the NT it is mainly confined to the Lucan writings, but Harnack (Sayings of Jesus, p. 86) goes too far when he asserts that it is ";a choicer (gewählter) word than ἦλθον "; : (cf. Luke 19:16; Luke 19:18). This is true to about the same extent as it is that arrive is ";choicer"; than come. In Witkowski’s collection of Ptolemaic private letters παραγίνομαι occurs some thirty times, four of them being in letters of men marked as ";non eruditorum";—e.g. P Eleph 13.2 (B.C. 223–2) (= Witkowski.2, p. 42) παραγενομένου Σανῶτος ἐκομισάμην τὴν παρὰ σοῦ ἐπ ̣ιστολήν, P Oxy IV. 743.23 (B.C. 2) (= Witkowski.2, p. 129) παραγενομ (ένου) γὰρ Δαμᾶτος εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειαν ἤλθαμεν ἐπὶ Ἐπαφρόδειτον.
Other exx. of παραγίνομαι from Ptolemaic times are P Hib I. 55.3 (B.C. 250) παραγενοῦ εἰς Ταλαὼν ἤδη, ";come to Talao at once,"; P Lond 42.12 f. (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, UPZ i. p. 300, Selections, p. 10), ἐπὶ δὲ τῶι μὴ παραγίνεσθαί σε [πάντω ]ν τῶν ἐκεῖ ἀπειλημμένων παραγεγο [νό ]των ἀηδίζομαι, ";but that you did not return when all those who were shut up with you returned distresses me,"; and P Par 43.5 (B.C. 153) (= UPZ i. p. 323) παραγενομένου (l. παραγενοῦ) δὲ εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν, which Wilcken understands as an invitation to a marriage.
From Roman times we have—P Oxy II. 291.9 (A.D. 25–26) μ [έχ ]ρι ὑγια [ί ]νων παρ [α ]γένωμαι, ";until I come in peace,"; BGU II. 531ii. 17 (A.D. 70–80) ἄχρι οὗ πα [ρ ]αγενάμενος (for form cf. Blass-Debrunner § 81. 3) ἐγ ̣[ὼ ] σώσωι. . ., P Ryl II. 232.3 (ii/A.D.) ἅμα τῷ [παρα ]γενέσθαι τὸν στρ [ατη ]γὸν εἰς τὴν Ἡράκλειαν, ";as soon as the strategus arrived at Heracleia,"; P Oxy IX. 1220.23 (iii/A.D.) ἐὰν παραγένῃ σὺν θεῷ, ";if you come, D.V."; (Ed.), and the Christian commendatory letter ib. VIII. 1162.7 (iv/A.D.) τὸν ἀδελφὼ (= ὸ)ν ἡμῶν Ἀμμώνιον παραγινόμενο ̣ν πρὸς ὑμᾶς σ ̣υ ̣ν ̣δέξασθαι αὐτὸν ἐν ἰρήνῃ, ";our brother Ammonius, who is coming to you, receive in peace"; (Ed.). Notwithstanding AV and RV, the primary sense of the verb in 2 Timothy 4:16 is still ";came,"; the idea of ";help"; arising from the use of the dat., here only in NT. From the inscrr. note Syll 554.16 (beg. ii/B.C.) εἰς τὸ καθ᾽ ἑξάμηνον παραγινόμενον δ [ικαστήριον, with reference to a six-monthly judicial circuit in Magnesia,
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.