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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #5613 - ὡς
- as, like, even as, etc.
as ADVERB of Manner. ὧς and ὥς (with accent), so, thus. ὡς (without accent) of the Relat. Pron. ὅς, as. ὡς Relat. and Interrog., how. ὡς temporal, when. ὡς Local, where, ὡς,
as CONJUNCTION. various usages. ADVERB of Manner: ὥς, Demonstr., = οὕτως, so, thus, freq. in Hom., Il. 1.33, al.; ὢς εἶπ' Sapph. Supp. 20 a. 11 (Epic style); in Ion. Prose, Hdt. 3.13, al.; rare in Att., and almost confined to certain phrases, v. infr. 2, 3; ὥς simply = οὕτως, A. Ag. 930, Th. 3.37, Pl. Prt. 338a; ἀλλ' ὣς γενέσθω E. Hec. 888, al.
2. καὶ ὧς even so, nevertheless, Il. 1.116, al.; οὐδ' ὧς not even so, 7.263, Od. 1.6, al., Hdt. 6.76; οὐδέ κεν ὧς Il. 9.386: the phrases καὶ ὧς, οὐδ' ὧς, μηδ' ὧς, are used in Trag. and Att., S. Ant. 1042, Th. 1.74, 7.74; also later, PCair.Zen. 19.10 (iii B. C., unaccented), UPZ 146.40 (ii B. C.), GDI 1832.11 (Delph., ii B. C.), IG 22.850.17 (iii B. C.); κἂν ὧς, εἴπερ μέλει σοι, ἀπόστειλόν μοί τινα POxy. 120.11 (iv A. D.); δουλεύων καθὼς καὶ ὧς GDI 2160 (Delph., ii B. C.); Thess. καὶ οὗς IG 9(2).234.1 (iii B. C.); for this phrase the accentuation ὧς is prescribed by Hdn.Gr.2.932, al., cf. A.D. Synt. 307.16, and is found in good Mss. of Homer; for the remaining uses under this head (Aa. 1, 3, 4) the accentuation ὥς is prescribed by the same grammarians.
3. in Comparisons, ὥς.., ὡς.., so.. as.., etc.; and reversely ὡς.., ὣς.., as.. so, Il. 1.512, 14.265, etc.; in Att., Pl. R. 530d; also ὥς τε.. ὣς.., as.. thus.., h.Cer. 174 - 6, E. Ba. 1066 - 8; οἷα.. ὥς Id. El. 151 - 5; ὥσπερ.., ὣς δὲ.. (in apodosi) Pl. Prt. 326d.
4. thus, for instance, Od. 5.129, h.Ven. 218; ὥς shd. be accented in Od. 5.121, 125. ὡς, Relat., as, Hom., etc.; prop. relat. to a demonstr. Adv., which is freq. omitted, κινήθη δ' ἀγορὴ ὡς κύματα μακρὰ θαλάσσης, i. e. οὕτως, ὡς.., Il. 2.144 (φὴ Zenod.): it is relat. not only to the regular demonstr. Advs. ὥς (ὧς), τώς, ὧδε, οὕτως, αὕτως, but also to ταύτῃ, Pl. R. 365d, etc. We find a collat. Dor. form ὥ (q. v.); cf. ὥτε.
I in similes, freq. in Hom., Il. 5.161, al.; longer similes are commonly introduced by ὡς ὅτε, ὡς δ' ὅτε, ἤριπε δ', ὡς ὅτε πύργος [ἤριπε] 4.462: ἤριπε δ', ὡς ὅτε τις δρῦς ἤριπε 13.389, cf. 2.394; so later, Emp. 84.1, etc.; ὡς ὅτε θαητὸν μέγαρον, πάξομεν Pi. O. 6.2: ὡς ὅτε is rare in short similes, Od. 11.368: ὡς is folld. by indic. pres., Il. 9.4, 16.364: also by aor., 3.33 sq., 4.275, 16.823, al.; also by subj. pres. or aor., 5.161, 10.183, 485, 13.334 (sts. ὡς δ' ὅτ' ἄν, 11.269, 17.520); cf. ὥστε A: — the Verb is sts. omitted with ὡς, but may be supplied from the context, ἐνδούπησε πεσοῦσ', ὡς εἰναλίη κήξ (sc. πίπτει) Od. 15.479, cf. 6.20; θεὸς δ' ὣς τίετο δήμῳ Il. 5.78; οἱ δὲ φέβοντο.., βόες ὣς ἀγελαῖαι Od. 22.299: where ὡς follows the noun to which it refers, it takes the accent; so in Com., Ἀριστόδημος ὥς Cratin. 151, cf. Eub. 75.6; v. infr. H.
2. like as, just as, ὡς οὗτος κατὰ τέκν' ἔφαγε.., ὣς ἡμεῖς κτλ. Il. 2.326, v. supr. Aa. 3.
3. sts. in the sense as much as or according as, ἑλὼν κρέας ὥς (i. e. ὅσον) οἱ χεῖρες ἐχάνδανον Od. 17.344; ὦκα δὲ μητρὶ ἔννεπον ὡς (i. e. ὅσα) εἶδόν τε καὶ ἔκλυον h.Cer. 172; τῶν πάντων οὐ τόσσον ὀδύρομαι.. ὡς ἑνός Od. 4.105; τόσον.. ὡς Il. 4.130; so in Trag., σοὶ θεοὶ πόροιεν ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω S. OC 1124; ὡς ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔστιν ὑμῶν ὅστις ἐξ ἴσου νοσεῖ Id. OT 60; in Prose, ὡς δύναται as much as he can, Democr. 278; τὸ ῥῆμα μέμνημαι ὡς εἶπε Aeschin. 3.72; ὡς μή = ὅσον μή, νέμεν ὅτι ἃν (= ἂν) βόλητοι ὡς μὴ ἰν τοῖ περιχώροι IG 5(2).3.9 (Tegea, iv B. C.); cf. Ab. 11.2 infr.
4. sts. after Comp., compared with, hence than, μᾶλλον πρέπει οὕτως ὡς.. Pl. Ap. 36d; ἅ γε μείζω πόνον παρέχει.. οὐκ ἂν ῥᾳδίως οὐδὲ πολλὰ ἂν εὕροις ὡς τοῦτο Id. R. 526c; οὐδενὸς μᾶλλον φροντίζειν ὡς.. Plb. 3.12.5, cf. 7.4.5, 11.2.9, Plu. Cor. 36: μᾶσσον ὡς is dub. in A. Pr. 629, and [ἢ] shd. perh. be inserted in Lys. 7.12,31; cf. ὥσπερ IV.
II with Adverbial clauses:
1 parenthetically, in qualifying clauses, ὡς ἔοικε, etc., Pl. Smp. 176c, etc.: in these cases γε or γοῦν is freq. added, ὡς γοῦν ὁ λόγος σημαίνει as at any rate the argument shows, Id. R. 334a; in some phrases c. inf., v. infr. B. 11.3. An anacoluthon sts. occurs by the Verb of the principal clause being made dependent on the parenthetic Verb, ὡς δὲ Σκύθαι λέγουσι, νεώτατον ἁπάντων ἐθνέων εἶναι (for ἦν) τὸ σφέτερον Hdt. 4.5, cf. 1.65; ὡς ἐγὼ ἤκουσα, εἶναι αὐτόν Id. 4.76; ὡς γὰρ.. ἤκουσά τινος, ὅτι.. X. An. 6.4.18 codd.; ἁνὴρ ὅδ' ὡς ἔοικεν οὐ νεμεῖν (for οὐ νεμεῖ, ὡς ἔοικε), S. Tr. 1238.
2. in elliptical phrases, so far as.. (cf. supr. Ab. 1.3) ὡς ἐμοί Id. Aj. 395 (lyr.); so ὥς γε ἐμοὶ κριτῇ Ael. VH 2.41 and ὥς γ' ἐμοὶ χρῆσθαι κριτῇ E. Alc. 801; ὡς ἐμῇ δόξῃ X. Vect. 5.2; ὡς ἀπ' ὀμμάτων (sc. εἰκάσαι) to judge by eyesight, S. OC 15: esp. in such phrases as οὐκέτι πολλὸν χωρίον, ὡς εἶναι Αἰγύπτου Hdt. 2.8; οὐδὲ ἀδύνατος, ὡς Αακεδαιμόνιος for a Lacedaemonian, Th. 4.84, cf. D.H. 10.31; ὡς ἀνθρώποις Alcmaeon 1; φρονεῖ.. ὡς γυνὴ μέγα for a woman, S. OT 1078; πιστός, ὡς νομεύς, ἀνήρ ib. 1118; μακρὰν ὡς γέροντι.. ὁδόν Id. OC 20, cf. 385, Ant. 62, etc.; ὡπλισμένοι ὡς ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἱκανῶς X. An. 4.3.31; also with ἄν, μεγάλα ἐκτήσατο χρήματα, ὡς ἂν εἶναι Ῥοδῶπιν Hdt. 2.135 codd. (ἂν secl. Krüger, Ῥοδώπιος cj. Valck.): — for ὡς εἰπεῖν and the like, v. infr. B. 11.3.
3. ὡς attached to the object of the Verb, as, ἑωυτὸν ὡς ἐχθρὸν λυπέει Democr. 88; ἔλαβεν ἀμφοτέρους ὡς φίλους ἤδη X. Cyr. 3.2.25; ἐν οἰκήματι ᾧ ὡς ταμιείῳ ἐχρῆτο Pl. Prt. 315d. — For the similar usage of ὡς with Participles and Prepositions, v. infr. c.
III with Adverbs: with the Posit., ὡς ἀληθῶς truly, Pl. Phdr. 234e (cf. ἀληθής 111.1b: as if Adv. of τὸ ἀληθές) ; ὡς ἑτέρως in the other way, ib. 276c, D. 18.212 (Adv. of ὁ ἕτερος; v. ἕτερος v. 2) (v. infr. D. 1.1); ὡς ἠπίως, ὡς ἐτητύμως, S. El. 1438 (lyr.), 1452; ὡς ὁμοίως SIG 708.34 (Istropolis, ii B. C.), LXX 4 Maccabees 5:21; 4 Maccabees 5:1 Enoch 5.3, IG 7.2725.16 (Acraeph., ii A. D.); ὡς ἐναλλάξ Vett.Val. 215.9, 340.2; ὡς παντελῶς Id. 184.26; ὡς ἄλλως Isa 7.27, D. 6.32; ὡς ἐνδεχομένως PPetr. 2p.53 (iii B. C.); in ὣς αὔτως (v. ὡσαύτως) we have the Adv. of ὁ αὐτός, but the ὥς retains its demonstr. force, as does ὁ in Homer; ὡς ἀληθῶς, ὡς ὁμοίως, and ὡς παντελῶς may be modelled on ὣς αὔτως, with which they are nearly synonymous; so also ὡς ἑτέρως and ὡς ἐναλλάξ, which are contrasted with it. with Advbs. expressing anything extraordinary, θαυμαστῶς or θαυμασίως ὡς, ὑπερφυῶς ὡς, v. sub vocc.; ὡς is sts. separated by several words from its Adv., as θαυμαστῶς μοι εἶπες ὡς παρα' δόξαν Pl. Phd. 95a; ὑπερφυῶς δὴ τὸ χρῆμα ὡς δύσγνωστον φαίνεται Id. Alc. 2.147c, cf. Phd. 99d. with the Sup., as much as can be, ὡς μάλιστα Th. 1.141, etc.: ὡς ῥᾷστα as easily as possible, A. Pr. 104; ὡς πλεῖστα Democr. 189; ὠς τάχιστα as quickly as possible, Alc. Supp. 4.15, etc.; more fully expressed, ὡς δυνατὸν ἄριστα Isoc. 12.153; ὡς ἐδύναντο ἀδηλότατα Th. 7.50; μαχομένους ὡς ἂν δυνώμεθα κράτιστα X. An. 3.2.6; ὡς οἷόν τε βελτιστον Pl. R. 403d; ὡς ἀνυστὸν κάλλιστα Diog. Apollon. 3: ὡς and ὅτι are sts. found together, where one is superfluous, ὡς ὅτι μάλιστα Pl. Lg. 908a; βοῦν ὡς ὅτι κάλλιστον IG 22.1028.17 (ii/i B. C.); v. infr. G. with Comp., ὡς θᾶσσον Plb. 1.66.1, 3.82.1. in the phrases ὡς τὸ πολύ, ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ, Pl. R. 330c, 377b; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖον for the more part, commonly, ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον Th. 2.34; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος, ὡς πλήθει, Pl. R. 364a, 389d; ὡς τὸ ἐπίπαν Hdt. 7.50, etc.; ὡς τὰ πολλά Ael. NA 12.17.
2. with Adjs., Posit., ὑπερφυεῖ τινι.. ὡς μεγάλῃ βλάβῃ Pl. Grg. 477d. with Sup., ὡς ἄριστοι τὰς φύσεις Id. Ti. 18d; ὅπως ὡς βέλτισται ἔσονται Id. Grg. 503a; ὡς ὅτι βέλτιστον Id. Smp. 218d. separated from the Adj. by a Pr, ὡς ἐς ἐλάχιστον Th. 1.63, cf. D. 18.246; ὡς ἐν βραχυτάτοις Antipho 1.18; ὡς ἐν ἐχυρωτάτῳ ποιεῖσθαι X. Cyr. 1.6.26, etc. Relat. and Interrog., how, μερμήριζε.. ὡς Ἀχιλῆα τιμήσειε Il. 2.3, cf. Pl. R. 365a; ἐβουλεύοντο ὡς.. στήσονται Hdt. 3.84, etc.; οἷα δεῖ λέγειν καὶ ὥς Arist. EN 1128a1; ὡς πέπραται how, i. e. at what price the goods have been sold, PCair.Zen. 149 (iii B. C.); so οὐκ ἔσθ' ὡς.. (for the more usu. ὅπως) nowise can it be that.., S. Ant. 750; οὐκ ἔσθ' ὡς οὐ.., Id. Ph. 196 (anap., Porson for οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως ου) ; οἶσθ' ὡς πόησον; by a mixture of constructions for ὡς χρὴ ποιῆσαι or ὡς ποιήσεις, Id. OT 543, cf. Hermipp. 43, Men. 916; οἶσθ' ὡς μετεύξει is f.l. in E. Med. 600 (μέτευξαι Elmsley); similarly, οἶσθα.. ὡς νῦν μὴ σφαλῇς S. OC 75.
2. ὡς ἂν ποήσῃς however (in whatever way) thou mayest act, Id. Aj. 1369, cf. Pl. Smp. 181a; αὐτῷ ὥς κεν ἅδῃ, τὼς ἔσσεται A.R. 3.350. Temporal, when, with past tenses of the indic., ἐνῶρτο γέλως.., ὡς ἴδον Il. 1.600: with opt., to express a repeated action, whenever, ὡς.. ἐς τὴν Μιλησίην ἀπίκοιτο Hdt. 1.17: rarely c. subj., to denote what happens under certain conditions, τῶν δὲ ὡς ἕκαστός οἱ μειχθῇ, διδοῖ δῶρον Id. 4.172, cf. 1.132; later, ὡς ἄν c. subj., when, PCair.Zen. 251 (iii B. C.), 1 Corinthians 11:34, etc.; ὥς κα Berl.Sitzb. 1927.170 (Cyrene); ὡς ἂν τάχιστα λάβῃς τὴν ἐπιστολήν as soon as.. PCair.Zen. 241.1 (iii B. C.), cf. LXX 1 Kings 9:13, John 3:8 : in orat. obliq. c. inf., Hdt. 1.86, 96, al.: expressed more forcibly by ὡς.. τάχιστα, some word or words being interposed, ὡς γὰρ ἐπετρόπευσε τάχιστα as soon as ever.., Id. 1.65; ὡς δὲ ἀφίκετο τάχιστα X. Cyr. 1.3.2: less freq. ὡς τάχιστα stand together, Aeschin. 2.22: but this usage must be distd. from signf. Ab.111.1c: folld. by demonstr., ὡς εἶδ', ὣς ἀνεπᾶλτο Il. 20.424; ὡς ἴδεν, ὥς μιν ἔρως πυκινὰς φρένας ἀμφεκάλυψεν 14.294; also ὡς.., ἔπειτα 3.396; Κρονίδης ὥς μιν φράσαθ' ὣς ἐόλητο θυμὸν ἀνωΐστοισιν ὑποδμηθεὶς βελέεσσι Κύπριδος Mosch. 2.74; the second ὣς is repeated, ἁ δ' Ἀταλάντα ὡς ἴδεν, ὣς ἐμάνη, ὣς ἐς βαθὺν ἅλατ' ἔρωτα Theoc. 3.41 (ὣς = εὐθέως, Sch.vet.), cf. 2.82; in Bion 1.40 the clauses with ὡς all belong to the protasIsa
2. ὡς appears to be f.l. for ἕως in ὡς ἂν αὑτὸς ἥλιος.. αἴρῃ S. Ph. 1330, ὡς ἂν ᾖς οἷόσπερ εἶ Id. Aj. 1117; cf. ὥσπερ 111.1: but in later Gr. = ἕως, while, ὡς τὸ φῶς ἔχετε John 12:35-36; ὡς καιρὸν ἔχομεν Galatians 6:10, cf. Epigr.Gr. 646a5 (p.529); also until, τίθεται ἐπὶ ἀνθράκων ὡς ἀναξηρανθῇ PLeid.X. 89 B.; ἔα ἀφρίζειν τὴν πίσσαν ὡς οὗ ἐκλείπῃ ib.37B.; cf. EM 824.43 (conversely ἕως for ὡς final, v. ἕως (B) A. 1.4). Local, where, in dialects, Theoc. 1.13, 5.101, 103, IG 9(2).205.4 (Melitea, iii B. C.), SIG 685.63, al. (Cretan, ii B. C.), IG 12(1).736.5 (Camirus), GDI 5597.8 (Ephesus, iii B. C.).
ὡς as CONJUNCTION:
I with Substantive clauses, to express a fact, = ὅτι, that.
II with Final clauses, to express an end or purpose, = ἵνα, ὅπως, so that, in order that. III Consecutive, = ὥστε, so that. Causal, since, because. I with Substantive Clauses, with verbs of learning, saying, etc., that, expressing a fact, γνωτὸν.., ὡς ἤδη Τρώεσσιν ὀλέθρου πείρατ' ἐφῆπται Il. 7.402, cf. Od. 3.194, etc.: in commands, προεῖπεν ὡς μηδεὶς κινήσοιτο X. HG 2.1.22: with Verbs of fear or anxiety, c. fut. indic., μηκέτ' ἐκφοβοῦ, μητρῷον ὥς σε λῆμ' ἀτιμάσει ποτέ S. El. 1427, cf. X. Cyr. 6.2.30; μὴ φοβοῦ ὡς ἀπορήσεις ib. 5.2.12, cf. D. 10.36; a sentence beginning with ὡς is sts., when interrupted, resumed by ὅτι, and vice versa, X. Cyr. 5.3.30, Pl. R. 470d, Hp.Ma. 281c; so ὡς with a finite Verb passes into the acc. and inf., Hdt. 1.70, 8.118: both constructions mixed in the same clause, ἐλογίζετο ὡς.. ἧττον ἂν αὐτοὺς ἐθέλειν.. X. Cyr. 8.1.25, cf. HG 3.4.27: after primary tenses (incl. historic pres.) ὡς is folld. by indic., after historic tenses by opt. (sts. by indic., both constructions in ὑπίσχοντο.. ἀμυνέειν, φράζοντες ὡς οὔ σφι περιοπτέη ἐστὶ ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀπολλυμένη
ὡς (Treg. (by mistake) in Matthew 24:38 ὡς; cf. Winers Grammar, 462 (431); Chandler § 934, and references in Ebeling, Lex. Homer, under the word, p. 494b bottom), an adverbial form of the relative pronoun ὅς, ἡ, ὁ which is used in comparison, as, like as, even as, according as, in the same manner as, etc. (German wie); but it also assumes the nature of a conjunction, of time, of purpose, and of consequence. On its use in the Greek writings cf. Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, chapter xxxv., p. 756ff; (Liddell and Scott, under the word).
I. ὡς as an adverb of comparison;
1. It answers to some demonstrative word (οὕτως, or the like), either in the same clause or in another member of the same sentence (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 53, 5): οὕτως ... ὡς, John 7:46 (L WH omit; Tr brackets ὡς etc.); 1 Corinthians 3:15; 1 Corinthians 4:1; 1 Corinthians 9:26; Ephesians 5:28, 33; James 2:12; οὕτως ... ὡς ἐάν (T Tr WH omit ἐάν (cf. English as should a man cast etc.)) ... βάλῃ, so etc. ... as if etc. Mark 4:26; ὡς ... οὕτως, Acts 8:32; Acts 23:11; 1 Corinthians 7:17; 2 Corinthians 11:3 (R G); 1 Thessalonians 5:2; ὡς ἄν (ἐάν) followed by subjunctive ((cf. ἄν, II. 2 a. at the end)) ... οὕτως, 1 Thessalonians 2:7f; ὡς ... οὕτω καί, Romans 5:15 (here WH brackets καί),18; 2 Corinthians 1:7 L T Tr WH;
2. ὡς with the word or words forming the comparison is so subjoined to a preceding verb that οὕτως must be mentally inserted before the same. When thus used ὡς refers a. to the manner (`form') of the action expressed by the finite verb, and is equivalent to in the same manner as, after the fashion of; it is joined in this way to the subject (nominative) of the verb: Matthew 6:29; Matthew 7:29; Matthew 13:43; 1 Thessalonians 2:11; 2 Peter 2:12; Jude 1:10, etc.; to an accusative governed by the verb: as ἀγαπᾶν τόν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν, Matthew 19:19; Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31, 33; Luke 10:27; Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8; add, Philemon 1:17; Galatians 4:14; (here many (cf. R. V. marginal reading) would bring in also Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37 (cf.
c. below)); or to another oblique case: as Philippians 2:22; to a substantive, with a preposition: as ὡς ἐν κρύπτω, John 7:10 (Tdf. omits ὡς); ὡς ἐν ἡμέρα σφαγῆς, James 5:5 (R G; others omit ὡς); ὡς διά ξηρᾶς, Hebrews 11:29; add, Matthew 26:55; Mark 14:48; Luke 22:52; Romans 13:13; Hebrews 3:8; when joined to a nominative or an accusative it can be rendered like, (like) as (Latininstar, veluti): Matthew 10:16; Luke 21:35; Luke 22:31; 1 Corinthians 3:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:4; 2 Timothy 2:17; James 1:10; 1 Peter 5:8; 2 Peter 3:10; καλεῖν τά μή ὄντα ὡς ὄντα (see καλέω, 1 b. β. under the end), Romans 4:17.
b. ὡς joined to a verb makes reference to the 'substance' of the act expressed by the verb, i. e. the action designated by the verb is itself said to be done ὡς, in like manner (just) as, something else: John 15:6 (for τό βάλλεσθαι ἔξω is itself the very thing which is declared to happen (i. e. the unfruitful disciple is 'cast forth' just as the severed branch is 'cast forth')); 2 Corinthians 3:1 (Lachmann ὡς (περ)); generally, however, the phrase ὡς καί is employed (Winer's Grammar, § 53, 5), 1 Corinthians 9:5; 1 Corinthians 16:10 (here WH text omits καί); Ephesians 2:3; 1 Thessalonians 5:6 (L T Tr WH omit καί); 2 Timothy 3:9; Hebrews 3:2; 2 Peter 3:16.
c. ὡς makes reference to similarity or equality, in such expressions as εἶναι ὡς τινα, i. e. 'to be like' or 'equal to' one, Matthew 22:30; Matthew 28:3; Mark 6:34; Mark 12:25; Luke 6:40; Luke 11:44; Luke 18:11; Luke 22:26; Romans 9:27; 1 Corinthians 7:7, 29-31; 2 Corinthians 2:17; 1 Peter 1:24; 2 Peter 3:8; ἵνα μή ὡς κατ' ἀνάγκην τό ἀγαθο σου ἤ, that thy benefaction may not be like something extorted by force, Philemon 1:14; γίνεσθαι ὡς τινα, Matthew 10:25; Matthew 18:3; Luke 22:26; Romans 9:29; 1 Corinthians 4:13; 1 Corinthians 9:20-22 (in 9:22 T Tr WH omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets ὡς); Galatians 4:12; μένειν ὡς τινα, 1 Corinthians 7:8; ποιεῖν τινα ὡς τινα, Luke 15:19; passages in which ἐστιν, ἦν, ὤν (or ὁ ὤν) is left to be supplied by the reader: as ἡ φωνή αὐτοῦ ὡς φωνή ὑδατον, Revelation 1:15; ὀφθαλμούς, namely, ὄντας, Revelation 2:18; πίστιν namely, οὖσαν, Matthew 17:20; Luke 17:6; add, Revelation 4:7; Revelation 9:2, 5, 7-9, 17; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 13:2; Revelation 14:2; Revelation 20:8; Revelation 21:21; Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37 (many (cf. R. V. marginal reading) refer these last two passages to a. above);
d. ὡς so makes reference to the quality of a person, thing, or action, as to be equivalent to such as, exactly like, as it were. German als; and α. to a quality which really belongs to the person or thing: ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων, Matthew 7:29; Mark 1:22; ὡς μονογενοῦς παρά πατρός, John 1:14; add ((L T Tr WH in Matthew 5:48; Matthew 6:5, 16)); Acts 17:22; Romans 6:13 (here L T Tr WH ὡσεί);
3. ὡς with the genitive absolute presents the matter spoken of — either as the belief of the writer, 2 Corinthians 5:20; 2 Peter 1:3; or as someone's erroneous opinion: 1 Corinthians 4:18; 1 Peter 4:12; cf. Winers Grammar, § 65, 9; (Buttmann, § 145, 7; especially § 144, 22). In general, by the use of ὡς the matter spoken of is presented — either as a mere matter of opinion: as in ὡς ἐξ ἔργων namely, ὁ Ἰσραήλ νόμον δικαιοσύνης ἐδίωξεν, Romans 9:32 (where it marks the imaginary character of the help the Israelites relied on, they thought to attain righteousness in that way (A. V. as it were by works)); — or as a purpose: πορεύεσθαι ὡς ἐπί θάλασσαν, that, as they intended, he might go to the sea, Acts 17:14, cf. Meyer at the passage; Winers Grammar, 617 (573f) (but L T Tr WH read ἕως, as far as to etc.); — or as merely the thought of the writer: Galatians 3:16; before ὅτι, 2 Corinthians 11:21; — or as the thought and pretence of others: also before ὅτι, 2 Thessalonians 2:2: cf. Winers Grammar, as above; (Buttmann, § 149, 3; on ὡς ὅτι in 2 Corinthians 5:19 (A. V. to wit) see Winers Grammar, and Buttmann's Grammar, at the passages cited (cf. Esther 4:14; Josephus, contra Apion 1, 11, 1 and Müller's note; Liddell and Scott, under the word, G. 2; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, 7)); ὡς ἄν, as if, as though, 2 Corinthians 10:9 (cf. Winers Grammar, 310 (291); but cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 1, and see ἄν, IV.).
4. ὡς has its own verb, with which it forms a complete sentence;
a. ὡς with a finite verb is added by way of illustration, and is to be translated as, just as (Latinsicut, eo modo quo): Ephesians 6:20; Colossians 3:18; Colossians 4:4; 1 Peter 3:6; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 John 1:7; Revelation 2:28 (
b. ὡς is used to present, in the form of a comparison, a motive which is urged upon one — as ἄφες ὑμῖν τά ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καί ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν (R G ἀφίεμεν) κτλ. (for which Luke 11:4 gives καί γάρ αὐτοί ἀφίομεν), Matthew 6:12 — or which actuates one, as χάριν ἔχω τῷ Θεῷ ... ὡς ἀδιαλεπτον ἔχω τήν περί σου μνείαν, 2 Timothy 1:3 (for the dear remembrance of Timothy moves Paul's gratitude to God); (cf. John 19:33 (cf. II.
a. below)); in these examples ὡς has almost the force of a causal particle; cf. Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, p. 766; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. IV.; Winers Grammar, 448 (417)).
c. ὡς adds in a rather loose way something which serves to illustrate what precedes, and is equivalent to the case is as though (R. V. it is as when): Mark 13:34, where cf. Fritzsche, p. 587; unless one prefer, with Meyer, et al., to make it an instance of anantapodoton (cf. A. V. 'For the Son of Man is as a man' etc.); see ὥσπερ, a. at the end.
6. ὡς, like the German wie, after verbs of reading, narrating, testifying, and the like, introduces that which is read, narrated, etc.; hence, it is commonly said to be equivalent to ὅτι (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 765); but there is this difference between the two, that ὅτι expresses the thing itself, ὡς the mode or quality of the thing (hence, usually rendered how) (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 53, 9; (Meyer on Romans 1:9; cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I.)): thus after ἀναγινώσκειν, Mark 12:26 (where T Tr WH πῶς); Luke 6:4 (here Tr WH brackets ὡς; L text reads πῶς); μνησθῆναι, Luke 24:6 (L marginal reading ὅσα); θέασθαι, Luke 23:55; Ὑπομνῆσαι, Jude 1:5 (here ὅτι (not ὡς) is the particle), 7 (others regard ὡς here as introducing a confirmatory illustration of what precedes (A. V. even as etc.); cf. Huther, or Brückner's DeWette, ad loc.); εἰδέναι, Acts 10:38; Romans 11:2; 1 Thessalonians 2:11; ἐπίστασθαί, Acts 10:28 (here many (cf. R. V. marginal reading) connect ὡς with the adjective immediately following (see 8 below));
7. ὡς before numerals denotes nearly, about: as, ὡς δισχίλιοι, Mark 5:13; add, Mark 8:9; Luke 2:37 (here L T Tr WH ἕως);
8. ὡς is prefixed to adjectives and adverbs, and corresponds to the Latinquam, how, German wie (so from Homer down): ὡς ὡραῖοι, Romans 10:15; add, Romans 11:33; ὡς ὁσίως, 1 Thessalonians 2:10 (Psalm 72:1
II. ὡς as a particle of time;
a. as, when, since; Latinut, cum, (Winer's Grammar, § 41 b. 3,1; § 53, 8): with the indicative, ὡς δέ ἐπορεύοντο, Matthew 28:8 (9); Mark 9:21 (Tr marginal reading ἐξ οὗ); Luke 1:23, 41, 44; Luke 2:15, 39; Luke 4:25; Luke 5:4; Luke 7:12; Luke 11:1; Luke 15:25; Luke 19:5, 29; Luke 22:66; Luke 23:26; Luke 24:32; John 2:9, 23; John 4:1, 40,(
b. while, when (Latindum, quando): Luke 20:37; as long as, while, John (
c. ὡς ἄν, as soon as: with the subjunctive present Romans 15:24 (A. V. here whensoever); with the 2 aorist subjunctive having the force of the future perfect, 1 Corinthians 11:34 (R. V. whensoever); Philippians 2:23. (Cf. Buttmann, 232 (200); Winers Grammar, § 42, 5 a.; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word 6.).
III. ὡς as a final particle (Latinut), in order that, in order to (cf. Glidersleeve in American Journ. of Philol. No. 16, p. 419f): followed by an infinitive ((cf. Buttmann, 244 (210); Winers Grammar, 318 (299); Krüger, § 65, 3, 4), Luke 9:52 L marginal reading WH); Acts 20:24 (3Macc. 1:2; 4 Macc. 14:1); ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, so to say (see εἶπον, 1 a.), Hebrews 7:9 (L marginal reading εἶπεν).
IV. ὡς as a consecutive particle, introducing a consequence, so that: so (according to the less frequent usage) with the indicative (Herodotus 1, 163; 2, 135; Winer's Grammar, 462 (431)), Hebrews 3:11; Hebrews 4:3 (Hebrew אֲשֶׁר, Psalm 94:11
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adverbial form of the relative prop. ὅς , ἥ , ὅ .
I. As relat. adv. of manner, as, like as, just as, even as;
1. with a demonstrative, like οὅτως , expressed or understood: οὅτως , . . . ὠς , Mark 4:26, 1 Corinthians 3:15, Ephesians 5:28, James 2:12, al.; ὠς . . . οὅτως ,, Acts 8:32, 1 Corinthians 7:17, al.; elliptically (sc. οὕτως , οὕτω ), c. nom., Matthew 6:29, al.; c. acc, Matthew 19:19, Mark 12:31, al.; c. prep., Matthew 26:55, Mark 14:48, Luke 22:52, John 7:10, al.; c. verb., John 15:6, 2 Corinthians 3:1, Ephesians 2:3, 1 Thessalonians 5:6, al.; c. ptcp. (the ptcp. however not having the special force WH. it has in cl.; v. Bl., § 73, 5; 74, 6), Matthew 7:20, Mark 1:22, Hebrews 13:17, al.; freq. implying opinion or belief, Romans 9:32; so esp. c. gen. absol., 1 Corinthians 4:18, 2 Corinthians 5:20, 1 Peter 4:12, 2 Peter 1:3.
2. Before numerals, about, nearly: Mark 5:13, John 1:40, Acts 5:7, al.
3. Before adjectives and adverbs, how: Romans 10:15; Romans 11:33, 1 Thessalonians 2:10; c. superl., ὡς τάχιστα , as quickly as possible, Acts 17:15
II. As conjunction;
(a) as, when, since: Mark 9:21; Mark 14:72, Luke 1:23, John 2:9, al.;
(b) while, when, as long as: Luke 12:58, John 12:36, Galatians 6:10 (Field, Notes, 191); ὡς ἄν (M, Pr., 167, and see ἄν ), Romans 15:24, 1 Corinthians 11:34, Philippians 2:23.
2. Final, in order that; c. inf., in order to (M, Pr., 204n), Luke 9:52, Acts 20:24, Hebrews 7:9.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.