Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #05358 - נָקַם
1) to avenge, take vengeance, revenge, avenge oneself, be avenged, be punished
1a1) to avenge, take vengeance
1a2) to entertain revengeful feelings
1b1) to avenge oneself
1b2) to suffer vengeance
1c) (Piel) to avenge
1d) (Hophal) to be avenged, vengeance be taken (for blood)
1e) (Hithpael) to avenge oneself
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
נָקַם inf. נְקוֹם, fut. יִקּוֹם to revenge, to take vengeance (Arab. نقم to be angry, to rebuke, to punish; Conj. VIII. to inflict a penalty, to take vengeance. The primary idea is that of breathing forcibly: compare the kindred נָחַם). It stands
(a) absol. Levit. 19:18.
(b) with an acc. of that which, or the person whom one avenges, Deuteronomy 32:43 also followed by עַל Psalms 99:8. In the same sense, Levit. 26:25, הֶרֶב נֹקֶמֶת נְקַם בְּרִית “a sword which avenges the covenant.” Jeremiah 51:36 [Piel], “I will avenge thy vengeance,” i.e. thee.
(c) followed by מִן of him from whom vengeance of any thing is sought to be taken, 1 Samuel 24:13 followed by מֵאֵת Numbers 31:2 מִיַּד 2 Kings 9:7 [Piel]; לְ Nahum 1:2; Ezekiel 25:12 acc. Joshua 10:13. The two constructions, let. a, b, are found together in the following instances: 1 Sam. loc. cit., נְקָמַנִי יְהֹוָה מִמֶּךָּ “Jehovah has avenged me of thee.” Numb. 31:2, נְקֹם נִקְמַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֵת הַמִּדְיָנִים.
Niphal, to avenge oneself. Ezekiel 25:15, יִנָּֽקְמוּ נָקָם: followed by בְּ of the person on whom vengeance is sought to be taken, Judges 15:7; 1 Samuel 18:25 followed by מִן both of what vengeance is taken for, and also of the person from whom it is sought. מִן Isaiah 1:24; Jeremiah 15:15; Judges 16:28.
Piel, i.q. Kal, 2 Kings 9:7, נִקַּמְתִּי דְּמֵי עַבָדַי הַנְּבִיאִים … מִיַּד אִיזֶבֶל “I will avenge the blood of my servants, the prophets … from Jezebel,” Jeremiah 51:36 followed by בְּ Ezekiel 25:12 (at the end).
Hophal, fut. יֻקַּם to be avenged. Genesis 4:15, 24, “whosoever slayeth Cain he shall be avenged seven-fold,” Exodus 21:21.
(1) to avenge oneself, as Niph., Jeremiah 5:9, 29 9:8.
(2) part. מִתְנַקֵּם desirous of vengeance, Psalms 8:3, 44:17. Hence