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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1556 - ἐκδικέω
1. avenge, punish, φόνον Ctes. Fr. 37; παρακοήν 2 Corinthians 10:6; τινάς PGen. 47.17 (iv A.D.); exact vengeance for, τὰ αἵματα τῶν δούλων LXX 2 Samuel 4:8; τὸ αἷμα τὸ ἀναίτιον SIG 1181.12 (Jewish, circ. ii/i B.C.).
2. decide a case, δίκην, ἀγῶνα, Ph. 2.432, POxy. 1020.6 (ii A. D.).
1. avenge or vindicate a person, by taking up his cause, Apollod. 2.5.11, PAmh. 2.134.10 (ii A.D.), Plu. Comp.Ag.Gracch. 5; ἑαυτούς Romans 12:19, etc.; ἐ. τινὰ ἀπό τινος avenge one on another, Luke 18:3 : c.dat., Sch. Ar. Pl. 627: — Pass., LXX Psalms 37:28 (36). 28.
2. act as ἔκδικος 11.3, AJA 18.325 (Sardes, i B. C.), cf. CIG 2824 (Aphrodisias), BCH 23.182 (Pisidia).
III claim, CIG 3488 (Thyatira), Inscr.Perg. 245; σιτία καὶ ποτά Hierocl. in CA 8p.431M. ἐ. τισί make retribution for them, Aesop. 279b.
† ἐκδικέω , -ῶ
(< ἔκδικος ),
1. to vindicate: c. acc pers., Luke 18:3; Luke 18:5.
2. to avenge: c. acc pers., ἑαυτούς , Romans 12:19; c. acc rei, παρακοήν , 2 Corinthians 10:6; αἷμα , Revelation 6:10; Revelation 19:2 (Cremer, 203; for exx. from Papyri in both senses, v. MM, Exp., xii).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In P Ryl II. 94.12 (A.D. 14–37) the head and the secretary of a guild of weavers become sureties for five of their number, undertaking to produce them whenever required—ἐκδικοῦντες τὰ διὰ τοῦ ὑπομνήματος Πανινούτιος τοῦ Ἀφροδισίου ἐρι (ουργοῦ ?), ";to answer the claims stated in the petition of Paninoutis son of Aphrodisius, wool-worker"; (Edd.). For the meaning ";vindicate"; cf. P Amh II. 134.10 (early ii/A.D.) where Heliodorus is urged to take action on behalf of Peteus, whom certain πρεσβύτεροι had attempted to carry off—ἐκδικῆσαι αὐτὸν ";to vindicate him,"; and ἐντυχεῖν κατά, ";to draw up a petition against,"; the persons concerned : cf. P Strass I. 41.9 (A.D. 250). In P Qxy VII. 1020.6 (A.D. 198–201) the word is used of a judicial decision—εἰ τὴν ἐκ τῆς ἡλικίας ἔχεις β ̣[οήθιαν,] δ ̣ ἡγούμ [ενος ] τοῦ ἔθνους τὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς ἀφέσωες ἐκδικ [ήσει, ";if you can claim the assistance due to immature age, the praefect of the province shall decide the suit for release"; (Ed.) : so P Lond 245.19 (A.D. 343) (= II. p. 272) αὐτοῦ γάρ ἐστιν τὰ τοια [ῦτ ]α τολμῶντες ἐκδικῖν al. It would appear therefore that the thought of ";avenge"; (AV, RV) is not necessarily primary in Luke 18:3 ff., but rather of ";do right to"; and so ";protect"; the wronged party (cf. ExpT xxv. p. 70 f.). The context, however, suggests the stronger sense in the striking Jewish prayer for vengeance for a murdered girl, Syll 816.11, which Deissmann (LAE p. 434) carries back as far as the end of the second or beginning of the first century B.C., where ";the most high God"; is implored—ἵνα ἐγδικήσῃς τὸ αἷμα τὸ ἀναίτιον ζητήσῃς καὶ τὴν ταχίστην, ";that Thou mayst avenge the innocent blood and require it again right speedily"; : cf. Joel 4:21 (MT Joel 3:21) A ἐκδικήσω τὸ αἷμα αὐτῶν. See also P Oxy VI. 937.7 (iii/A.D.) where a brother writes to his sister regarding some wrong that had been done to him—ἐὰν οὖν ζήσω χρόνο ̣ν καὶ ἔλθω εἰς τὴν πατρίδα μου ἐκδικήσω ἐμαυτόν, ";well, if I live and come to my native land I will have my revenge"; (Edd.) : cf. Romans 12:19.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.