the Week of Proper 4 / Ordinary 9
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #3667 - כְּנַעַן
Canaan = “lowland”
1) the 4th son of Ham and the progenitor of the Phoenicians and of the various nations who peopled the seacoast of Palestine (noun proper masculine)
2) the land west of the Jordan peopled by the descendants of Canaan and subsequently conquered by the Israelites under Joshua (noun proper locative)
3) merchant, trader (noun masculine)
of a territory Canaan (ᵐ5 Ξανααν, Phoenician כנען = Phoenicia; Ξνα = כנע, Hecataeus, see Müller Fr.Hist.Gr.i,17 and others; Egyptian Ka-n-±-na WMM As.u.Europa,205 ff.; Tel Amarna Kina— Nahum , Kina——i, etc., Bez BM Tablets, 150 Wkl TA 39; etymology dubious GFM PAOS Oct. 1890. lxvii ff.; see also GASm Geogr. 4f. Buhl Geogr. § 42); — 1 as
proper name, masculine, son of Ham Genesis 9:18,22,25,27; Genesis 10:15 (as ancestor of Canaanites and Phoenicians; all J); Genesis 10:6 (P); 1 Chronicles 1:8,13 (from Genesis 10:6,15).
2. a. land, west of Jordan, into which Hebrews came, and where they settled, subduing the inhabitants; מַלְכֵי כְּנַעַן Judges 5:19, ׳מלך כ Judges 4:2,23,24 (twice in verse); hence ׳מַמְלְכוֺת כ Psalm 135:11; ׳ישְׁבֵי כ Exodus 15:15 (song in E); compare ׳מִלְחֲמוֺת כ Judges 3:1; ׳עֲצַבֵּי כ Psalm 106:38 idols of Canaan, i.e. of the former inhabitants; especially ׳אֶרֶץ (ֿ) כ, ׳אַרְצָה כ Genesis 44:8; Genesis 46:31; Genesis 47:1,4,13,14,15; Genesis 50:5,13 (all J), Genesis 35:6; Genesis 42:5,7,13,29,32; Genesis 45:17,25; Joshua 24:3 (all E), Genesis 11:31; Genesis 12:5 (twice in verse); Genesis 13:12 (opposed to עָרֵי הַכִּכָּר v b), Genesis 16:3; Genesis 17:8 (all P) + 40t. P, Judges 21:12; 1 Chronicles 16:18 = Psalm 105:11; also ׳הָאָרֶץ כ Numbers 34:2 (P); ׳בְּנוֺת כ Genesis 28:1 daughters of Canaan = women of the land, so Genesis 28:6; Genesis 28:8; Genesis 36:2 (all P); כנען is personified Hosea 12:8 = apostate Israel; ׳שְׂפַת כ Isaiah 19:18 = the Hebrew language (without evil implication).
b. the coast, especially Phoenicia Isaiah 23:11; compare אֶרֶץ מְּלִשְׁתִּים׳כ Zephaniah 2:5.
II. כְּנָ֫עַן noun [masculine] merchant (s) (because Canaanites, especially Phoenicians, were traders); — כָּלעַֿם כְּנַעַן Zephaniah 1:11; ׳אֶרֶץ כ Ezekiel 16:29 (omitted by ᵐ5 B and others Co), Ezekiel 17:4 a land of merchants; compare כנעני near the end.
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כְּנַעַן pr. name
(1) Canaan, a son of Ham, ancestor of the nation of the Canaanites, Genesis 9:18, seq.; 10:6.
(2) the land of the Canaanites (Exodus 15:15, fully אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן Genesis 13:12, 33:18 ), and the nation (Judges 3:1, with masc. Hosea 12:8); pr. the depressed, low, region (from the root כָּנַע, with the addition of ־ַ־ן, as in אֶתְנַן), opp. to the loftier country אֲרָם (see כְּנַעֲנִי No. 1 ). [But this name was taken from Canaan, the son of Ham, the ancestor of the Canaanites.] It specially denotes
(a) the land on this side Jordan, as opposed to the land of Gilead, Numbers 33:51; Joshua 22:9.
(b) Phœnicia, Isaiah 23:11, i.e. the northern part of Canaan, situated at the base of Lebanon; the inhabitants of which call themselves כנען upon their coins (see my Comment. on Isa. loc. cit.; Gesch. der Heb. Sprache, p. 16, 227); by the Greeks they are called Φοίνικες. The Pœni, also a colony of the Phœnicians, retained this ancient name, as we learn from Augustin (Expos. Ep. ad Romanos) in these words, “Interrogati rustici nostri,” i.e. Hipponenses, “quid sint? punicּ respondentes Chanani, corrupt̯ scilicet, ut in talibus solet, un̯ litter̯, quid aliud respondent, quam Chanan i?”
(c) Philistia, Zephaniah 2:5, כְּנַעַן אֶרֶץ פְּלשְׁתִּים.-שְׂפַת כְּנַעַן the language of Canaan, i.e. Hebrew, which the Canaanites and Hebrews used, Isaiah 19:18.
(3) for אִישׁ כְּנַעַן a Canaanite, Hosea 12:8 hence any merchant. Isaiah 23:8, כִּנְעָנֶיחָ “her merchants.” Comp. Zephaniah 1:11; Ezekiel 17:4.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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