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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Exodus 12



Verse 1

the LORD (Hebrew. Jehovah. spake. See note on Exodus 6:10, and compare note on Exodus 3:7.

Verse 2

month. Hebrew name Abib, or "green-ear-month". Becomes the first month, and the fifteenth the ruling date, henceforth. Compare Exodus 13:4; Exodus 23:15. Deuteronomy 16:1. Afterward called Nisan (Nehemiah 2. Esther 3:7). "First", Compare Exodus 40:2, Exodus 40:17. Leviticus 23:5, in place of Tisri, which thus be-came the seventh month.

Verse 3

Israel. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "of the sons of Israel".

man. Hebrew. "ish (App-14.)

lamb. Hebrew. seh, "one of a flock", i.e. a lamb or a " kid, Exodus 12:5. Deuteronomy 14:4. 2 Chronicles 35:7.

house. Fixed later (by custom) as not less than ten persons.

Verse 4

it. Ellipsis to be supplied by "the lamb" from verse preceding (App-6).

souls. Hebrew, plural of nephesh. Verse 15, singular. See App-13.

eating. Hebrew mouth. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, mouth put for what is eaten by it.

lamb. Repeated at beginning of next clause in the Figure of speech Anadiplosis (App-6) for emphasis.

Verse 5

without blemish. Even as "Christ our Passover".

Verse 6

Israel. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "of the sons of Israel".

kill. Hebrew. shahat. See App-43.

in the evening. Hebrew between the two evenings, or, according to Lightfoot, between the decline of the sun (after noon) and its setting.

Verse 9

sodden = boiled.

with = in.

Verse 11

loins girded, i.e. the loose flowing garments fastened up with a belt or girdle, making the men ready for action. Compare Luke 12:35, Luke 12:37; Luke 17:8. Acts 12:8. 1 Kings 18:46. 2 Kings 4:29; 2 Kings 4:9. Ephesians 6:14.

Verse 12

gods, or princes. But see notes on object of the several plagues.

I am the LORD, or I, Jehovah.

Verse 13

blood . . . token. The blood was the token for Jehovah. Faith in the fact that it had been sprinkled gave peace to all within. It was (and is) not the act of faith which secured, but the truth that was believed. If no blood, belief that it was there gave no security. If blood there, doubt as to the fact would destroy peace, but could not destroy the security, because that was grounded on Jehovah"s word, and faith consists in "hearing" that. Romans 10:17. Hebrews 11:1, margin

when I see the blood. Not when you feel, or even believe. So the scarlet cord (Joshua 2:18, Joshua 2:19) was for Joshua to see, not those within the house. Feelings useless apart from faith.

Verse 15

leaven = fermented bread. First occurance. See App-38. until. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch and The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, read "and until".

Verse 16

And. Some Codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch and Syriac, omit.

man. Hebrew. nephesh, soul (App-13). Compare verses: Exodus 12:4, Exodus 12:15, Exodus 12:19.

Verse 20

shall ye eat (repeated). Figure of speech Pleonasm (App-6).

Verse 21

kill the passover. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, "Passover" put for the lamb.

Verse 27

children = sons.

Verse 28

and did. Ten Passovers recorded (see App-10). Exodus 12:28. Numbers 9:5. Joshua 5:10. 2 Chronicles 30:13-15. 2 Kings 23:22 (2 Chronicles 35:1). Ezra 6:19. Matthew 26:17. Luke 2:4. John 2:13; John 6:4.

Verse 29

at midnight. On the fourteenth of Abib. See Exodus 11:4.

smote. Compare Exodus 11:5.

Verse 31

called for, i.e. sent message to.

Verse 32

take your flocks. See note on Exodus 10:25, Exodus 10:26, and Exodus 10:5.

as = according as.

Verse 35

borrowed = asked. See note on Exodus 3:22.

jewels. See note on Exodus 11:2.

Verse 36

lent = gladly gave. Hebrew verb is in the Hiphil mood and = caused them to ask, i.e. the Egyptians pressed them to take.

such things, &c. There is no need for this addition. No Ellipsis in Hebrew

Verse 37

Rameses. City of the Sun. See note on Exodus 1:1. Succoth = booths.

men. Not "ish, males, but Hebrew. geber, with art. = the strong men; or, men of military age. Numbers 14:29. See App-14.

Verse 38

a mixed multitude = Egyptians. Compare Numbers 11:4. Nehemiah 13:3.

even. Some codices, with The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, Septuagint, and Syriac, have this word, "even "in the text.

Verse 39

not leavened. Bread always unleavened when baked in haste. Compare Genesis 18:6.

Verse 40

sojourning. Commenced with Genesis 12. Quite a different subject from the dwelling in Egypt. See App-50.

Israel = Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, by which one man"s name, Israel, is put for his father and grandfather.

who dwelt in Egypt. Figure of speech Epitrechon (App-6). A form of Parenthesis used to further define the People and connect the two parts of their history.

four hundred and thirty years. There are two reckonings of the sojourning: one starting from the" promise "to Abraham, Exodus 12:40. Galatians 1:3, Galatians 1:14, Galatians 1:17-430 years; the other starting from the recognition of his "seed" (Isaac), Genesis 21:12. See Acts 7:6 and =Genesis 15:13400 years. N. B. 450 years to Samuel; 490 to Saul. See App-60

This dwelling in Egypt was only 215 years (see App-60); and is to be distinguished from the "sojourning", which was another 215 years. See note above.

Verse 41

the selfsame day: i.e. the fifteenth day of the seventh month. The years of the solar cycle show that it was the day that Abraham left "Ur of the Chaldees".

Verse 42

much observed. Hebrew. shimmurim, a night of watchings. Occurs only here.

Verse 43

the LORD (Hebrew. Jehovah. said. See note on Exodus 3:7, and compare note on Exodus 6:10.

Verse 44

bought for money. Compare Genesis 17:12, Genesis 17:13.

Verse 46

one house = the same house. Compare Exodus 12:4.

Verse 48

with thee. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, Targum of Onkelos, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "with you".

no uncircumcised person shall eat. Were they circumcised during the three days" darkness, and was the command then given, the word against which they did not rebel? (Psalms 105:28).

Verse 51

armies = hosts.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Exodus 12:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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Monday, June 1st, 2020
the Week of Proper 4 / Ordinary 9
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