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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Exodus 23



Verse 1

raise = utter, or take up. Same as Exodus 20:7.

the wicked = a wicked one. Hebrew. rash " a. App-44.

Verse 2

evil-injury. Hebrew. r"a " a. See App-44.

speak = testify.

decline = "turn away [and follow]". Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6. a).

Verse 3

countenance = prefer, or favour.

Verse 4

ox or his ass. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6, put for any kind of beast of burden.

Verse 5

help. Hebrew. Homonym. "azab two words
"azab = to leave, or forsake.
"azab = to help, or restore (hence strengthen, or fortify).
No. 1 in
Genesis 2:24; Genesis 39:6. Nehemiah 5:10. Psalms 49:10. Malachi 4. But here it should be No. 2 (as in Nehemiah 3:8. Deuteronomy 32:36. 1 Kings 14:10. 2 Kings 14:26. Jeremiah 49:25).

surely help with him. Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6), "helping shalt help him", or, supplying the Ellipsis, "surely help him [to unload]".

Verse 7

wicked = a wicked one. Hebrew. rash " a. App-44.

Verse 8

blindeth . . . perverteth: i.e. causeth these acts, or sins. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6.

wise. Hebrew seeing the most clear-sighted.

Verse 9

heart = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 10

fruits. Hebrew harvest.

Verse 11

and. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint, have this in text; it need not, therefore, be in italics.

Verse 12

refreshed. Hebrew verbal form of nephesh (soul) = quickened, have new life put in, renewed, or revived.

Verse 13

be circumspect = take heed.

make no mention, &c. A command often disobeyed, especially in house of Saul. Compare "Baal", 1 Chronicles 8:33; 1 Chronicles 9:39; 1 Chronicles 12:5; 1 Chronicles 14:7; 1 Chronicles 27:28. Hence the importance of the prophecy as to the future in Hosea 2:16, Hosea 2:17.

Verse 14

Three times. No. of Divine perfection. App-10.

Verse 15

as = according as.

month Abib. See App-51.

appear before Me. This is the current Hebrew text: but this, and ten other passages were altered by the Sopherim (only in the pointing). App-33. The primitive text read (and ought to be) "see My face". They did not know that "face" was used by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6, for the person "Me", and they thought it too anthropomorphitic. See note on Exodus 34:20.

empty = empty-handed.

Verse 17

before = Hebrew "before the face of".

THE Lord God = Hebrew. ha-"adon Jehovah. See App-4.

Verse 18

offer. Hebrew "slay", requiring the supply of the Ellipsis, ii. d (App-8), "slay [and pour out]". See App-43.

sacrifice. Hebrew "feast", put by Metonymy (of Adjunct" for "festal sacrifice" (App-6).

Verse 19

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

mother"s: i.e. in the milk of its dam. Repeated, Exodus 84:26 and Deuteronomy 14:21. For similar consideration compare Deuteronomy 22:6. Leviticus 22:28.

Verse 20

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos (App-6) for emphasis. an angel. It is Elohim speaking, therefore, who can it be but Micha-el? Compare Daniel 10:13, Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1. Jude 1:9; and see Malachi 3:1; Isaiah 63:9.

Verse 21

transgressions = Hebrew. pasha. App-44. My name. Compare Jeremiah 23:26. Colossians 2:9.

the Hivites. Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, Targum of Onkelos, and one early printed edition, read "and the Hivites".

them = the six nations. See App-10.

Verse 24

images = sacred pillars or statues. Exodus 24:4; Exodus 34:13. See note on Ex. 26.

Verse 25

bread, and thy water. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6, put for all kinds of food and drink.

Verse 27

My fear = a terror of me.

Verse 28

hornets. Compare Deuteronomy 7:20. Joshua 24:12.

Verse 31

sea of the Philistines = the Mediterranean or "Great Sea".

from the desert = the desert of Shur.

the river = the Euphrates.

the inhabitants. Some codices, with The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel and one early printed edition, read "all the inhabitants".

Verse 33

sin. Hebrew. chat"a. See App-44.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Exodus 23:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, November 28th, 2020
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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