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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Exodus 23

Verse 1

raise = utter, or take up. Same as Exodus 20:7 .

the wicked = a wicked one. Hebrew. rash ' a. App-44 .

Verse 2

evil-injury . Hebrew. r ' a ' a. See App-44 .

speak = testify.

decline = "turn away [and follow]". Figure of speech Ellipsis ( App-6 . a).

Verse 3

countenance = prefer, or favour.

Verse 4

ox or his ass . Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 , put for any kind of beast of burden.

Verse 5

help . Hebrew. Homonym. 'azab two words (1) 'azab = to leave, or forsake. (2) 'azab = to help, or restore (hence strengthen, or fortify). No. 1 in Genesis 2:24 ; Genesis 39:6 . Nehemiah 5:10 . Psalms 49:10 . Malachi 4:0 . But here it should be No. 2 (as in Nehemiah 3:8 . Deuteronomy 32:36 . 1Ki 14:10 . 2 Kings 14:26 . Jeremiah 49:25 ).

surely help with him . Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ), "helping shalt help him", or, supplying the Ellipsis, " surely help him [to unload]".

Verse 7

wicked = a wicked one. Hebrew. rash ' a. App-44 .

Verse 8

blindeth . . . perverteth : i.e. causeth these acts, or sins. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), App-6 .

wise . Hebrew seeing the most clear-sighted.

Verse 9

heart = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

Verse 10

fruits . Hebrew harvest.

Verse 11

and . Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint, have this in text; it need not, therefore, be in italics.

Verse 12

refreshed . Hebrew verbal form of nephesh (soul) = quickened, have new life put in, renewed, or revived.

Verse 13

be circumspect = take heed.

make no mention , &c. A command often disobeyed, especially in house of Saul. Compare "Baal", 1 Chronicles 8:33 ; 1 Chronicles 9:39 ; 1Ch 12:5 ; 1 Chronicles 14:7 ; 1 Chronicles 27:28 . Hence the importance of the prophecy as to the future in Hosea 2:16 , Hosea 2:17 .

Verse 14

Three times . No. of Divine perfection. App-10 .

Verse 15

as = according as.

month Abib . See App-51 .

appear before Me . This is the current Hebrew text: but this, and ten other passages were altered by the Sopherim (only in the pointing). App-33 . The primitive text read (and ought to be) "see My face". They did not know that "face" was used by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), App-6 , for the person "Me", and they thought it too anthropomorphitic. See note on Exodus 34:20 .

empty = empty-handed.

Verse 17

before = Hebrew "before the face of".

THE Lord God = Hebrew. ha-'adon Jehovah. See App-4 .

Verse 18

offer . Hebrew "slay", requiring the supply of the Ellipsis, ii. d ( App-8 ), "slay [and pour out]". See App-43 .

sacrifice . Hebrew "feast", put by Metonymy (of Adjunct' for "festal sacrifice" ( App-6 ).

Verse 19

the LORD . Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .

God . Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 .

mother's : i.e. in the milk of its dam. Repeated, Exo 84:26 and Deuteronomy 14:21 . For similar consideration compare Deuteronomy 22:6 . Leviticus 22:28 .

Verse 20

Behold . Figure of speech Asterismos ( App-6 ) for emphasis. an angel. It is Elohim speaking, therefore, who can it be but Micha-el? Compare Daniel 10:13 , Daniel 10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 .Jude 1:9 ; and see Malachi 3:1 ; Isaiah 63:9 .

Verse 21

transgressions = Hebrew. pasha. App-44 . My name. Compare Jeremiah 23:26 . Colossians 2:9 .

the Hivites . Some codices, with Samaritan Pentateuch, Targum of Onkelos, and one early printed edition, read "and the Hivites".

them = the six nations. See App-10 .

Verse 24

images = sacred pillars or statues. Exodus 24:4 ; Exodus 34:13 . See note on Exodus 26:0 .

Verse 25

bread , and thy water. Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6 , put for all kinds of food and drink.

Verse 27

My fear = a terror of me.

Verse 28

hornets . Compare Deuteronomy 7:20 . Joshua 24:12 .

Verse 31

sea of the Philistines = the Mediterranean or "Great Sea".

from the desert = the desert of Shur.

the river = the Euphrates.

the inhabitants . Some codices, with The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel and one early printed edition, read "all the inhabitants".

Verse 33

sin . Hebrew. chat'a. See App-44 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Exodus 23". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/exodus-23.html. 1909-1922.