corner graphic   Hi,    
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to

Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
James 4



Other Authors
Verse 1

wars. Greek. polemos. See Matthew 24:6.

and. The texts add "whence".

fightings. Greek. mache. See 2 Corinthians 7:5.

among. App-104.

lusts = pleasures. Greek. hedone. See Titus 3:3.

war. Greek. strateuomai. See 1 Corinthians 9:7.

Verse 2

desire to have = covet earnestly. Greek. zeloo. See Acts 7:9.

cannot = are not (App-105) able to.

obtain. See Romans 11:7.

fight. Greek. machomai. See Acts 7:26.

war. Greek. polemeo. Only here and Revelation 2:16; Revelation 12:7; Revelation 13:4; Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:11. Note the different words for war in these two verses.

because, &c. = on account of (App-104. James 4:2) your not asking.

ask. App-134.

not. App-105.

Verse 3

amiss = with evil intent. Greek. kakos. Compare App-128.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

consume = spend. See Luke 15:14.

upon = in (gratifying). App-104.

Verse 4

Ye adulterers and. The texts omit.

adulteresses. Compare Matthew 12:39. Jeremiah 3:9. Eze 16; Eze 23. Hos 2; &c.

know. App-132.

friendship. Greek. philia. Only here.

world. App-129.

enmity. Greek. echthra. See Romans 8:7.

God. App-98.

will. App-102.

is = is constituted, or constitutes himself, as in James 3:6.

Verse 5

Do ye = ye.

in vain. Greek. kenos. Only here. The adjective occurs frequently.

spirit. App-101.

to. App-104. This can only refer to the general testimony of Scripture that the natural man is prone to selfish desires, leading to envy of others who possess the things desired Compare Genesis 6:5; Genesis 8:21.

Verse 6

more = greater.

grace. App-184. This has reference to the now nature. Compare 1 Corinthians 2:12.

resisteth. Greek. antitassomai. See Acts 18:6.

proud. See Romans 1:30.

unto = to.

humble = lowly. Compare James 1:9. Matthew 11:29. Quoted from Proverbs 3:34.

Verse 8

purify. Greek. hagnizo. See Acts 21:24. Used of Levitical purifying four times. Used here, 1 Peter 1:22. 1 John 3:3, in a spiritual sense.

double minded. See James 1:8.

Verse 9

Be afflicted. Greek. talaiporeo. Only here. Compare James 5:1. Romans 7:24.

laughter. Greek. gelos. Only here.

be turned. See Acts 2:20.

heaviness. Greek. katepheia. Only here. It means casting down the eyes. Compare Luke 18:13.

Verse 10

Humble yourselves. Greek. tapeinoo. See 2 Corinthians 11:7.

LORD. App-98. A (B according to texts).

lift . . . up. Greek. hupsoo. See John 12:32.

Verse 11

Speak . . . evil = Speak against, or backbite. Greek. katalaleo. Only here and 1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 3:16. Compare Romans 1:30. 2 Corinthians 12:20.

one of another = one another.

judgeth. App-122.

if. Greek. ei. App-118.

Verse 12

Lawgiver. Greek. nomothetes. Only here. Compare Romans 9:4. Hebrews 7:11.

destroy. Compare James 1:11 (perish).

another = the other. App-124. The texts read "neighbour", as in James 2:8.

Verse 13

Go to = Come. Greek. age. Imperative mood of ago, used as an adverb. Here and James 5:1.

such a = this.

and. Note the Fig, Polysyndeton. App-6.

continue. Literally make, or do. Compare Acts 20:3. Figure of speech Synecdoche. App-6.

buy and sell = trade. Greek. emporeuomai. Only here and 2 Peter 2:3. Compare Matthew 22:5. John 2:16. This eagerness to travel for trade purposes is a prominent characteristic of the Jew of to-day.

Verse 14

Whereas ye = Such as ye are.

know. App-132.

life. App-170.

It is even = For it is. The texts read "For ye are".

vapour. Greek. atmis. See Acts 2:19.

appeareth. App-106.

vanisheth away. See Acts 13:41.

Verse 15

For that, &c. = Instead of (App-104. ) your saying.

will. App-102.

Verse 16

rejoice = boast. Greek. kauchaomai. See Romans 2:17; Romans 5:2.

boastings. Greek. alazoneia. Only here and 1 John 2:16. Compare Romans 1:30.

rejoicing = boasting. Greek. kauchesis. See Romans 3:27.

evil. App-128.

Verse 17

sin. App-128.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on James 4:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, December 5th, 2020
the First Week of Advent
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology