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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Lamentations 1



Verse 1

How = Alas! or, O how! Hebrew. "eykah = an exclamation of pain and grief, a wailing cry (preserved in Eng. "jackal"). The Massorah (App-30) points out that this exclamation is used by three prophets, concerning Israel:

(1) by Moses in her multiplication (Deuteronomy 1:12. Compare Lamentations 1:11);

(2) by Isaiah in her dissipation (Isaiah 1:21);

(3) by Jeremiah in her desolation (Lamentations 1:1).

This word "How" is to be supplied at the beginning of verses: Lamentations 1:2-3 by Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6). Compare also Lamentations 2:1; Lamentations 4:1; and Isaiah 14:12.

solitary: i.e. empty; referring to the houses and streets.

Verse 2

weepeth sore. Note Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6). The Hebrew = a weeping she weepeth. Thus well rendered. See note on Genesis 26:28; and note the Figure of speech Prosopopoeia (App-6).

lovers: i.e. allies, whom she had preferred to Jehovah. See Jeremiah 2:17, Jeremiah 2:27, Jeremiah 2:36, Jeremiah 2:37; Jeremiah 4:30; Jeremiah 22:22. Eze 23; and Lamentations 29:6, Lamentations 29:7, Lamentations 29:16.

enemies. Especially the Edomites and Ammonites. Compare Jeremiah 12:14.

Verse 3

among the heathen. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:64, Deuteronomy 28:65).

heathen = nations.

persecutors = pursuers.

between the straits. Like a hunted animal driven where there is no escape. Same word as in Psalms 116:3; Psalms 118:5. Occurs only in these three places. Compare Lamentations 1:6.

Verse 4

The ways. Not streets in the city, but the roads leading thereto.

mourn. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia. App-6.

solemn feasts = appointed feasts. See note on Psalms 74:8 (same word).

bitterness = bitter for her. Instead of festal joy, Compare Jeremiah 7:34; Jeremiah 16:9; Jeremiah 25:10; Jeremiah 31:13; Jeremiah 33:11.

Verse 5

are the chiefs are the head. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:13, Deuteronomy 28:44), the same word. App-92.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

children = young children, as in Lamentations 2:11, Lamentations 2:19, Lamentations 2:20, and Lamentations 4:4. Not "sons".

Verse 6

like harts. See note on Lamentations 1:3.

Verse 7

pleasant things. Hebrew = things of desire. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the things she used to enjoy.

sabbaths: or, sabbath-keepings; which she had herself profaned. See Jeremiah 17:21-23. Ezekiel 22:8, Ezekiel 22:26; Ezekiel 23:38,

Verse 8

grievously sinned. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton Hebrew = sinned a sin. Thus well rendered. See note on "weepeth sore" (Lamentations 1:2).

sinned. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

is remove d = separated as unclean.

Verse 9

remernbereth = remembered.

last end = hereafter.

wonderfully. Hebrew, plural "wonders" = a great wonder.

behold = see, behold. Same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:18, Lamentations 1:20. Not the same word as in Lamentations 1:12.

Verse 10

entered into her sanctuary. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 23:3), a technical expression. App-92.

congregation = convocation, or assembly.

Verse 11

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 12

behold = look attentively. Not the same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:9, Lamentations 1:18, Lamentations 1:20.

be = exists. Hebrew. yesh. See Genesis 18:24. Proverbs 8:21; Proverbs 18:24, &c.

sorrow = pain.

done unto me. Compare Lamentations 1:22; Lamentations 3:15.

Verse 14

The yoke, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:48), the same words. App-92.

wreathed = intertwined.

He: or. It: i.e. the yoke.

fall = stumble.

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they changed Jehovah to Adonai. See App-32.

Verse 15

mighty men = valiant ones. Hebrew. "abir. Not the same word as in Lamentations 3:1, Lamentations 3:27, Lamentations 3:35, Lamentations 3:39.

called = proclaimed. Same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:19, Lamentations 1:21.

an assembly = a festal gathering. Now that Israel"s feasts had ceased, there was another of a different nature and with a different object.

winepress. Hebrew. gath, where the grapes were trodden. Not the vat (yekeb) into which the juice was received.

Verse 16

mine eye, mine eye. Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6), for emphasis. It is not repeated in the Septuagint

relieve my soul = bring me back to life. Compare Lamentations 1:19.

children = sons. Not the same word as in Lamentations 2:11, Lamentations 2:19, Lamentations 2:20 and Lamentations 4:4.

Verse 17

Jacob. Referring to the natural seed. See notes on Genesis 32:28; Genesis 43:6; Genesis 45:26, Genesis 45:28. Compare Lamentations 2:1.

Verse 18

is. Hebrew = He [is].

people = peoples.

Verse 19

gave up the ghost = expired, or breathed their last.

Verse 20

Behold. Here begins the prayer.

abroad the sword. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:25).

Verse 21

the day: i.e. the day of vengeance of Jeremiah 25:17-26.

Verse 22

Let all, &c. This prayer is in accordance with that Dispensation. Not with this. See App-63.

wickedness. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

as =. according as.

transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Lamentations 1:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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