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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Lamentations 1

Verse 1

How = Alas! or, O how! Hebrew. 'eykah = an exclamation of pain and grief, a wailing cry (preserved in Eng. " jackal "). The Massorah ( App-30 ) points out that this exclamation is used by three prophets, concerning Israel:

(1) by Moses in her multiplication (Deuteronomy 1:12 . Compare Lamentations 1:11 );

(2) by Isaiah in her dissipation (Isaiah 1:21 );

(3) by Jeremiah in her desolation (Lamentations 1:1 ).

This word "How" is to be supplied at the beginning of verses: Lamentations 1:2-3 by Figure of speech Ellipsis ( App-6 ). Compare also Lamentations 2:1 ; Lamentations 4:1 ; and Isaiah 14:12 .

solitary: i.e. empty; referring to the houses and streets.

Verse 2

weepeth sore. Note Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ). The Hebrew = a weeping she weepeth. Thus well rendered. See note on Genesis 26:28 ; and note the Figure of speech Prosopopoeia ( App-6 ).

lovers: i.e. allies, whom she had preferred to Jehovah. See Jeremiah 2:17 , Jeremiah 2:27 , Jeremiah 2:36 , Jeremiah 2:37 ; Jeremiah 4:30 ; Jeremiah 22:22 .Ezekiel 23:0 ; and Lam 29:6 , Lam 29:7 , Lam 29:16 .

enemies. Especially the Edomites and Ammonites. Compare Jeremiah 12:14 .

Verse 3

among the heathen. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:64 , Deuteronomy 28:65 ).

heathen = nations.

persecutors = pursuers.

between the straits. Like a hunted animal driven where there is no escape. Same word as in Psalms 116:3 ; Psalms 118:5 . Occurs only in these three places. Compare Lamentations 1:6 .

Verse 4

The ways. Not streets in the city, but the roads leading thereto.

mourn. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia. App-6 .

solemn feasts = appointed feasts. See note on Psalms 74:8 (same word).

bitterness = bitter for her. Instead of festal joy, Compare Jeremiah 7:34 ; Jeremiah 16:9 ; Jeremiah 25:10 ; Jeremiah 31:13 ; Jeremiah 33:11 .

Verse 5

are the chiefs are the head. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:13 , Deuteronomy 28:44 ), the same word. App-92 .

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 . transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha' . App-44 .

children = young children, as in Lamentations 2:11 , Lamentations 2:19 , Lamentations 2:20 , and Lamentations 4:4 . Not "sons".

Verse 6

like harts. See note on Lamentations 1:3 .

Verse 7

pleasant things. Hebrew = things of desire. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the things she used to enjoy.

sabbaths: or, sabbath-keepings; which she had herself profaned. See Jeremiah 17:21-23 .Ezekiel 22:8 , Ezekiel 22:26 ; Ezekiel 23:38 ,

Verse 8

grievously sinned. Note the Figure of speech Polyptoton Hebrew = sinned a sin. Thus well rendered. See note on "weepeth sore" (Lamentations 1:2 ).

sinned . Hebrew. chata' . App-44 .

is remove d = separated as unclean.

Verse 9

remernbereth = remembered.

last end = hereafter.

wonderfully. Hebrew, plural "wonders" = a great wonder.

behold = see, behold. Same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:18 , Lamentations 1:20 . Not the same word as in Lamentations 1:12 .

Verse 10

entered into her sanctuary. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 23:3 ), a technical expression. App-92 .

congregation = convocation, or assembly.

Verse 11

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

Verse 12

behold = look attentively. Not the same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:9 , Lamentations 1:18 , Lamentations 1:20 .

be = exists. Hebrew. yesh. See Genesis 18:24 .Proverbs 8:21 ; Proverbs 18:24 , &c.

sorrow = pain.

done unto me. Compare Lamentations 1:22 ; Lamentations 3:15 .

Verse 14

The yoke, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:48 ), the same words. App-92 .

wreathed = intertwined.

He: or. It: i.e. the yoke.

fall = stumble.

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they changed Jehovah to Adonai. See App-32 .

Verse 15

mighty men = valiant ones. Hebrew. 'abir . Not the same word as in Lamentations 3:1 , Lamentations 3:27 , Lamentations 3:35 , Lamentations 3:39 .

called = proclaimed. Same word as in verses: Lamentations 1:19 , Lamentations 1:21 .

an assembly = a festal gathering. Now that Israel's feasts had ceased, there was another of a different nature and with a different object.

winepress. Hebrew. gath, where the grapes were trodden. Not the vat ( yekeb ) into which the juice was received.

Verse 16

mine eye, mine eye. Figure of speech Epizeuxis ( App-6 ), for emphasis. It is not repeated in the Septuagint

relieve my soul = bring me back to life. Compare Lamentations 1:19 .

children = sons. Not the same word as in Lamentations 2:11 , Lamentations 2:19 , Lamentations 2:20 and Lamentations 4:4 .

Verse 17

Jacob. Referring to the natural seed. See notes on Genesis 32:28 ; Genesis 43:6 ; Genesis 45:26 , Genesis 45:28 . Compare Lamentations 2:1 .

Verse 18

is. Hebrew = He [is].

people = peoples.

Verse 19

gave up the ghost = expired, or breathed their last.

Verse 20

Behold. Here begins the prayer.

abroad the sword. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:25 ).

Verse 21

the day: i.e. the day of vengeance of Jeremiah 25:17-26 .

Verse 22

Let all, &c. This prayer is in accordance with that Dispensation. Not with this. See App-63 .

wickedness. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 .

as =. according as.

transgressions = rebellions. Hebrew. pasha'. App-44 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Lamentations 1". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/lamentations-1.html. 1909-1922.