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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Luke 4



Verse 1

Jesus. App-98.

full. Used of pneuma hagion only when without the Art. See App-101., and Acts 6:3; Acts 7:55; Acts 11:24.

the Holy Ghost. No Art. Greek. pneuma hagion, or "power from on high". See above.

from = away from. Greek apo. App-104.

by. Greek en. App-104. Not the same word as in Luke 4:4.

the Spirit. With Art. = the Holy Spirit Himself.

into. Greek. eis. App-104. All the texts read en. The Spirit not only led Him "into" the wilderness but guided Him when there.

the wilderness. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6) thus: "the wilderness, [and was there in the wilderness, ] being tempted", &a

Verse 2

forty. See App-10. Compare Exodus 34:28. Numbers 14:34. 1 Kings 19:8. Read, as in Revised Version, "forty days, being", &c.

tempted = troubled and tried.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104. Not the same word as in verses: Luke 4:14, Luke 4:26.

the devil. Here named because these three temptations came before the three recorded in Mat 4. There it is ho peirazon= "he who was tempting Him". See App-116. in. Greek. en, App-104.

nothing = not (Greek. ou. App-105) anything.

Verse 3

unto = to.

If Thou be, &c. Greek. ei, with Ind. App-118. Assuming the fact. Same word as in Luke 4:9; not the same word as in Luke 4:7.

the Son of God. Referring to Luke 3:22. App-98. this stone; "these stones "in Matthew 4:3. Repeated under different circumstances. App-116.

Verse 4

him = to (Greek. pros. App-104.) him.

It is written = It standeth written. In Deuteronomy 8:3. See App-107. See note on Matthew 4:4.

man Greek anthropos App-123

not. Greek ou. App-105.

by = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

word = saying. Compare Matthew 4:4, and see App-116.

God. Greek Theos. App-98.

Verse 5

taking. Greek. anago = leading. Not paralambano = taking

with. As in Matthew 4:5. See App-116.

the world. Greek. oikoumene. See App-129. Not kosmos, as on a subsequent occasion (Matthew 4:8). See App-116.

in a moment of time. Occurs only here.

Verse 6

power = authority. App-172. In Matthew "these things". See App-116. for that, &c. This was not repeated on the subsequent occasion (Matthew 4:9).

I will. Greek thelo. See App-102.

Verse 7

If thou therefore, &c App-118. The condition hypothetical.

worship me = worship before me. See App-137. See note on "before", Luke 1:6.

Verse 8

Get thee, &c. But the devil did not do so yet. He left of his own accord (Luke 4:12) See App-116. Most of the texts omit this.

it is written, &c. In Deuteronomy 6:13; Deuteronomy 10:20, App-107. the

LORD = Jehovah. App-4and App-98.

Verse 9

brought = led. Greek. ago, not paralambano, as in Matthew 4:5 (on a subsequent occasion). See App-116.

to = unto. Greek eis. App-104.

on. Greek. epi App-104.

pinnacle. See note on Matthew 4:5.

temple. Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16

from hence = hence. In the subsequent temptation (Matthew 4:6) = " down".

Verse 10

it is written. In Psalms 91:11, Psalms 91:12. See App-107.

over = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

to keep. Greek. diaphulasso = thoroughly protect. Occurs only here in N.T.

Verse 11

in = on. Greek. epi. App-104.

against. Greek. pros. App-104.

Verse 12

is said = hath been said, &c. Deuteronomy 6:16.

Verse 13

all = every.

departed. Of his own accord. See note on Matthew 4:10, and App-116.

for a season = until a convenient time. See Matthew 4:11. Returning again and repeating the three temptations in a different order and under different circumstances. See App-116.

Verse 14

power. Greek. dunamis. App-172.

there went out a fame, &c. In Luke (as in the other Gospels) only those events are selected which tend to illustrate the special presentation of the Lord and His ministry. Compare the commencing events of each: Matthew 4:13. Mark 1:14. Mark 4:14-30, and John 1:19-43. For this fourfold ministry, see App-119. Thus this first period commences and its subject, as stated more precisely in verses: Luke 4:43, Luke 4:44.

fame = report. Greek. pheme. Not the same word as in Luke 4:37.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

through. Greek. kata. App-104.

Verse 15

he = He Himself.

synagogues. App-120of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

Verse 16

Nazareth = the (or, that) Nazareth thus defined. Aramaean. See App-94.:36. See App-169.

as His custom was = according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) custom.

on. Greek. en. App-104.

stood up. Being summoned by the superintendent (Luke 4:17). This incident (Luke 4:16-31) is peculiar to Luke.

to read. Greek anaginosko. Later usage = to read aloud (as here, 2 Corinthians 3:15. Colossians 4:16. 1 Thessalonians 5:27). But in the Papyri generally = to read. (See Milligan, Selections, pp 39, 112.) The Lord preached in other synagogues, but read only here in Nazareth, which shows that He owned, and was owned, to be a member of this.

Verse 17

there was delivered, &c. = there was further delivered: i.e. the prophets (the Haphtorah), the second lesson after another had read the Law (the Parashah or first lesson). This delivery was made by the chazan = overseer, or Sheliach tzibbor, angel of the congregation. See Revelation 2:1, Revelation 2:8, Revelation 2:12, Revelation 2:18; Revelation 3:1, Revelation 3:7, Revelation 3:14.

Esaias = Isaiah. For the occurance of his name in the N.T. see App-79.

opened = unrolled. This word and "closed" (Luke 4:20) Occurs only here in the N.T. Compare Nehemiah 8:5.

found the place. Isaiah 61:1, Isaiah 61:2. Doubtless the Haphtorahtorah or second lesson for the day,

it was written = it stood written. See App-107.

Verse 18

The Spirit. The Article is understood, in English. See Luke 4:1.

upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

because = on account of which.

anointed Me. Hence His name "Christ". Compare Acts 10:38.

preach the gospel = announce the glad tidings (see verses: Luke 43:44). See App-121. Note the sevenfold

Prophecy (App-10). poor. App-127.

sent. App-174.

to heal the broken-hearted. All the texts omit this clause.

to preach = to proclaim. See App-121. deliverance. Greek aphesis. Compare Luke 3:3.

to set at liberty . . . bruised = to send away in discharge (en aphesei) the oppressed, or broken. Occurs only here. This is added from Isaiah 58:6, making the quotation "compound". See App-107. This form of reading was allowed and provided for.

Verse 19

the acceptable year = the welcome year. Either the Jubilee year (Leviticus 26:8-17), or on account of the Lord"s ministry commencing then.

Verse 20

closed = rolled up. Compare Luke 4:17. Because it was not yet manifest whether the King and the Kingdom would be received or rejected. See App-72.

the minister = the servant (or "verger "), who put it away. Not the President, who first received it from the servant (Hebrew. chazan) and "delivered "it to the reader.

sat down:i.e. to teach.

were fastened = continued fixed. Almost peculiar to Luke. See Luke 22:56, and ten times in Acts. Elsewhere only in 2 Corinthians 3:7, 2 Corinthians 3:13.

Verse 21

to say unto them, &c. = to say to them that (Greek. hoti) This day, &c. Note the force of "that", and see note on Luke 19:9. Mark 14:30 (where hoti is used), and contrast Luke 22:34, and Matthew 21:28 (where hoti is absent).

unto. Greek. pros. App-104.

this scripture. Not the next clause of Isaiah 61:2, which He did not read. That was then doubtful, and is now postponed.

Verse 22

at. Greek. epi. App-104.

the gracious words = the words of grace. See note on Luke 1:30. Genitive of character, App-17.

out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

Joseph"s Son. See note on Luke 3:23.

Verse 23

surely = doubtless.

proverb = parable. Figure of speech

Paroemia. App-6.

Physician, &c. Peculiar to Luke. See Colossians 4:14

done = being done.

Capernaum. See App-169. First occurance in Luke. Silence there is no proof of ignorance.

also here = here also.

Verse 24

Verily. See note on Matthew 5:18.

No = That no. Greek. hoti oudeis. See note on "say", Luke 4:21.

accepted; or, welcome. As in Luke 4:19.

country. Compare Matthew 13:57 (later).

Verse 25

of a truth = in (as in Luke 4:11) truth.

Elias = Elijah. See 1 Kings 17:1, 1 Kings 17:8, 1 Kings 17:9; 1 Kings 18:1. James 5:17.

the heaven. Singular with Art. See note on Matthew 6:9, Matthew 6:10. Revelation 11:12, Revelation 11:13; Revelation 13:6.

three years and six months. An ominous period. Compare Daniel 12:7. Revelation 11:2, Revelation 11:3; Revelation 13:5; and App-89.

and six months. Not "a Jewish tradition", but a well-known fact. See notes on 1 Kings 17:1 and Luke 18:1.

when, &c. = and there arose.

throughout = over. Greek. epi. App-104.

Verse 26

But = And.

save = but. Used, not in the sense of limitation, but of exclusion, as in Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:16. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6) = "[but he was sent] to Sarepta".

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

Sarepta. Hebrew. Zarephath (1 Kings Luke 17:9), now Surafend, in ruins.

Verse 27

in the time of. Greek. epi. App-104.

Eliseus = Elisha.

Naaman. See 2Ki 5:.

Verse 29

thrust = cast.

out = without, outside.

the brow = an overhanging brow. Greek. ophrus. Occurs only here in N.T. A medical word (compare Colossians 4:14), used of the eyebrows because of their hanging over. At Nazareth it is not beneath, but hangs over the town about forty feet. All the texts omit "the".

that they might, &c. See App-23.

cast Him down headlong. Greek katakremnizo. Occurs only here in N.T., and in the Septuagint only in 2 Chronicles 25:12.

Verse 30

passing through. Doubtless the eyes of the people were holden. See Luke 24:16. Compare John 8:59; John 10:39, John 10:40 (compare Psalms 18:29, Psalms 37:33).

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Luke 4:1.

went His way = went away. Probably never to return.

Verse 31

And, &c. Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) in verses: Luke 4:31-37. Compare Mark 1:21-28.

Capernaum. The second place of His ministry. See the Structure (E2, p. 1442). See App-169.

Galilee. See App-169.

taught = was teaching (i.e. continuously).

Verse 32

astonished. Compare Matthew 7:28.

doctrine = teaching. with. Greek. en. App-104.

power = authority, as in Luke 4:6.

Verse 33

man. Greek anthropos. App-123.

spirit = Greek. pneuma. App-101.

of. Genitive of Apposition. App-17.

unclean. Occurs thirty times, of which twenty-four apply to demons.

devil = demon.

Verse 34

Let us alone = Ah!

what have, &c. See note on 2 Samuel 18:10.

Jesus. Demons and Gadarenes, and His enemies could thus irreverently use this name, but His disciples with true reverence called Him" Master", or "Lord "(John 13:13). to destroy us. Compare James 2:19.

I know, &c. Greek oida. App-132. Note the Singular.

the Holy One of God. Compare Luke 1:35.

Psalms 16:10.

Verse 35

Hold thy peace = Be muzzled, as in 1 Corinthians 9:9. Compare Matthew 22:12, Matthew 22:34. Mark 1:25.

had thrown, &c. Greek rhipto, the medical word for convulsions. Occurs only here, Luke 17:2. Matthew 9:36; Matthew 15:30; Matthew 27:5; and Acts 22:23; Acts 27:19, Acts 27:29.

in = into. Greek. eis. App-104.

out of = away from. Greek. apo. App-104.

hurt. Greek. blapto. A medical word, opposed to opheleo = to benefit. Occurs only here and Mark 16:18.

not = in no possible manner. Greek. meden. Compound of me. App-106.

Verse 36

And they were all amazed = Astonishment came upon (Greek. epi. App-104.) all.

amazed. Greek thambos = astonishment. Peculiar to Luke.

among = to (Greek. pros. App-104.)one another.

What a word is this! What is this word, that? with. Greek. en. App-104.

authority. Same word as power in Luke 4:6.

Verse 37

fame = noise, or ringing in the ears. Greek echos. Not the same word as in Luke 4:14. Occurs only here, Acts 2:2 and Hebrews 12:19. The verb echo occurs in Luke 21:25 and 1 Corinthians 13:1. A medical word (see Colossians 4:14).

Verse 38

And He arose, &c. Compare Matthew 8:14-17. Mark 1:29-34.

arose out of = arose [and went] out of:

taken = pressed, or oppressed. Compare Acts 28:8. Almostpeculiar to Luke, who uses the word nine times; only three times elsewhere, Matthew 24:4. 2 Corinthians 5:14. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:23(being in a strait).

great. Peculiar to Luke, in this connection.

besought. Aorist Tense; implying a single act. Not the Imperfect, as generally used.

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

Verse 39

stood over her. A medical reference. Peculiar to Luke.

rebuked. Peculiar to Luke.

immediately. Greek. parachrema. See Luke 1:64.

Verse 40

when the sun, &c. They waited for the end of the Sabbath. laid His hands, &c. Peculiar to Luke.

Verse 41

crying out = screaming (inarticulately).

saying, Thou = saying that Thou. See note on Luke 4:34.

Christ. All the texts omit this.

Christ = the Messiah. App-98.

Verse 42

And when, &c. Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: Luke 4:42-44. Compare Mark 1:35-39.

sought Him. All the texts read "were" seeking after Him "

unto = up to. Greek. heos.

stayed Him = held Him fast. Greek. katecho. See note on 2 Thessalonians 2:6.

not. Greek. me. App-105.

Verse 43

said . . . I, &c. said. . that I must. See note on verses: Luke 21:24.

the kingdom of God. See App-114.

other = different. See App-124.

for = because. This is the subject of the First Period of His ministry. See Luke 4:14, and App-119.

therefore = for (Greek. eis. App-104.) this.

Verse 44

preached = was proclaiming, as in verses: Luke 4:18, Luke 4:19. Not the same word as in Luke 4:43.

Galilee. See App-169. A Trm WH Rm. read Judaea.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 4:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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Thursday, November 26th, 2020
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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