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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Proverbs 19

 

 

Verse 1

Better. See note on Proverbs 8:11.

the poor = a needy one. Hebrew. rush. See note on Proverbs 6:11. Same as in verses: Proverbs 19:7, Proverbs 19:22; not the same as in verses: Proverbs 19:4, Proverbs 19:17.

he that is. Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6), better supplied thus: "Than [the rich that is] perverse", &c.

lips. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for what is spoken by them.

fool. Hebrew. kesil. See note on Proverbs 1:7. Same word as in verses: Proverbs 19:10, Proverbs 19:13, Proverbs 19:29; not the same as in Proverbs 19:3.


Verse 2

not good. Illustrations: Syrians (1 Kings 20:28); Jews (Isaiah 5:12, Isaiah 5:13); Saul (1 Timothy 1:13. Acts 26:11); People and Priests (Hosea 4:6); Pharisees (Matthew 12:7); Judah (Hosea 6:6); Peter (Matthew 16:22); the rulers (Acts 13:27. 1 Corinthians 2:8); Job (Job 33:8, Job 33:9; Job 34:5, Job 34:9, Job 34:35; Job 35:16; Job 42:3, Job 42:5, Job 42:6); Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 32:31); Peter (Luke 22:33, Luke 22:34).

hasteth, &c. Illustrations: Joshua (Joshua 9:15); Saul (1 Samuel 13:9, 1 Samuel 13:10, 1 Samuel 13:13, 1 Samuel 13:14; 1 Samuel 14:24-45); David (2 Samuel 16:4); the Prophet (1 Kings 13:18, 1 Kings 13:19); Peter (John 18:10).

sinneth. Hebrew. chata App-44.


Verse 3

foolishness. Hebrew. "evil. See note on Proverbs 1:7. Not the same word as in verses: Proverbs 19:1, Proverbs 19:10, Proverbs 19:13, Proverbs 1:29.

man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

perverteth: or subverteth.

fretteth against = is angry with. Illustrations: Adam (Genesis 3:12); Cain (Genesis 4:13, Genesis 4:14); Jehoram (2 Kings 3:10, 2 Kings 3:13; 2 Kings 6:33); Jonah (Jonah 4:1, Jonah 4:4, Jonah 4:9); Israel (Numbers 14:2, Numbers 14:3; Numbers 20:2-5; Numbers 21:4-6. Deuteronomy 9:23, Deuteronomy 9:24).

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.


Verse 4

the poor = a weak one. Hebrew. dal. See note on Proverbs 6:11. Same word as in Proverbs 19:17; not the same word as in verses: Proverbs 19:1, Proverbs 19:7, Proverbs 19:22.


Verse 5

unpunished = acquitted, or held innocent.

speaketh = breatheth forth.


Verse 6

him that giveth gifts. Hebrew a man of gifts = a generous man.


Verse 7

go far = withdraw.

pursueth, &c.: or, seeketh words [of friendship], but there are none.


Verse 8

wisdom. Hebrew "heart", put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the understanding. See note on Proverbs 1:2.

understanding. Hebrew. btnah. See note on Proverbs 1:2.


Verse 9

A false witness, &c. The repetition of Proverbs 19:6 is needed, and punishment is denned.


Verse 10

Delight = Luxury.


Verse 11

deferreth his anger. Illustrations: Joseph (Genesis 40:15); Moses (Num 12); David (1Sa 24; 1 Samuel 26:5, &c.); the Prophet (1 Kings 13:6, &c).


Verse 12

dew = night mist.


Verse 13

is the calamity = is a great trouble to. Hebrew "troubles" (plural) for great trouble. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), put for action of the foolish son which brings it on.


Verse 14

a prudent wife. See Proverbs 18:22.


Verse 16

keepeth = guardeth.

die = die prematurely.


Verse 18

Chasten = Correct, or discipline.

let not, &c. This is not a caution against excess of severity, but against a cruel kindness which ends in death, by withholding seasonable correction.


Verse 19

A man of great wrath = one in a rage (compare Daniel 11:44. Compare 2 Kings 22:13).

shall suffer = suffereth.

suffer punishment = incurreth a penalty. Hebrew. "onesh = a fine, or indemnity. (Oxford Gesenius).

thou deliver = thou rescue him [by paying the penalty] thou must do it continually.


Verse 20

instruction = correction, or discipline.


Verse 21

many devices = many schemes.

Nevertheless, &c. Illustrations: Joseph"s brethren (Genesis 37:19, &c. Compare Psalms 76:10); Pharaoh (Exodus 1:10. Compare Ex. 15); the rulers (Matthew 27:63-66); Saul (Acts 9:1, Acts 9:2. Compare verses: Proverbs 19:3-9, &c.); Herod (Acts 12:1-3. Compare verses: Proverbs 19:5-19); the forty Jews (Acts 23:12-15).


Verse 22

man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14. This word stands in relation to "ish in Proverbs 19:21, and to a poor man in next clause = here, the commonest sort of man, or ordinary man.

is, &c. = is [measured by] his kindness.

better. See note on Proverbs 8:11.

a liar. Hebrew an "ish [a man of the better sort who is] a liar. This proverb does not "remain a riddle".

The structure above is addressed to "My Son" Proverbs 19:27, Proverbs 23:15, Proverbs 23:19, Proverbs 23:26; Proverbs 24:13, Proverbs 24:21); and is all in the Second Person: "THOU" (Proverbs 19:20; Proverbs 22:24, Proverbs 22:25, Proverbs 22:26, Proverbs 22:27; Proverbs 23:1, Proverbs 23:5, Proverbs 23:6, Proverbs 23:13, Proverbs 23:14, Proverbs 23:19, Proverbs 23:31, Proverbs 23:34; Proverbs 24:1, Proverbs 24:10, Proverbs 24:11, Proverbs 24:12); "THEE" (Proverbs 22:19, Proverbs 22:20, Proverbs 22:21, Proverbs 22:27; Proverbs 23:7); "THY" (Proverbs 22:18; Proverbs 23:16, Proverbs 23:22, Proverbs 23:25; Proverbs 24:10, Proverbs 24:27, Proverbs 24:34); "THINE" (Proverbs 23:12, Proverbs 23:15, Proverbs 23:17, Proverbs 23:18, Proverbs 23:19, Proverbs 23:33); "THYSELF" (Proverbs 24:27).


Verse 23

The fear of the LORD. See note on Proverbs 1:7.

life. Hebrew, plural implying resurrection and eternal life.

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.


Verse 24

bosom = bowl or wide dish. 2 Kings 21:13. Compare Matthew 26:23.


Verse 25

scorner = scoffer.

will beware = will be made wise (note the force of the Hiphil). Illustrations: Israel (Exodus 14:31); the stubborn (Deuteronomy 21:21); Gibeonites (Joshua 9:3); Sergius Paulus (Acts 13:6-12).

reprove = set right.

and he will understand knowledge = will cause teaching to be discerned. Compare Proverbs 22:17.


Verse 26

wasteth = preyeth upon.


Verse 27

my son. The presence of this word here and in Proverbs 23:15, Proverbs 23:19, Proverbs 23:26; Proverbs 24:13, Proverbs 24:21, together with the employment of the second person, shows that these are proverbs for Solomon. See note under Structure above.

words = sayings. Hebrew. imrah. App-73.


Verse 28

An ungodly witness. Hebrew "A witness of Belial": i.e. a false witness.

mouth. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6, for the witness given by it.

the wicked = lawless ones. Hebrew. rasha". App-44.

 


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Proverbs 19:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/proverbs-19.html. 1909-1922.

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, November 18th, 2019
the Week of Proper 28 / Ordinary 33
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