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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Proverbs 20

 

 

Verse 1

Wine. Hebrew. yayin. See App-27.

is. Figure of speech Metaphor. App-6.

mocker = scoffer.

strong drink. Hebrew. shekar. App-27. IV

raging = a brawler.

is deceived = erreth. Hebrew. shagah = to go astray. See note on Proverbs 11:18. Not the same word as in Proverbs 20:17.

is not wise. Illustrations: Noah (Genesis 7:1. Compare Proverbs 9:20, Proverbs 9:21); Nabal (1 Samuel 25:36); Elah (1 Kings 16:8-10); Ben-hadad (1 Kings 20:16-21); Ephraim (Isaiah 28:7); Belshazzar, &c. (Dan 5. Jeremiah 51:39, Jeremiah 51:57); Nineveh (Nahum 1:10); and probably Nadab and Abihu (Leviticus 10:8, Leviticus 10:9),


Verse 2

sinneth = erreth. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.


Verse 3

to cease from strife. Illustrations: Abraham (Genesis 13:7-9. Compare Proverbs 17:14); David (1 Samuel 25:32-34).

fool. Hebrew. "evil. See note on Proverbs 1:7.

meddling = breaking out. See notes on Proverbs 17:14; Proverbs 18:1. The only other occurrences of gala". Not the same word as in Proverbs 20:19.


Verse 4

plow. Plowing always done during the early rains.

cold = autumn. Put by Figure of speech Metalepsis, "cold" put for Autumn, and "Autumn" put for abundance of fruits possessed at that time.

Therefore. This word is read in the text in some codices, with five early printed editions.


Verse 6

men. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.

every one. Hebrew. "Ish "ish. App-14.

his own goodness. Illustrations: Absalom (2 Samuel 15:4); Jehu (2 Kings 10:16, 2 Kings 10:31); Scribes, &c. (Matthew 6:2; Matthew 23:5); the rich young man (Matthew 19:20, Matthew 19:22).


Verse 7

children = sons.

blessed = happy. See note on Proverbs 3:13.


Verse 8

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.


Verse 9

can = is able to.

I am pure, &c. Illustrations: Job before he learned his lesson (Job 9:17; Job 10:7; Job 11:4; Job 16:17; Job 23:10, Job 23:11; Job 27:5; Job 29:14; Job 31:1; Compare Proverbs 33:9. But not after, See Proverbs 42:5, Proverbs 42:6). None of God"s own people say this. Not David. (2 Samuel 12:13. Compare Psalms 51:1-7); not Psalmist (Proverbs 119:176); not Ezra (Ezra 9:6); not Nehemiah (Nehemiah 9:33, Nehemiah 9:34); not Isaiah (Isaiah 6:5, Isaiah 6:6); not Daniel (Daniel 9:8); not Peter (Luke 5:8); not John (1 John 1:8); not James (James 3:2); not Paul (Romans 7:18. 1 Timothy 1:15).


Verse 10

weights . . . measures. Hebrew "a stone and a stone, an ephah and an ephah". Ephah put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Species), App-6, for all kinds of weights and measures. There is no word for "divers" = diverse.

abomination, &c. Compare Proverbs 20:23, and Proverbs 11:1; Proverbs 16:11, &c. See note on Proverbs 3:32, and compare Deuteronomy 25:13, &c.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.


Verse 11

pure = accurate.

right = correct.


Verse 12

hearing ear, &c. Illustrations: Moses (Exodus 4:11); Hagar (Genesis 21:19); Elisha"s servant (2 Kings 6:17); Lydia (Acts 16:14).


Verse 13

come to poverty = become dispossessed. Hebrew. yarash. See note on Proverbs 6:11.


Verse 14

naught . . . naught = very bad. Figure of speech Epizeuxis (App-6), for emphasis.


Verse 16

stranger = apostate. Hebrew. zur. See notes on Proverbs 2:16; Proverbs 5:3.

pledge of him. Supply Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6), "[Who has become security for] a foreign woman. "

strange woman = foreign woman. Hebrew. nakar. See notes on Proverbs 2:16; Proverbs 5:3.


Verse 17

Bread of deceit = Bread gained by deceit. Genitive of Origin. See App-17(2).

Bread. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for all kinds of food.

deceit = lying. Hebrew. sheker. See note on Proverbs 11:18.

filled with gravel: or grit. See note on Genesis 3:14, implying utmost disappointment. See App-19.


Verse 19

meddle = mingle, mix thyself up. Not the same word as in Proverbs 20:3.

lips. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause) for the flattery spoken by them.


Verse 20

curseth = revileth.

lamp shall be put out. A Figure of speech Hypocatastasis (App-6), denoting that he shall die childless.


Verse 21

blessed = happy. See note on Proverbs 3:13.


Verse 22

on = for.


Verse 23

abomination, &c. See note on Proverbs 3:32.


Verse 24

Man"s = A strong man"s. Hebrew. geber. App-14.

man = an ordinary man. Hebrew. "adam. App-14.


Verse 25

devoureth = rashly promises.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.


Verse 26

scattereth = winnoweth out.

wicked = lawless. Hebrew. rasha".

the wheel: i.e. of the threshing instrument. Compare Isaiah 28:27.


Verse 27

spirit = breath. Hebrew. neshamah. See App-16.

candle = lamp or light. Same word as in Proverbs 20:20.

the belly. Put by Figure of speech Metalepsis (App-6) for the heart, and the heart for its thoughts.


Verse 28

Mercy = lovingkindness, grace, or favour.


Verse 30

cleanseth away = is cleansing. Supply the Ellipsis (App-6), "[though it be] an evil".

evil. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

belly. Supply the Ellipsis from preceding clause, "[though they be an evil]"

 


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Proverbs 20:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/proverbs-20.html. 1909-1922.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, November 22nd, 2019
the Week of Proper 28 / Ordinary 33
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