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the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .
the rivers of water. Hebrew. palgey mayim = the divisions of water [in a garden], from palag, to divide (Genesis 10:25 ). The name given to the small channels which divide up an Eastern (walled) garden for purposes of irrigation. See note on "rivers", Psalms 1:3 . There is an Ellipsis in the second clause, and the verb must be supplied thus: The king's heart [is] in the hand of Jehovah, As the palgey mayim [are in the hand of the gardener]. See App-74 .
He turneth, &c. i.e. Jehovah directeth [the king's heart] whithersoever He will [as the gardener directeth the water with his foot] (Deuteronomy 11:10 ), not needing or deigning to use a tool; so easily is it done. Illustrations: Ahab (1 Kings 18:10 . Compare Pro 21:40 ); Ahasuerus (Esther 6:1 ); Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:27 , 2 Kings 19:28 , and Isaiah 10:5-7 ); Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 29:16 . Jeremiah 43:10-12 ); the Jews (Jeremiah 32:28 . 2 Kings 24:3 ); Cyrus (Ezra 1:1 .Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 45:1 ); Darius (Ezra 6:22 ); Augustus (Luke 2:1-7 . Compare Micah 5:2 ).
man. Hebrew. 'ish . App-14 .
pondereth = weigheth, and thus testeth. See all the occurrences of takan, to poise, 1 Samuel 2:3 . 2 Kings 12:11 ("told"). Job 28:25 .Psalms 75:3 (bear up). Proverbs 16:2 ; Proverbs 21:2 (pondereth); Proverbs 24:12 (pondereth). Isaiah 40:12 (meted), Isaiah 40:13 (directed). In Ezekiel the Niphal is rendered "equal": Pro 18:25 , Pro 18:29 ; Pro 18:33 .
justice = righteousness.
more acceptable, &c. Illustrations: Saul (1 Samuel 13:10-13 ; 1 Samuel 15:22 ); Israel (Jeremiah 7:22 , Jeremiah 7:23 .Amos 5:21-24; Amos 5:21-24 ); Judah (Isaiah 1:11-17 ); Pharisees (Matthew 9:13 ). Note the contrast, Proverbs 21:4 .
And. Omit this "And".
plowing: or tillage. See App-74 .
the wicked = lawless ones. Hebrew. rasha'. App-44 .
sin. Hebrew. chata'. App-44 . The special word for the sin offering. Render the verse "A lofty look and a proud heart, [which is] the tillage of the lawless, [is more acceptable to them than] the sin offering. "This supply of the Ellipsis ( App-6 .) from the preceding verse completes the sense, and shows that the two are strictly related.
thoughts = reckonings, or calculatings.
the diligent = a diligent one.
robbery = rapacity. Illustrations: the princes of Judah (Isaiah 1:23 , Isaiah 1:24 ); the Jews (Jeremiah 7:9-11 , Jeremiah 7:15 ; Jeremiah 34:10-22 .Micah 3:9-12; Micah 3:9-12 ).
The way, &c. Render, "The way of a man laden with guilt is unsteady". Some codices, with Aramaean and Syriac, read "of a man who is an alien".
pure = upright.
better. See note on Proverbs 8:11 .
the wicked = a lawless one.
scorner = scoffer.
instructed = corrected.
wickedness. Hebrew. ra a'. App-44 . same as "evil" in Proverbs 21:10 .
poor = weak. Hebrew. dal. See note on Proverbs 6:11 .
heard = answered. Illustrations: the Jews (Zechariah 7:9-14 .Jeremiah 34:10-22; Jeremiah 34:10-22 ); Parable (Matthew 18:30-34 ).
the just = a just one.
man. Hebrew. 'adam. App-14 .
congregation = assembly.
dead = the Rephaim, who have no resurrection. See note on "deceased" and "dead" in Isaiah 26:14 , Isaiah 26:19 , and App-25 .
poor = destitute. Heb heser. See note on Proverbs 6:11 .
wine. Hebrew. yayin. App-27 .
the righteous = a righteous one.
transgressor = traitor.
Than, &c. Supply the Ellipsis thus: Than [in a house, or palace].
foolish. Hebrew. kesil. See note on Proverbs 1:7 .
spendeth it up = swalloweth it up.
mercy = lovingkindness, or grace.
casteth down. Illustrations: Joshua (Joshua 6:3-21 ; Joshua 8:4-8 ); wise woman (2 Samuel 20:16-22 . Compare Ecclesiastes 9:13-15 ).
keepeth = guardeth.
mouth . . . tongue. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for what is uttered by them.
troubles. Some codices, with five early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "trouble" (singular)
coveteth greedily = craving he craveth. Figure of speech Polyptoton , for emphasis.
mind = purpose.
shall perish. Illustrations: Pashur(Jeremiah 20:4-6 ); Hananiah (Jeremiah 28:1-4 , Jeremiah 28:10-17 ); the false prophets (Jeremiah 29:21 ); Shemaiah (Jeremiah 29:31 , Jeremiah 29:32 ); Amaziah (Amos 7:10-17 ).
speaketh. Supply the Ellipsis ( App-6 ), "speaketh [the truth] evermore. "
no wisdom . . . against the LORD. Illustrations: Pharaoh (Exodus 1:10 . See App-23 ); Balak (Numbers 24:10 ); Ahaziah (2 Kings 1:9-17 ); Sennacherib (2 Chronicles 32:21 ; Isaiah 30:31 ); Haman (Esther 5:11-13 ; Esther 7:10 ).
safety, &c. = to Jehovah [belongeth] the salvation.
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Proverbs 21". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 13 / Ordinary 18