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Bible Commentaries

Clarke's Commentary

Ezekiel 38

Verse 1

with terror the whole frame of nature, 17-23.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVIII

Verse 2

Verse Ezekiel 38:2. Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog — This is allowed to be the most difficult prophecy in the Old Testament. It is difficult to us, because we know not the king nor people intended by it: but I am satisfied they were well known by these names in the time that the prophet wrote.

I have already remarked in the introduction Ezekiel 1:1 to this book that there are but two opinions on this subject that appear to be at all probable:

1. That which makes GOG Cambyses, king of Persia; and,

2. That which makes him ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, king of Syria.

And between these two (for one or other is supposed to be the person intended) men are much divided.

Calmet, one of the most judicious commentators that ever wrote on the Bible, declares for Cambyses; and supports his opinion, in opposition to all others, by many arguments.

Mr. Mede supposes the Americans are meant who were originally colonies of the Scythians, who were descendants of Magog, son of Japheth. Houbigant declares for the Scythians, whose neighbours were the people of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, that is the Russians, Muscovites, and Tybareni or Cappadocians. Several eminent critics espouse this opinion. Rabbi David Kimchi says the Christians and Turks are meant: and of later opinions there are several, founded in the ocean of conjecture. Calmet says expressly, that GOG is Cambyses, king of Persia, who on his return from the land of Egypt, died in Judea. The Rev. David Martin, pastor of the Waloon church at Utrecht, concludes, after examining all previous opinions, that Antiochus Epiphanes, the great enemy of the Israelites, is alone intended here; and that Gog, which signifies covered, is an allusion to the well-known character of Antiochus, whom historians describe as an artful, cunning, and dissembling man. See Daniel 8:23; Daniel 8:25; Daniel 11:23; Daniel 11:27; Daniel 11:32. Magog he supposes to mean the country of Syria. Of this opinion the following quotation from Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. v., c. 23, seems a proof; who, speaking of Coele-Syria, says: Coele habet Apamiam Marsyia amne divisam a Nazarinorum Tetrarchia. Bambycem quam alio nomine Hierapolis vocatur, Syris vero Magog. "Coele-Syria has Apamia separated from the tetrarchy of the Nazarenes by the river Marsyia; and Bambyce, otherwise called Hierapolis; but by the Syrians, MAGOG."

I shall at present examine the text by this latter opinion.

Chief prince of Meshech and Tubal — These probably mean the auxiliary forces, over whom Antiochus was supreme; they were the Muscovites and Cappadocians.

Verse 4

Verse Ezekiel 38:4. I will turn thee back — Thy enterprise shall fail.

Verse 5

Verse Ezekiel 38:5. Persia — That a part of this country was tributary to Antiochus, see 1Macc 3:31.

Ethiopia, and Libya — That these were auxiliaries of Antiochus is evident from Daniel 11:43: "The Libyans and Ethiopians shall be at his steps."

Verse 6

Verse Ezekiel 38:6. Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah — The Cimmerians and Turcomanians, and other northern nations.-Calmet.

Verse 8

Verse Ezekiel 38:8. In the latter years thou shalt come — This was fulfilled about four hundred years after.-Martin. The expedition of Cambyses against Egypt was about twelve years after the return of the Jews from Babylon.-Calmet.

Verse 9

Verse Ezekiel 38:9. Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm — It is observable that Antiochus is thus spoken of by Daniel, Daniel 11:40: The king of the north - Antiochus, shall come against him (the king of the south is the king of Egypt) like a whirlwind.

Verse 10

Verse Ezekiel 38:10. Shall things come into thy mind, and thou shalt think an evil thought — Antiochus purposed to invade and destroy Egypt, as well as Judea; see Daniel 11:31-32; Daniel 11:36. This Calmet interprets of Cambyses, his cruelties in Egypt, and his evil design to destroy the Israelites.

Verse 12

Verse Ezekiel 38:12. To take a spoil - and a prey — When Antiochus took Jerusalem he gave the pillage of it to his soldiers, and spoiled the temple of its riches, which were immense. See Joseph. WAR, B. i. c. 1.

Verse 13

Verse Ezekiel 38:13. Sheba, and Dedan — The Arabians, anciently great plunderers; and Tarshish, the inhabitants of the famous isle of Tartessus, the most noted merchants of the time. They are here represented as coming to Antiochus before he undertook the expedition, and bargaining for the spoils of the Jews. Art thou come to take a spoil, to carry away silver and gold, cattle and goods?

Verse 16

Verse Ezekiel 38:16. When I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog — By the defeat of his troops under Lysias, his general. 1Mac 3:32, 33, &c., and Ezekiel 6:6.

Verse 17

Verse Ezekiel 38:17. Art thou he of whom I have spoken in old time — This prophecy concerning Antiochus and the Jews was delievered about four hundred years before the events took place. - Martin. Calmet maintains that Cambyses is spoken of, and refers to ancient prophecies, especially Isaiah 14:0, Isaiah 15:0, Isaiah 20:0, Isaiah 21:0.

Verse 21

Verse Ezekiel 38:21. I will call for a sword against him — Meaning Judas Maccabeus, who defeated his army under Lysias, making a horrible carnage. - Martin. Cambyses had no wars in the mountains of Israel.

Verse 22

Verse Ezekiel 38:22. Great hailstones, fire, and brimstone. — These are probably figurative expressions, to signify that the whole tide of the war should be against him, and that his defeat and slaughter should be great. Abp. Newcome supposes all the above prophecy remains yet to be fulfilled. Where such eminent scribes are divided, who shall decide!

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Ezekiel 38". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/acc/ezekiel-38.html. 1832.