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Bible Commentaries
Philippians 1

Carroll's Interpretation of the English BibleCarroll's Biblical Interpretation

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Verses 1-30

XXIII

THE ANALYSIS AND EXPOSITION

Philippians 1:1-30.

ANALYSIS
1. The opening salutation (Philippians 1:1-2). Note: "Bishops and deacons" and the bearing on the doctrine of church officers, comparing 1 Timothy 3:1-13.


2. The thanksgiving (Philippians 1:3-7). In this Thanksgiving, note: (a) What constitutes "fellowship in the furtherance of the gospel," and how it makes the helpers "partakers of the grace." (b) The meaning of "The day of Jesus Christ." (c) The meaning of "The good work begun in us," and contrast with the work done for us. (d) God’s perfecting the work begun in us until that day, and compare 1 Thessalonians 5:23.


3. The prayer (Philippians 1:8-11).


4. The account of his state in prison (Philippians 1:12-30). In this account, note: (1) The word of God is not bound. The chains on Paul are wings to his gospel, (a) Many soldiers of the Praetorian Guard to whom, in turn, Paul was chained thus hear and are saved, who never otherwise would have heard (Philippians 4:22). (b) Each saved soldier tells the news to his comrades. (c) His friends, who left the work to Paul free, take up the work for Paul bound, (d) Some Judaizing Christians, stirred by the opportunity of his bonds to press their view of the gospel, preach through strife some truth of Christ. (2) The meaning of these expressions: (1) "Set for the defense of the gospel." (2) "Christ magnified by life or death." (3) "The supply of the Spirit of Christ." (4) "To live is Christ – to die is gain." (5) "The strait betwixt two," (6) "I know that I shall abide" – how?


5. Exhortation – part 1 (Philippians 1:27-2:4), Note the expressions: (1) "In nothing affrighted by the adversaries." (2) The double "token" in Philippians 1:28, comparing 2 Thessalonians 1:5. (3) "Granted to suffer."


6. The great example of our Lord, and the doctrines involved concerning his deity, original glory, voluntary renunciation, humiliation, sacrifice, exaltation and restoration to glory, Philippians 2:5-11. Note: (a) Meaning of "form of God." (b) Meaning of "counted not equality with God a thing to be grasped." (c) Meaning of "emptied himself."


7. Exhortation – part II (Philippians 2:12-18). Note: (1) The salvation in us compared with the salvation out of us, or regeneration and sanctification over against expiation and justification. (2) Concerning the internal salvation that we work out what God works in, but concerning the external salvation we put on what Christ worked out (Philippians 3:12; Philippians 3:14). (3) "Lights in the world." (4) "Holding forth the word of life." (5) "The libation on the sacrifice" (Philippians 2:17).


8. Concerning Timothy (Philippians 2:19-24).


9. Concerning Epaphroditus (Philippians 2:25-30).


10. Exhortation – concluded (Philippians 2:1).


11. Concision of the flesh vs. circumcision of the spirit, or the enemies of the cross of Christ (Philippians 3:2; Philippians 3:18-19). See John 3:6-7; Galatians 4:22-31; Galatians 5:6-24; Romans 7:5-15; Colossians 2:11-23.


12. The doctrine of justification, negatively and positively (Philippians 3:4-9). ’Note: "The excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord."


13. The doctrine of sanctification and how attained (Philippians 3:10-14; Philippians 2:12-13). Note: (1) The meaning of "attain unto the resurrection from the dead." (2) The meaning of "laying hold on all for which Christ laid hold on me." (3) "Forgetting things behind and stretching forward to things before." (4) “The high calling” (5) “The goal.” (6) “The prize.”


14. The doctrine of the glorification of the body (Philippians 3:21). See 1 John 3:2 and 1 Corinthians 15:35-49, for the dead, and 1 Corinthians 15:50-54, for the living.


15. Citizenship in heaven as contrasted with the Philippian citizenship in Rome (Philippians 3:20) and compare Ephesians 2:19 as contrasted with citizenship in Jerusalem.


16. Paul’s joy and crown (Philippians 4:1). See 1 Thessalonians 2:19-20.


17. Women to the front for strife or work (Philippians 4:2-3).


18. The Yoke-fellow (Philippians 4:3).


19. The book of life (Philippians 4:3).


20. "Rejoice always – rejoice" (Philippians 4:4).


21. "The Lord is at hand." What does it mean? (Philippians 4:4) and compare James 5:8-9.


22. The great recipe for happiness (Philippians 4:6-9).


23. A great Christian sacrifice and its effect (Philippians 4:10-18).


24. Benediction and closing salutation (Philippians 4:20-23). Note: Caesar’s household.

EXPOSITION

Address and opening salutation (Philippians 1:1-2) – Paul associates Timothy with himself in addressing this letter, because Timothy, having been associated with him in the establishment of the church, had their welfare at heart, as they had good reason to know, and because he purposes to send him as a forerunner of his own coming (Philippians 2:19-23). There is here no assertion of his apostolic claims, as in some other letters, because at Philippi these had never been questioned, but he assumes for himself and Timothy only the title of "bondservants of Jesus Christ." The letter is addressed to all the saints in the city, and only inclusively to the "bishops and deacons." It is significant that in no other letter are the church officers included in the address. As the centuries pass church officers grow in importance and the church declines. This text has always been regarded as a proof that in apostolic churches there were only two officers – bishop and deacon – particularly when reinforced by the stronger proof in 1 Timothy 3:1-13 where in the most formal way the qualifications of church officers are set forth. We contort, therefore, in this address four doctrines of ecclesiology, namely:


1. The particular church is more important than the officers, including them, and retaining jurisdiction over them, and indeed capable of existence without them.


2. While apostles, prophets, and evangelists are set in the church, for kingdom purposes, the only officers charged with local duties in a particular church are two.


3. There are no grades in the ministry notwithstanding the later innovations of the Roman, Greek, and English hierarchies. Note: The reader should study Lightfoot’s argument on this point in his "Commentary on Philippians."


4. There was here, as in other churches, a plurality of bishops the meaning of which deserves special consideration. All of these doctrines are important, and ecclesiastical history clearly shows how most harmful innovations gradually destroyed the simplicity of the New Testament teaching on the church. Baptists and Presbyterians unite in contesting the Romanist, Greek, English, and the Methodist orders in the ministry, and then differ from each other on the distinction between teaching and ruling elders. Just here the author would commend to the reader the Doctrine of the Church, as set forth in his discussion of "Distinctive Baptist Principles."


But briefly now note that in Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28 "the elders of the church" at Ephesus are also called "bishops." They are not distinct offices or grades in the ministry. A preacher may be called a kerux, "herald," on account of his business to proclaim the gospel. He may be calledpresbuteros, "elder," to indicate his official position in the church. He may be called episcopos, "bishop," to note his overseeing or ruling the work of the church. He may be called “pastor” or “shepherd,” to denote his duties of leading, feeding and defending the flock. He may be called "ambassador" (though this term more particularly refers to apostles) to denote that he represents Christ, in declaring the terms of reconciliation with God. It is certain that these terms do not teach different orders in the ministry.


On the plurality of elders or bishops in a single church we may note these passages: (1) In the Jerusalem church (Acts 11:30; Acts 15:6; Acts 15:22-23; Acts 21:18). (2) In the Ephesus church (Acts 20:17 and 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Timothy 5:19). (3) In the Philippian church (Philippians 1:1). (4) In other churches (Acts 14:23). Several questions here arise:


1. What is the office of elder? Is he a preacher? The answer is clear that he is a preacher. The Presbyterians, relying on 1 Timothy 5:17, make a distinction between "teaching elders" who are preachers and "ruling elders" who constitute a "governing board" in every church. And on the term, "elder" (Greek presbuteros), they base their whole system of federal government. The passage in Timothy must be put to hard service to warrant such vast conclusions. Paul has been discussing the pensioning of certain aged widows whose services had been signal for the cause, and then adds that elders who had been good bishops (rulers) should receive double compensation, particularly if they had been equally serviceable in teaching and preaching. In other words, he is discussing the duty of the church to care for its superannuated workers, whether widows or preachers, according to the value of their past public services. It is an undue straining of his words to interpret two distinct classes of elders. We fairly meet all the meaning of all the passages when we say that wherever a church was organized, all who had the recognized call to preach were ordained, whether one or a score. Of course some one of these preachers would be selected as pastor of the congregation, but all the preachers in the church would help in the work, each according to his gifts, in teaching, preaching, and overseeing the work of the church.


Many Baptist churches of today, particularly in cities, have in their membership a plurality of these elders. Of course only one can be officially pastor. Mr. Spurgeon, however, had an "official board of elders" in his church. And others have thought that such ought to be the rule in our churches, if for no other reason, to sidetrack a ruling board of deacons, who ought to be restricted to their care of the temporalities of the church.


The Thanksgiving (Philippians 1:3-7) – This thanksgiving is remarkable for its use of the terms, "all," "always," and "every," and bears very high testimony to this exceptional church. He thanks God upon "all" his remembrance of them, being able to recall nothing bad about them, and "always" in "every prayer" for them – every prayer being one of joy, on account of one thing.


We do well to consider that ground of exceptional thanksgiving. It was "their fellowship with him in the furtherance of the gospel" by which they "became partakers of the grace." He refers to their continuous help toward him ever since he led them to Christ. Other churches might be ungrateful – they never were. Others might fail to see that whoever helped the preacher had an investment in all his work of which they could not be robbed. They preached through Paul, and shared his glory and reward. What a lesson here to those who are not preachers. The idea came from our Lord himself: "Whoever receiveth a prophet shall have a prophet’s reward," and is thus admirably expressed by John in regard to Gaius: "Beloved, thou doest a faithful work in whatsoever thou doest toward them that are brethren and strangers withal; who bare witness to thy love before the church: whom thou wilt do well to set forward on their journey worthily of God: because that for the sake of the Name they went forth, taking nothing of the Gentiles. We therefore ought to welcome such, that we may be fellowworkers for the truth." Gaius and Diotrephes represent the missionary and the antimissionary of apostolic times.


In this glorious way all members of the church may become missionary preachers. See for other examples the women who helped our Lord, and those who helped Paul (Romans 16:1-4). See Paul’s extension of this thanksgiving thought in Philippians 4:10; Philippians 4:14-18. The next thought in the thanksgiving is the time when these fellow helpers partake of the apostolic grace and reap the fruition of their sacrifices. He says, "In the day of Jesus Christ." This is the day of his final advent when he rewards all his saints for their good works. See 1 Corinthians 3:11-15; Revelation 22:12; Luke 6:23; Mark 9:41.


This good work of the Philippians originated in God’s grace, who not only began it in them, but will perfect it by fruition of reward in the day of Christ. Note the meaning of "began a good work in you." I regret that this exposition of the passage robs me of one of my early sermons, and it may so rob you. The idea is not that what he begins he will continue to the end, but what he originates that will he crown with perfection in the reward of the judgment. While the primary reference here is that God whose grace began this good work of helping the missionary will put the crown of perfection on it when he rewards his people, yet it may be applied to any other work of grace in the heart. It will not be a broken unfinished column – a stream lost in the desert. What God commences he completes. Let us particularly note the preposition, "until." It should be rendered "at" as in 1 Thessalonians 5:23. The idea is not of continuing until a given time, but perfecting and crowning at a given time, i.e., the day of Jesus Christ.


We will now look at his prayer. In chapter Philippians 1:8-11, we get a real continuance. He now prays that all these graces in their hearts may be continued and bound. That is what he prays for, that their love may become more fervent. We pray the right thing for a Christian when we pray for his growth in grace; when we pray for an expansion of his love; when we pray for an enlargement of his horizons. If he lives low down in the valley, let us take him on the wings of our prayer to the top of the mountain and let him see what a big world it is, and keep himself from narrow thoughts and a narrow life. That is the substance of his prayer.


The fourth point of the analysis is the account of his state in prison. He tells them, first of all, and it is a glorious thing, that men may put a chain on Paul, but they can’t chain his love and his faith and his hope. They may bind him and confine him, but they can’t put chains on the gospel. The shackles become wings to the gospel. It tends to the furtherance of the gospel, just as the blood of the martyr becomes the seed of the church.


This was accomplished in this way: The emperor’s guard, called the Praetorian Guard, had charge of the state prisoners, and one sentinel every day (and perhaps two) was chained to Paul – Paul’s right hand to the sentinal’s left hand. Where Paul walked he walked; whatever Paul said he heard; whomsoever Paul received he saw, and to whatever was said he was a listener. I have sometimes thought that it would be a good thing if there was some way of chaining up some other people I know to make them hear the word of God. They never will come any other way.


Some of these soldiers were saved, and they told their comrades. Then his friends, looking at him, the great missionary to the Gentiles, held in bondage, unable to go about, thinking of Spain and other ends of the world and of revisiting the churches that he had established – these, friends of his who left the work for him to do when free – are now stirred up to take hold themselves when Paul is bound.


Then there were some enemies of his – Christians too, Judaizing members of these Roman churches – stirred by the opportunity of his bonds, who now press their views of the gospel. As if -they said, "When Paul was free we had no chance to give our views, but Paul is tied now, and this is our chance to present our side of it," and they did present their side of it, preaching some truth. We had the most signal example that ever came before the world, I think, here in Texas. We remember the strife that was stirred up, and I am quite sure that these people are doing harder work now than they ever did when they were in Convention. They feel a responsibility on them to make good their claim, and I rejoice, for most of them are good people, strangely misled on some points, but as Paul said, "I rejoice that Christ is preached."

QUESTIONS

1. Give an analysis of the letter.

2. Why does Paul associate Timothy with him in the address?

3. What four doctrines of ecclesiology are involved in the address?

4. Prove that "elder" and "bishop" are not two distinct offices, but express different ideas of the one office.

5. Give three examples of New Testament churches having a plurality of elders or bishops, and one general passage expressing the custom.

6. Cite several names applied to the preacher expressing, not different orders in the ministry, but different ideas of one office.

7. Upon what issue do Baptists and Presbyterians unite against Romanist, Greek, English, and Methodist denominations?

8. On what passage do Presbyterians rely to prove a distinction between "teaching elders" and "ruling elders," and how do you expound the passage so as to rebut their contention?

9. What noted Baptist preacher had in his church a board of "ruling elders"?

10. When the apostles "ordained elders in every church" how do you prove that these were all preachers, and not a board of ruling laymen?

11. What other denominations besides the Presbyterians have boards of "ruling elders" who are not preachers?

12. What the one great ground of Paul’s thanksgiving in this letter?

13. What do you understand the passage to mean? Cite a parallel passage from John.

14. What is meant by "partakers of the grace"? Cite a parallel passage from our Lord.

15. When is this partaking realized, and what is meant by "the day of Jesus Christ"?

16. Rob yourselves of a big sermon by expounding "He who began a good work in you will perfect it at the day of Jesus Christ," and cite a parallel passage to prove that "until" should be "at," and other scriptures to prove that rewards of Christians are bestowed at that time.

17. In giving an account of his prison state, show how the apostle proves that his bonds gave wings to the gospel.

Verses 2-5

XXIV

GOD’S PROVIDENCE IN PAUL’S LIFE

Philippians 1:2-2:5.

In the account of his prison condition (Philippians 1:12-30) there are some expressions that need explanation. He says, "They, knowing that I am set for the defense of the gospel . . ." – and he was. Whoever touched the fringe of the doctrine of the gospel of Jesus Christ to destroy it or to make light of it had Paul to fight. All over the world the spirit of Paul as a stalwart soldier stood between the pure, simple gospel of Jesus Christ and a Judaizing tendency that would have made Christianity merely a Jewish sect, and in the same way he stood against every other error. He loved the gospel. Every promise of it was dear to him and every doctrine was sacred. He would not yield the width of a hair on a principle. "Set for the defense of the gospel." I know some who are set, but they are not set for the defense of the gospel. They are set in favor of every loose view of doctrine and polity.


Then his assurance of escaping death at this time: "For I know that this shall turn out to my salvation . . . And having this confidence, I know that I shall abide, yea, and abide with you all." This is not hope nor conjecture, but positive knowledge through inward assurance of the Holy Spirit as in Acts 20:23: "The Holy Spirit testifieth unto me in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions abide me." See another case of the reception of positive spiritual knowledge in Acts 27:22-25. Indeed, he expressly says that the means of his preservation are their prayers and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ.


The context here seems to demand that "salvation," (Greek, soteria) as in some other instances, (see the Greek of Acts 27:34) means bodily preservation or salvation from physical death. The "supply of the Spirit" means that overruling power exercised by the Spirit which wards off impendiny peril as in Acts 18:9-10;. 2 Corinthians 1:9-10. Mark that here the Holy Spirit is called the "Spirit of Christ" because he is Christ’s alter ego – other self – as in John 14:18: "I will not leave you orphans; I will come unto you," and yet this coming was in the Holy Spirit, whom Jesus, as well as the Father, sent as his vicar when he ascended to heaven. See John 15:26.


This case of the efficacy of the Philippian prayers, instrumentally averting Paul’s death at this time, should sink deep into our hearts. They prayed that Paul might escape death. The supply of the Spirit comes as the means through which deliverance is effected. Seneca and Burrus, Nero’s advisers and delegates in examining State prisoners, are unconscious of supernatural interposition, and yet in his own strange way, the Holy Spirit brings it about that Paul is acquitted at this time.


Not that Paul’s death at that time would have frustrated the glory of his Lord, for he himself testified that Christ would be magnified by either his life or death, nor that extension of life to Paul would be a favor, for to him personally death would be a gain and life a continued crucifixion, but that his life just yet would be for the progress of the gospel and the confirmation of the saints.


Looking at the alternatives – "To live is Christ, to die is gain" – Paul personally was in "a strait betwixt the two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ, which is far better for me: nevertheless to abide in the flesh is more needful for you." His own desire for rest and glory was to find gratification in death, which was but a door opening into heaven and the presence of the Lord, whereas to live was to go on suffering like his Lord. But when he saw that his living meant good to the cause, he unselfishly renounced the pleasure of death.


This is not the first time in his history of his suffering that for the sake of others he welcomed the pain of living. In the second letter to the Corinthians he says, "For we know that if the earthly house of our tabernacle be dissolved, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal, in the heavens. For verily in this we groan, longing to be clothed upon with our habitation which is from heaven. . . . For indeed we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened; not for that we would be unclothed, but that we would be clothed upon, that what is mortal may be swallowed up of life. . . . Being therefore always of good courage, and knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord (for we walk by faith, not by sight); we are of good courage, I say, and are willing rather to be absent from the body, and be at home with the Lord" (2 Corinthians 5:1-2; 2 Corinthians 5:4; 2 Corinthians 5:6-9).


Exhortation, part I, (Philippians 1:27-2:4). – This first part of the exhortation is directed to one great end: "Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ." The common version renders it "conversation" instead of "manner of life." The author greatly prefers a more literal rendering than either: "Live your citizen life," otherwise we miss the delicate allusion to the Roman citizenship enjoyed by the Philippian colony, and the higher allusion to Christian citizenship in the New Jerusalem. This harmonizes the passage with the context (Philippians 3:20): "For our citizenship is in heaven, etc.," and puts it in line with the great passage in Ephesians 2:11-19, which treats of the "fellowcitizens with the saints."


It is related of S. S. Prentiss that just after he had electrified the nation by his great speech before Congress in the contest for his seat in that body, in which he emphasized the thought that to deny him his seat was to disfranchise Mississippi and rob it of its most glorious heritage, he was invited by ardent admirers to deliver an address in New York City, on which occasion his only theme was his first words – "Fellow Citizens." Earth never heard a greater oration, and every man in the audience was lifted to a conception of American citizenship high as the shining stars. The sonorous roll of his magical voice in the mere prolonged pronunciation of the oft repeated word "Fellow Citizens" was compared to the archangel’s trumpet. He was greater than Cicero against Verres, who declared that earth’s highest honor was to be able to say, "I am a Roman citizen" and earth’s meanest tyrant and greatest robber was one who arbitrarily stripped an accused man of that privilege.


In Acts we see Paul himself, at this very Philippi, and again at Jerusalem (Acts 16:37-38; Acts 22:25), terrify his persecutors by his claim of Roman citizenship. All this goes to emphasize his one great exhortation: "Live your citizen life worthy of the gospel, whether I come to see you or be absent." He then shows just how the exhortation may be carried out:


1. "Stand fast in one Spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of [i.e., the truth of] the gospel." This is an exhortation to unity so marvelously elaborated in Ephesians 4:1-6: "I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord beseech you to walk worthily of the calling wherewith ye were called, with all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love; giving diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as also ye were called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in all."


2. "In nothing terrified by your adversaries." The exhortation is most timely because the Philippian Christians were persecuted at this time as Paul had been when with them. Indeed, they commenced their Christian life in a fiery furnace which had never cooled. We see Paul’s glorious tribute to them in a previous letter: "Moreover, brethren, we make known to you the grace of God which hath been given in the churches of Macedonia; how that in much proof of affliction the abundance of their joy, and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches of their liberality. For according to their power, I bear witness, yea, and beyond their power, they gave of their own accord, beseeching us with much entreaty in regard of this grace and the fellowship in the ministering to the saints: and this, not as we had hoped) but first they gave their own selves to the Lord, and to us through the will of God" (2 Corinthians 8:1-5). To encourage them to follow the exhortation he assigns three reasons:


1. The infliction of the persecution was a token of the damnation of their persecutors.


2. Their endurance of the persecution was a God-given token of their salvation, echoing the beatitudes of our Lord: "Blessed are they that have been persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye when men shall reproach you, and persecute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake. Rejoice and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets that were before you" (Matthew 5:10-12).


3. This suffering therefore in behalf of Christ was a special privilege granted to favored saints. They had seen Paul endure the same conflict, and elsewhere he thus enumerates and glories in his afflictions: "Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as one beside himself) I more; in labors more abundantly, in prisons more abundantly in stripes above measure, in deaths oft. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one. Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and a day have I been in the deep; in journeyings often, in perils of rivers, in perils of robbers, in perils from my countrymen, in perils from the Gentiles, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren; in labor and travail, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness. Besides those things that are without, there is that which presseth upon me daily, anxiety for all the churches. Who is weak, and I am not weak? who is caused to stumble, and I burn not? If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things that concern my weakness" (2 Corinthians 11:23-30); and, "And he hath said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my power is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my weaknesses, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. Wherefore I take pleasure in weaknesses, in injuries, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses, for Christ’s sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong" (2 Corinthians 12:9-10).


He then clinches the exhortation to unity and unselfishness by five other mighty considerations: (1) "If there be any comfort in Christ, (2) if there be any consolation of love, (3) if there be any fellowship of the Spirit, (4) if there be any tender mercies and compassions, (5) if you wish to fulfil my Joy, then seek after this unity, without faction, or vainglory, and in lowliness of mind." This method of hypothetical statement has all the force of positive affirmation having no suggestion of doubt.


He then advances to a sixth reason grander than all the others – the example of our Lord: "Let this mind be in you which was also in our Lord Jesus Christ." Indeed, "If any man have not the Spirit of the Lord he is none of his."

QUESTIONS

1. Explain "set for the defense of the gospel."

2. How did Paul know that he would escape death as a result of his first Roman imprisonment, and what other examples of this knowledge?

3. What is the meaning of "salvation" (Greek, Soteria) in this passage, and what other example of similar use of this word?

4. What is meant by "the supply of the Spirit" through which he would escape, and what other instances?

5. Why is the Holy Spirit called "the Spirit of Christ"?

6. To what, instrumentally, is this supply of the Spirit granted, and what the value of the lesson?

7. Who at this time were Nero’s advisers and delegates in examining prisoners of state?

8. Were they conscious of supernatural intervention in their acquittal of Paul?

9. Why would not Paul’s death at this time frustrate the glory of Christ, why was not the extension of his life a personal favor to him, and why then was he spared at this time?

10. Explain Paul’s "strait betwixt two," why was the decision to live unselfish on his part, and what other instance of his life similar to this?

11. What the one great end of his exhortation in Philippians 1:27-2:4?

12. Give the rendering of the passage in both common and revised versions, and why is the author’s suggestion a better rendering?

13. Cite a passage of similar meaning in Ephesians.

14. Relate the incident of S. S. Prentiss and of Cicero, illustrating.

15. In what two incidents is Paul an illustration?

16. How does he suggest the carrying out of his exhortation?

17. Show the timeliness of the exhortation.

18. Show from another letter Paul’s tribute to their endurance of afflictions, and where do we find his statement of his own case illustrating what he here enjoins?

19. What three encouragements does he give to enforce his exhortation?

20. In what other letter does he similarly use the word "token"?

21. How does he clinch his exhortation?

22. What is a sixth and greater reason?

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Philippians 1". "Carroll's Interpretation of the English Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bhc/philippians-1.html.
 
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