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under the sun. See note on Ecclesiastes 1:3 .
side. Hebrew "hand": put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for the violence proceeding from it.
they: i.e. the oppressed. The phrase repeated for emphasis. Figure of speech Epistrophe. App-6 .
praised = commended, or pronounced happy. Hebrew. sliabach, used only by David and Solomon.
better. See note on Ecclesiastes 2:24 .
travail = toil, as connected with trouble, sorrow. Not the same word as in Ecclesiastes 1:13 ; Ecclesiastes 2:23 , Ecclesiastes 2:26 ; Ecclesiastes 3:10 ; Ecclesiastes 4:8 ; Ecclesiastes 5:14 .
every right work = all the dexterity in work.
man. Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .
vexation, &c. = feeding on wind. See note on Ecclesiastes 1:14 .
spirit. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .
fool. Hebrew. kesil, fat, inert. See note on Proverbs 1:7 .
child = son.
labour = toil.
my soul = myself.
travail = fatigue from toil. See note on Ecclesiastes 2:23 , Ecclesiastes 2:26 .
prevail against = overpower. Hebrew. takaph, supposed to belong to later Hebrew, but it is found in Job 14:20 with Job 15:24 (the only three occurrences). See App-76 .
a threefold cord. Compare Numbers 6:24-26 . Micah 6:8 . Titus 2:12 , Titus 2:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:3 with 1 Thessalonians 1:9 , 1 Thessalonians 1:10 .
poor = straitened in means, not able to profit others. Hebrew. misken. Not the same as in Ecclesiastes 4:14 . Supposed to be a later Hebrew word, but a derivative of it is found in Deuteronomy 8:9 . See App-76 .
out of prison, &c. Compare Joseph (Genesis 41:40 ); Daniel (Daniel 5:29 ; Daniel 6:1-3 ).
born, &c. Compare Rehoboam, robbed by Shishak (1 Kings 14:25-28 ).
poor = needy, in want. Hebrew. rush. See note on "poverty", Proverbs 6:11 .Proverbs 6:16; Proverbs 6:16
vexation. The same word as in Ecclesiastes 1:17 ; Ecclesiastes 2:22 .
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Ecclesiastes 4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28