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Bible Commentaries
Hosea 1

Bullinger's Companion Bible NotesBullinger's Companion Notes

Verse 1

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

Hosea. Hebrew. Hoshe'a' = Salvation.

Beeri. Jewish tradition identifies Be'eri with Be'erah, of Reuben (1 Chronicles 5:6 ). Christian tradition makes Hosea of Issachar. Both names are symbolical, like the other names in this hook. This clause not "evidently inserted by a later hand", as alleged.

Uzziah. See note on p. 1208.

Jeroboam: i.e. Jeroboam II, the last king hut one of the house of Jehu. See note on 2 Kings 10:30 ; 2 Kings 14:23-29 . This carries us hack to the first fourteen years of Uzziah's long reign. See notes on p. 1208, for the significance of Jeroboam ' s name here.

Verse 2

The beginning, &c. This may be understood not merely of Hosea ' sprophecies, but as referring to the fact that Hosea was the first (canonically) of fifteen prophets included in the Hebrew canon. See App-77 .

by = in, as in Numbers 12:6 , Numbers 12:8 . Habakkuk 2:1 .Zechariah 1:9 , i.e. through.

a wife of whoredoms: i.e. a woman of the northern kingdom, and therefore regarded as an idolatress.

whoredoms = idolatries. The one term is used for the other by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Subject), App-6 , because both were characterized by unfaithfulness; the former to a husband, and the latter to Jehovah, Who sustained that relation to Israel (Jeremiah 31:32 ). Compare 2 Kings 9:22 . 2 Chronicles 21:13 .Jeremiah 3:2 .Ezekiel 16:17-35 ; Ezekiel 20:30 ; Ezekiel 23:3 , Ezekiel 23:7 , Ezekiel 23:43 .Nahum 3:4 . See Hosea 4:2 , Hosea 4:12 ; Hosea 5:3 , Hosea 5:4 ; Hosea 6:10 ; Hosea 7:4 , &c.

and = and [beget].

children = offspring. Hebrew. yalad. The mother is symbolical of the kingdom, and the offspring of the people.

for the land, &c. Note this reason (Hosea 1:4-9 ) above): which explains what is meant by, and gives the interpretation of, "whoredoms". Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 34:16 . Leviticus 17:7 ; Leviticus 20:5 .Numbers 15:39 . Deuteronomy 31:16 ). App-92 .

land. Hebrew. 'eretz = earth. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Whole), App-6 , for the land of Israel. Rendered "land" in Hosea 4:1 . Compare Joel 1:2 , &c.

departing, &c. Compare Hosea 4:10 ; Hosea 7:8 ; Hosea 8:11 , Hosea 8:14 ; Hosea 10:1 ; Hosea 12:14 ; Hosea 13:9 .

from = from after.

Verse 3

Gomer = completion (i.e. the filling up the measure of idolatry).

Diblaim = a double cake of figs, symbolical of sensual pleasure.

Verse 4

Jezreel. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ) between Israel (Hosea 1:1 ) and Jezreel (Hebrew. Yisra'el and Yizr! eel). The name is prophetic of coming judgment (see Hosea 1:5 ) and future mercy. Jezreel is a Homonym, having two meanings: (1) may GOD scatter (Jeremiah 31:10 ); and (2) may GOD sow (Zechariah 10:9 ). These bind up the two prophetic announcements. Jezreel, the fruitful field, had been defiled with blood ( 2Ki 9:16 , 2 Kings 9:25 , 2 Kings 9:33 ; 2 Kings 10:11 , 2 Kings 10:14 ), and Israel shall be scattered, and sown among the nations; but, when God's counsels are ripe, Israel shall be resown in their own land (See Hosea 2:22 , Hosea 2:23 ).

a little while. See the fulfillment in Hosea 10:14 .

will avenge = shall have visited.

blood = blood-guiltiness.

Jezreel. Here, it is used of the valley where the blood was shed.

the house of Jehu. Jehu had carried out the judgment of God on the house of Ahab, because it accorded with his own will; but he was guilty of murder, because it was not executed purely according to the will of God. He would have disobeyed if it had not served his own interest. This is seen from the fact that he practiced Jeroboam's idolatries, for which Ahab had been judged.

cause to cease, &c. This was fulfilled in 611 B.C. ( App-50 .) See 2 Kings 18:11 .

Verse 5

at that day: i.e. the day of 2 Kings 18:11 .

bow. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Adjunct), App-6 , for the armies of Israel.

Verse 6

God. Supply "Jehovah" from the preceding verses.

Lo-ruhamah = not compassionated. Rendered "not beloved" in Romans 9:25 , and "not having obtained mercy" in 1 Peter 2:10 . These latter are the Holy Spirit's Divine interpretation of His own prophecy.

take them away. Supply the Ellipsis, "take away [the kingdom which belongs] to them".

them. Hebrew. lahe m = to them.

Verse 7

Judah. Hosea 1:7 is not an "interpolation", but is a definite and distinctive contrast with the prophecy concerning Israel.

by the LORD their God = by (Jehovah their Elohim: i.e. the Messiah, or the angel of Jehovah. See 2 Kings 19:35 . But it looks forward to the future fulfillment, which will exhaust the prophecy in the destruction of Antichrist (Isaiah 11:4 . 2 Thessalonians 2:8 , &c).

Verse 9

Lo-ammi = Not My people.

I will not be your God = I am not "I am" to you.

your = to you. Hebrew. lakem.

Verse 10

In the Hebrew text, Hos 2 commences here.

the number, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 22:17 ; Genesis 32:12 ).

children = sons. Not fulfilled in any other People, now, but will yet be, in the future, of Israel.

as the sand, &c. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6 . See note on Hosea 13:16 .

cannot be measured, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 23:10 ).

it shall come to pass, &c. Hosea 1:10 is not "in glaring contradiction" to Hosea 1:9 , but it marks the contrast between the latter (and yet future state), and the past. See the Structure, p. 1209.

ye are not My People = No People of Mine are ye. Hebrew. Lo-'ammi 'attem. Quoted in Romans 9:25 , not of the Gentiles, but as an illustration of what may be true in their case as it will he in Israel's. In 1 Peter 2:10 the address is to the Diaspora : i.e. the "scattered strangers" of Israel, who are now afar off". Compare Daniel 9:7 . Acts 2:32 .

the living GOD. Always used in contrast with false gods, which have no life. Compare 1 Thessalonians 1:9 , &c.

Verse 11

be gathered together = be gathered out. See Isaiah 11:12 , Isaiah 11:13 .Jeremiah 3:18 . Ezekiel 37:16-24 .

one head. Zerubbabel was only a typical anticipation, for under him only Judah returned. This refers to a future reunion (Jeremiah 23:5 , Jeremiah 23:6 . Ezekiel 34:23 ).

one. Hebrew. 'echad. See note on Deuteronomy 6:4 .

the land. Supply the Ellipsis: "the land [of their dispersion ]. "

Jezreel. Here used in the sense: "GOD will sow". See note on Hosea 1:4 ; and Compare Hosea 2:23 . Referring to the day of Israel's restoration as being "life from the dead" (Romans 11:15 ). Compare Jeremiah 24:6 ; Jeremiah 31:28 ; Jeremiah 32:41 .Amos 9:15 .

Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hosea 1". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/hosea-1.html. 1909-1922.
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