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Bible Commentaries
Ruth 4

Bullinger's Companion Bible NotesBullinger's Companion Notes

Verse 1

the kinsman. Hebrew. Goel = the next of kin, who has the right of redemption. See notes on Exodus 6:6 , and Exodus 13:13 .

Verse 3

country = fields.

a parcel of land = the parcel of the field.

Verse 4

before the inhabitants = in the presence of such as are seated here.

redeem. Hebrew. ga'al, to redeem by purchase. See Exodus 6:6 , and Compare Rth 13:13 .

thou. Hebrew text has "he". But a special various reading called Sevir ( App-34 ), and some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "thou", which the Authorized Version seems to have followed.

Verse 7

a man. Hebrew. 'ish . App-14 . A custom that grew up outside the Law.

Verse 8

drew = plucked.

Verse 10

from the gate = from the people of his city, "gate" being put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part) for the people wont to assemble there. App-6 .

Verse 11

be famous = proclaim a name.

Verse 12

Pharez. Compare Genesis 38:29 . Genesis 38:1 Cbron. Ruth 2:4 .Matthew 1:3 .

Verse 13

bare a son. In the second jubilee year (1325-1324).

Verse 18

these are the generations. The thirteenth occurrence, out of fourteen given in the Bible. The last in O.T. See note on p. 1.

Pharez . The son of Judah. See App-29 . Gen 38:39 . 1 Chronicles 2:4 .Matthew 1:3 .Luke 3:33 . See the diagram for Ruth 4:21 .

Verse 19

Hezron. Compare Genesis 46:12 ,

Ram. Compare 1 Chronicles 2:9 .

Verse 20

Nahshon. Prince of Israel in the wilderness (1 Chronicles 2:10 ). Compare Numbers 1:7 ; Numbers 7:12 ; Numbers 10:14 .

Salmon. Married Rahab (Matthew 1:5 ). Nephew of Aaron.

Verse 21

Boaz. Married Ruth. Compare Ruth 4:13 .


Judah = Thamar











Elisheba Nahshons



(nephew of Aaron, m. Rahab)



(married Ruth)







NOTE ON "THE GENERATIONS OF PHAREZ". If Salmon married Rahab in the year of the entry into the land (1451 B.C.); and the birth of David was in 990 B.C.; then, according to the above Table of Generations, the period of 461 years is covered by only four lives; namely Salmon, Boaz, Obed, and Jesse.

The inference therefore seems clear that, as in a Royal line it is not necessary to include every link (as it is in the case of an ordinary man), certain names are omitted in this pedigree, in order that "the generations of Pharez "may be reckoned as ten generations, to accord with the principle which we observe from Adam to Zedekiah (namely, Adam to Noah, ten; Shem to Abraham, ten; Solomon to Zedekiah twice ten). So here Pharez to David is given in ten generations. We see the same principle at work in other Tables of our LORD'S ancestry, names are omitted in order to make uniform reckonings.

For example, in Matthew 1:1-17 we have three counts of "fourteen generations"; see notes there. In Matthew 1:1 , we have the whole given in two links (David and Abraham). Ruth herself is omitted in Ruth 4:17 , above.

Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Ruth 4". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/ruth-4.html. 1909-1922.
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