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The Pss. in this book, as in that which follows, are mostly of comparatively late date, and suitable for use in the worship of the sanctuary.
The two books seem to have been conjoined at one time, and to have formed the third great division of the Psalter. In the 17 Pss. of Book 4 several smaller groups or collections are to be distinguished. Psalms 93, 95-100 are called the ’theocratic’ Pss., because they celebrate God as King, finding in the restoration of Israel from Babylon the evidence of His rule over the world. These Pss. are probably to be dated soon after that event, when it was still the one thought in men’s minds. Psalms 90, 91, 94, 102 probably belong to the exile, as their language suggests such a time of national humiliation and sorrow. Psalms 103, 104 go together, and are probably by one author, who belonged to the period of the return. Psalms 105, 106 form a pair of about the same date. The whole book is ’Jehovistic’ in its use of the divine name.
The Pss. of the fourth book may be classified thus, the divisions necessarily overlapping one another: (a) Penitential Psalms 90, 91, 94, 102; (b) Pss. of Thanksgiving, 92, 93, 95-100, 103-106; (c) National Psalms , 94, 97, 99, 102, 105, 106; (d) Historical Psalms , 105, 106; (e) a Gnomic Psalms , 101.
Most of the Pss. in this book are anonymous, but Psalms 101, 103 are ascribed by their titles to David. LXX, however, also gives as Davidic Psalms 91, 93-99, 101, 103, 104.
There are definite references to the Temple worship in several of these Pss., indicating that the sacred bunding was restored to permit of the sacrifices being offered and public worship performed. The musical service was rendered with instrumental accompaniments (Psalms 98:5-6); the people were called upon to join in praise (Psalms 95:1; Psalms 96:1; Psalms 98:1, Psalms 98:4) and kneel in prayer (Psalms 95:6); offerings were to be made in the courts of he Temple (Psalms 96:8).
The Messianic hope appears in this book in the form of an expectation of Jehovah’s coming in judgment. This was strengthened, if not wholly suggested, by the restoration from captivity, in which the pious Israelites saw the beginning of that coming. The people were led to look for a still greater day when their enemies would be finally overthrown, and the faith of those, who had trusted in God would be completely justified (see Psalms 96-98).
As Psalms 105 gives thanks for God’s goodness, so Psalms 106 confesses Israel’s sin and acknowledges God’s mercy, both being illustrated in an historical retrospect from the deliverance from Egypt down to the return from captivity: cp. Psalms 78; Ezekiel 20.
1. See on Psalms 100:5.
7. Provoked him] RV ’were rebellious.’ So in Psalms 106:33, Psalms 106:43.
8. For his name’s sake] see Ezekiel 20:14.
26. Lifted up his hand] sware. To overthrow] RV ’that he would overthrow.’ So in Psalms 106:27.
28. See Numbers 25:2; Hosea 9:10. The dead] the lifeless heathen gods.
29. Inventions] RV ’doings.’ So in Psalms 106:39.
32. Strife] RV ’Meribah’: see Psalms 95:8.
34. Nations] RV ’peoples.’ Concerning whom] RV ’as.’
35. Were mingled] RV ’mingled themselves.’ Heathen] RV ’nations.’ So in Psalms 106:41, Psalms 106:47.
37. Devils] RV ’demons’: see Deuteronomy 32:17.
46. Implies the return from captivity.
48. This doxology concludes Book 4 of the Psalter, but appears at the same time to have been an original part of Psalms 106. Let all the people say, etc.] A direction to guide the people in worship. 1 Chronicles 16:36 shows how it was carried out.
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Dummelow, John. "Commentary on Psalms 106". "Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Fourth Week after Epiphany