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Bible Commentaries

Dr. Constable's Expository Notes

Acts

- Acts

by Thomas Constable

Introduction

TITLE

The title "Acts of the Apostles" is very ancient. The Anti-Marcionite Prologue to the Gospel of Luke (A.D. 150-180) contains the oldest reference to the book by this name. The title is a bit misleading, however, because the book contains only a few of the acts of some of the apostles, primarily Peter and Paul. The book is more a story of the extension of the church from Jerusalem to Rome than it is a complete history of the apostles’ acts. Whereas Jesus is the chief character in the Gospels, the Holy Spirit working through the apostles is in Acts.

WRITER

Two lines of argument lead to the conclusion that Luke, the friend, fellow missionary, and physician of Paul wrote this book, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. First, there is the internal evidence, the passages written in the first person plural that can refer to Luke (Act_16:10-40; Act_20:5 to Act_21:18; Act_27:1 to Act_28:16). Second, we have external evidence indicating that Luke wrote Acts. This evidence includes references by early church fathers, [Note: E.g., Irenaeus, c. 180 A.D.] comments in collections of New Testament books, [Note: E.g., the Muratorian Canon, second century A.D. See Documents of the Christian Church, pp. 28-29, for an English translation of the text.] and editorial statements in early notes on certain New Testament books. [Note: E.g., the Anti-Marcionite Prologue to the Gospel of Luke, second century A.D. See T. W. Manson, Studies in the Gospels and Epistles, p. 49, for an English translation.] Luke’s name does not appear in Acts, but it is a shortened Greek form of a Latin name-either Lucanus, Lucianus, Lucius, or Lucillus.

DATE AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION

The date of composition was probably in the early sixties, A.D. 60-62. In view of his emphases, Luke probably would have mentioned several important events had they occurred by the time he wrote. These include the Neronian persecution of Christians that began in A.D. 64, Paul’s death in A.D. 68, and the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.

We do not know for sure where Luke was when he wrote Acts. Perhaps he composed it over a period of years, drawing on various sources, and then put it into its final form in Rome where Paul was in confinement for two years (Act_28:30-31; A.D. 60-62).

"Fortunately the intelligibility and value of the book are largely independent of a knowledge of the precise situation in which it was written. While the finer points of the interpretation of Acts can still cause intense discussion among scholars, the essential themes of the book are basically clear and simple." [Note: I. Howard Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 49.]

SCOPE

The events recorded in Acts cover a period of about 30 years beginning with the Lord Jesus’ ascension in A.D. 33 to Paul’s two-year Roman house arrest that ended about A.D. 62. [Note: See Appendix 1 at the end of these notes for a table of Paul’s activities.] The Delphic Inscription and several references in Josephus, plus one in Suetonius, enable us to identify key dates in Acts. [Note: See Darrell L. Bock, Acts, p. 30, for a chart of these.]

GENRE

Most scholars believe that Acts fits within the literary classification of ancient history. The Greek word praxeis, "acts," identifies a specific genre or subgenre in the ancient world: narratives of the heroic deeds of individuals or cities. However, it was not the name of a technical genre as such. [Note: Donald A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament, pp. 285, 300-01.] Acts bears all the marks of a book of ancient history. Luke was on a par with other writiers of ancient history in his day regarding his skill and methods. [Note: Ibid., pp. 316-21.]

PURPOSE

There seems to have been a three-fold purpose for the writing of Acts. As with the other books of the Bible that record history in narrative form, certainly the Holy Spirit had a historical purpose. [Note: William Barclay, The Acts of the Apostles, p. xvii.] He intended to provide an inspired record of selected events that show the spread of the gospel and the church. They branched out from Jerusalem, the center of Judaism where the church began, to Rome, the uttermost part of the Gentile earth in Luke’s day.

"Streeter suggested that an alternative title for the book of Acts might be ’The Road to Rome’, for this is indeed the significance of Luke’s work. Whatever minor motifs Luke had in mind, such as the establishment of Christianity in men’s minds as a constructive and not destructive element in the social order, his main concern was to show that, in God’s plan for the renewal of the life of mankind, Jerusalem, the heart of old Israel, was the goal of Stage I [i.e., the Book of Luke], while Rome, the centre of the world, was the goal of Stage II [i.e., the Book of Acts]." [Note: William Neil, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 27.]

However the fact that Luke included what he did and omitted much other historical data indicates a second, theological purpose. He showed how the plans and purposes of God were working out through history. In particular, he showed how Jesus Christ was faithfully and irresistibly building His church (Mat_16:18). This involved clarifying how God’s dealings with humankind had taken a different course because of the Jews’ rejection of their Messiah. [Note: For a very good discussion of the major theological emphases in Acts, see Marshall, pp. 23-34.]

". . . Luke in Acts is not merely concerned to draw a link between the time of Jesus and the time of the early church, as is commonly noticed, but also between the time of Israel and the time of Jesus and His church. Acts insists that the God who was at work in the history of his ancient people, Israel, bringing them salvation, is the same God who is at work in the church." [Note: Brian S. Rosner, "Acts and Biblical History," in ibid., p. 82. Cf. George E. Ladd, "The Acts of the Apostles," in The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, pp. 1123-24.]

Third, Luke evidently had an apologetic purpose in writing. He frequently pointed out the relationship of the church to the Roman state by referring to many Roman officials not one of whom opposed Christianity because of its doctrines or practices. This would have made Acts a powerful defensive tool for the early Christians in their struggle to survive in a hostile pagan environment.

Longenecker identified Luke’s purposes as kerygmatic, apologetic, conciliatory, and catachetical. [Note: Richard N. Longenecker, "Acts," in John-Acts, vol. 9 of The expositor’s Bible Commentery, pp. 216-21.]

"We agree with a growing number of scholars who think that Luke wrote with a variety of specific purposes and that these purposes are part of a larger, general purpose-the edification of Christians." [Note: Carson and Moo, p. 305.]

UNIQUE FEATURES

Acts is the only New Testament book that continues the history begun in the Gospels. Whereas Luke’s Gospel focuses on the vertical universalization of the gospel (up and down the social scale), Acts focuses on its horizontal universalization (from Jerusalem to the uttermost parts of the world).

". . . the Acts is to be seen in close literary association with the Gospel [of Luke]. They form two parts of one work, conceived in its final form as a unity, whether or not the original composition of the Gospel took place independently of the plan to produce the two-part work. Although there are other examples of literary compositions in two parts (Josephus, Contra Apionem, is one of the nearest parallels to Luke-Acts in time and cultural context), Luke’s work appears to be unique among Christian writings and to have no close secular precedents in its combination of the stories of a religious leader and of his followers." [Note: I. Howard Marshall, "Acts and the ’Former Treatis,’" in The Book of Acts in Its First Century Setting; Vol. 1: The Book of Acts in Its Ancient Literary Setting, p. 182.]

"The book which we call the Acts of the Apostles may be said to complete the Pentateuch of New Testament history. Four of these books present the Person of our Lord; while the fifth gives the first page of the history of the Church . . ." [Note: G. Campbell Morgan, The Acts of the Apostles, p. 9.]

Acts is also an indispensable historical record for understanding the Apostle Paul’s epistles; without it we could not understand some of the things he wrote. It is the only Bible book that records the historical transition from Judaism to Christianity. It provides basic information about and insight into the early church. And it challenges every modern Christian. [Note: Stanley D. Toussaint, "Acts," in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament, p. 349.]

Richard Longenecker has shown that Luke’s method of writing history was in line with current historiography of his day. [Note: Longenecker, pp. 212-14.] Ben Witherington observed that Luke-Acts is more typical of ancient Greek history writing than Roman (Latin). [Note: Ben Witherington III, The Acts of the Apostles: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, p. 28.] Others have argued that it is more like the Hebrew Scriptures than anything else.

The Gospel of Luke is the longest book in the New Testament with 1,151 verses, Matthew is the second longest with 1,071 verses, and Acts is the third longest with 1,003 verses.

STRUCTURE

Longenecker identified five phenomena about the structure of Acts that the reader needs to recognize to appreciate what Luke sought to communicate.

"1.    It begins, like the [Third] Gospel, with an introductory section of distinctly Lukan cast dealing with the constitutive events of the Christian mission (Act_1:1 to Act_2:41) before it sets forth the advances of the gospel ’in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth’ (Act_1:7).

"2.    This introductory section is followed by what appears to be a thematic statement (Act_2:42-47). This material, while often viewed as a summary of what precedes, most probably serves as the thesis paragraph for what follows.

"3.    In his presentation of the advance of the Christian mission, Luke follows an essentially geographical outline that moves from Jerusalem (Act_2:42 to Act_6:7), through Judea and Samaria (Act_6:8 to Act_9:31), on into Palestine-Syria (Act_9:32 to Act_12:24), then to the Gentiles in the eastern part of the Roman Empire (Act_12:25 to Act_19:20), and finally culminates in Paul’s defenses and the entrance of the gospel into Rome (Act_19:21 to Act_28:31).

"4.    In his presentation, Luke deliberately sets up a number of parallels between the ministry of Peter in the first half of Acts and that of Paul in the last half. [Note: W. H. Griffith Thomas, The Acts of the Apostles: Outline Studies in Primitive Christianity, pp. 25-26, offered some helpful comparisons between Peter’s ministry and Paul’s in Acts. For two lists of 16 parallels between Acts 1-12, 13-28, see Charles H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes, and the Genre of Luke-Acts, pp. 23-24. This book contains many tables of interesting parallels within Acts, within Luke, and between Luke and Acts.]

"5.    Luke includes six summary statements or ’progress reports’ (Act_6:7; Act_9:31; Act_12:24; Act_16:5; Act_19:20; and Act_28:31), each of which seems to conclude its own ’panel’ of material. [Note: Cf. Dictionary of the Bible, ed. by James Hastings, s.v. "The Chronology of the New Testament," by C. H. Turner, 1:421. Turner’s first panel included 1:1-2:41.]

"Taking all these literary and structural features into account, we may conclude that Luke developed his material in Acts along the following lines:

"Introduction: The Constitutive Events of the Christian Mission (Act_1:1 to Act_2:41)

Part I: The Christian Mission to the Jewish World (Act_2:42 to Act_12:24)

Panel 1-The Earliest Days of the Church at Jerusalem (Act_2:42 to Act_6:7)

    Summary Statement: ’So the word of God spread. The number of disciples in Jerusalem increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the faith’ (Act_6:7).

Panel 2-Critical Events in the Lives of Three Pivotal Figures (Act_6:8 to Act_9:31)

    Summary Statement: ’Then the church throughout Judea, Galilee and Samaria enjoyed a time of peace. It was strengthened; and encouraged by the Holy Spirit, it grew in numbers, living in the fear of the Lord’ (Act_9:31).

    Panel 3-Advances of the Gospel in Palestine-Syria (Act_9:32 to Act_12:24)

    Summary Statement: ’But the word of God continued to increase and spread’ (Act_12:24).

Part II: The Christian Mission to the Gentile World (Act_12:25 to Act_28:31)

Panel 4-The First Missionary Journey and the Jerusalem Council (Act_12:25 to Act_16:5)

    Summary Statement: ’So the churches were strengthened in the faith and grew daily in numbers’ (Act_16:5).

Panel 5-Wide Outreach Through Two Missionary Journeys (Act_16:6 to Act_19:20)

    Summary Statement: ’In this way the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in power’ (Act_19:20).

    Panel 6-To Jerusalem and Thence to Rome (Act_19:21 to Act_28:31)

    Summary Statement: ’Boldly and without hindrance he preached the kingdom of God and taught about the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Act_28:31)." [Note: Longenecker, pp. 233-34. For further study of background issues such as the history, authorship, unity, text, composition, theology, church, and ministry of the Book of Acts, see the Introduction in Richard B. Rackham, The Acts of the Apostles, pp. xiii-cxv.]

THEOLOGY

Darrell Bock has identified the key subjects in Acts as God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit. More particularly, he noted the following theological emphases: the plan and work of the mighty God; mission, opposition, and the inclusion of the Gentiles; Jesus, the Lord of all for a gospel sent to all; the new community’s emerging separate identity; the law; the triumph of the gospel; and eschatology. [Note: Bock, pp. 32-42.]

OUTLINE

I.    The witness in Jerusalem Act_1:1 to Act_6:7

A.    The founding of the church Act_1:1 to Act_2:47

1.    The resumptive preface to the book Act_1:1-5

2.    The command to witness Act_1:6-8

3.    The ascension of Jesus Act_1:9-11

4.    Jesus’ appointment of a twelfth apostle Act_1:12-26

5.    The birth of the church Act_2:1-41

6.    The early state of the church Act_2:42-47

B.    The expansion of the church in Jerusalem Act_3:1 to Act_6:7

1.    External opposition Act_3:1 to Act_4:31

2.    Internal compromise Act_4:32 to Act_5:11

3.    Intensified external opposition Act_5:12-42

4.    Internal conflict Act_6:1-7

II.    The witness in Judea and Samaria Act_6:8 to Act_9:31

A.    The martyrdom of Stephen Act_6:8 to Act_8:1 a

1.    Stephen’s arrest Act_6:8 to Act_7:1

2.    Stephen’s address Act_7:2-53

3.    Stephen’s death Act_7:54 to Act_8:1 a

B.    The ministry of Philip Act_8:1-40

1.    The evangelization of Samaria Act_8:1-25

2.    Philip’s ministry to the Ethiopian eunuch Act_8:26-40

C.    The mission of Saul Act_9:1-31

1.    Saul’s conversion and calling Act_9:1-19 a

2.    Saul’s initial conflicts Act_9:19-30

3.    The church at peace Act_9:31

III.    The witness to the uttermost part of the earth Act_9:32 to Act_28:31

A.    The extension of the church to Syrian Antioch Act_9:32 to Act_12:24

1.    Peter’s ministry in Lydda and Joppa Act_9:32-43

2.    The conversion of Cornelius Act_10:1 to Act_11:18

3.    The initiatives of the Antioch church Act_11:19-30

4.    The persecution of the Jerusalem church Act_12:1-24

B.    The extension of the church to Cyprus and Asia Minor Act_12:25 to Act_16:5

1.    The divine appointment of Barnabas and Saul Act_12:25 to Act_13:3

2.    The mission to Cyprus Act_13:4-12

3.    The mission to Asia Minor Act_13:13 to Act_14:21 a

4.    Paul and Barnabas’ return to Antioch of Syria Act_14:21-28

5.    The Jerusalem Council Act_15:1-35

6.    The strengthening of the Gentile churches Act_15:36 to Act_16:5

C.    The extension of the church to the Aegean shores Act_16:6 to Act_19:20

1.    The call to Macedonia Act_16:6-10

2.    The ministry in Macedonia Act_16:11 to Act_17:15

3.    The ministry in Achaia Act_17:16 to Act_18:17

4.    The beginning of ministry in Asia Act_18:18-22

5.    The results of ministry in Asia Act_18:23 to Act_19:20

D.    The extension of the church to Rome Act_19:21 to Act_28:31

1.    Ministry on the way to Jerusalem acts Act_19:21 to Act_21:16

2.    Ministry in Jerusalem acts Act_21:17 to Act_23:32

3.    Ministry in Caesarea acts Act_23:33 to Act_26:32

4.    Ministry on the way to Rome acts Act_27:1 to Act_28:15

5.    Ministry in Rome acts Act_28:16-31

Appendix 1

Sequence of Paul’s Activities
DateEventReference
Birth in TarsusAct_22:3
Early life and theological education in Jerusalem under GamalielAct_22:3
34Participation in Stephen’s stoning outside JerusalemAct_7:57 to Act_8:1
34Leadership in the persecution of Christians in JerusalemAct_9:1
34Leadership in the persecution of Christians beyond Jerusalem to DamascusAct_9:2
34Conversion on the road to DamascusAct_9:3-17
34Baptism in DamascusAct_9:18
34Preaching in DamascusAct_9:19-22
34Trip to ArabiaGal_1:17
34Return to DamascusGal_1:17
37Trip to JerusalemAct_9:26; Gal_1:18
37Meeting with Peter and James and preaching in JerusalemAct_9:27-29; Gal_1:18-19
37Trip to Tarsus via CaesareaAct_9:30; Gal_1:21
37-43Ministry in and around TarsusAct_11:25
37-43Caught up to the third heaven 2Co_12:2-4
43Move to Antioch of Syria on Barnabas’ invitationAct_11:26
43Ministry in Antioch of SyriaAct_11:26
47Trip to Jerusalem with Barnabas and Titus to deliver a famine relief giftAct_11:30; Gal_2:1-10
47Return to AntiochAct_12:25
47-48Continued ministry in AntiochAct_13:1-3
48-49First missionary journey with Barnabas and John MarkAct_13:4 to Act_14:27
48Ministry in CyprusAct_13:4-12
48Voyage to Asia MinorAct_13:13
48Separation from John Mark who departed at PergaAct_13:13
48Ministry at Pisidian AntiochAct_13:14-52
48-49Ministry at IconiumAct_14:1-5
49Ministry at LystraAct_14:8-19
49Ministry at DerbeAct_14:20-23
49Return to AttaliaAct_14:24-25
49Return to Syrian AntiochAct_14:26
49Ministry in Syrian AntiochAct_14:27 to Act_15:2
49Rebuke of PeterGal_2:11-14
Sequence of Paul’s Activities (cont.)
DateEventReference
49Writing of Galatians
49Trip to Jerusalem with Barnabas via Phoenicia and SamariaAct_15:3
49Jerusalem CouncilAct_15:4-29
49Return to Syrian Antioch with Barnabas, Silas, and JudasAct_15:22; Act_15:30
49Separation from Silas and Judas who returned to JerusalemAct_15:31-33
49-50Ministry in Syrian AntiochAct_15:35
50Division of opinion with Barnabas over John MarkAct_15:36-39
50Separation from Barnabas and John Mark who returned to CyprusAct_15:39
50-52Second missionary journey with Silas and othersAct_15:40 to Act_18:22
50Ministry in Syria and CiliciaAct_15:41
50Ministry in Derbe and LystraAct_16:1 a
50Partnership with Timothy who joined Paul and SilasAct_16:1-3
50Ministry in other Galatian churchesAct_16:4-6
50Exclusion from Asia and BithyniaAct_16:7-8
50Macedonian vision at TroasAct_16:9-10
50Voyage from Troas to Samothrace to Neapolis with LukeAct_16:11
50Ministry in PhilippiAct_16:12-40
50Separation from Luke who remained at PhilippiCf. "we" in Act_16:12 with "they" in Act_17:1
50-51Ministry in ThessalonicaAct_17:1-9
51Ministry in BereaAct_17:10-15
51Separation from Silas and Timothy who remained in BereaAct_17:14
51Ministry in AthensAct_17:16-34
51Ministry in CorinthAct_18:1-17
51Association with Aquilla and PriscillaAct_18:2-3
51Reunion with Silas and TimothyAct_18:5
51Writing of 1 and 2 Thessalonians
52Trip to Ephesus with Aquilla and PriscillaAct_18:18
52Separation from Aquilla and Priscilla who proceeded to SyriaAct_18:18-19
52Ministry in EphesusAct_18:19-21
52Return to Syrian Antioch via Caesarea and JerusalemAct_18:21-22
52-53Layover in Syrian AntiochAct_18:23 a
Sequence of Paul’s Activities (cont.)
DateEventReference
53-57Third missionary journeyAct_18:23 b to Act_21:19
53Ministry in GalatiaAct_18:23 b; Act_19:1
53Apollos’ ministry in EphesusAct_18:24
53Aquilla and Priscilla’s ministry to ApollosAct_18:26
53Apollos’ ministry in AchaiaAct_18:27-28
53-56Ministry in Ephesus and AsiaAct_19:1 to Act_20:1
53-56Writing of the “former letter” to Corinth1Co_5:9
56Writing of 1 Corinthians
56The “painful visit’ to Corinth and return2Co_2:1; 2Co_12:14; 2Co_13:1-2
56Writing of the “severe letter” to Corinth2Co_2:3-4; 2Co_7:8-12; 2Co_12:17-19
56Sending of Timothy and Erastus to MacedoniaAct_19:22
56Trip to Troas from Ephesus
56Wait for Titus
56Trip to Macedonia from TroasAct_20:1
56Reunion with Titus in Macedonia
56Writing of 2 Corinthians
56Ministry in MacedoniaAct_20:2
56Ministry in Greece (Achaia and Corinth)Act_20:2-3
56-57Writing of Romans
57Return to Macedonia and Philippi with Sopater, Aristarchus, Secundus, Gaius, Timothy, Tychicus, Trophimus, and LukeAct_20:3-4
57Trip of his companions except Luke to TroasAct_20:5
57Trip to Troas with LukeAct_20:6
57Ministry at TroasAct_20:7-12
57Trip to Assos by land while Luke and another brother travel by shipAct_20:13
57Trip to Miletus by ship with Luke and the other brotherAct_20:14-16
57Ministry at MiletusAct_20:17-38
57Trip from Miletus to Caesarea with Luke and the other brother via TyreAct_21:1-7
57Ministry at CaesareaAct_21:8-14
57Trip to JerusalemAct_21:15-16
57Ministry at JerusalemAct_21:17 to Act_23:30
57Report to the churchAct_21:17-26
57Arrest in the templeAct_21:27-40
57Speech in the temple courtyardAct_22:1-21
57Imprisonment in JerusalemAct_22:22 to Act_23:30
Sequence of Paul’s Activities (cont.)
DateEventReference
57Trip to CaesareaAct_23:31-35
57-59Ministry in CaesareaAct_24:1 to Act_26:32
57Defense before FelixAct_24:1-27
59Defense before FestusAct_25:1-12
59Defense before Agrippa and FestusAct_26:1-32
59-60Journey to Rome with Luke and AristarchusAct_27:1 to Act_28:16
59Trip to CreteAct_27:1-13
59ShipwreckAct_27:14-44
59-60Ministry on MaltaAct_28:1-10
60Trip from Malta to RomeAct_28:11-16
60-62Ministry in RomeAct_28:16-31
60-62Writing of the Prison Epistles
62Release from Rome
62Return to the Aegean area
62-66Writing of 1 Timothy and Titus
67Arrest
67-68Imprisonment in Rome
67Writing of 2 Timothy
68Martyrdom in Rome

Appendix 2

Sermons and Speeches in Acts [Note: Adapted from The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament, p. 355.]
SpeakersOccasions and or
Hearers
CitiesReferences
Peter (1)Selection of successor to JudasJerusalemAct_1:16-22
Peter (2)Signs on the day of PentecostJerusalemAct_2:14-36
Peter (3)Healing of lame man in the templeJerusalemAct_3:12-26
Peter (4)Before the Sanhedrin for preaching the resurrection of ChristJerusalemAct_4:8-12
GamalielBefore the Sanhedrin regarding Peter and othersJerusalemAct_5:35-39
StephenBefore the Sanhedrin after his arrestJerusalemAct_7:2-53
Peter (5)At Cornelius’ house to present the gospel to GentilesCaesareaAct_10:34-43
Peter (6)Defense to the church about what happened in CaesareaJerusalemAct_11:4-17
Paul (1)Sabbath sermon to Jews in the synagoguePisidian AntiochAct_13:16-41
Paul (2) and BarnabasCrowd who wanted to worship themLystraAct_14:15-17
Peter (7)Church councilJerusalemAct_15:7-11
JamesChurch councilJerusalemAct_15:13-21
Paul (3)Athenians on Mars HillAthensAct_17:22-31
DemetriusWorkmen who were disturbed at Paul’s preachingEphesusAct_19:25-27
Town clerkRiot at EphesusEphesusAct_19:35-40
Paul (4)Gathering of Ephesian eldersMiletusAct_20:18-35
Paul (5)Mob of people who tried to kill PaulJerusalemAct_22:1-21
Paul (6)Defense before the SanhedrinJerusalemAct_23:1-6
Paul (7)Defense before FelixCaesareaAct_24:10-21
Paul (8)Defense before FestusCaesareaAct_25:8; Act_25:10-11
Paul (9)Defense before Herod Agrippa IICaesareaAct_26:1-23
Paul (10)Shipmates in a violent stormMediterranean Sea between Crete and MaltaAct_27:21-26
Paul (11)Testimony to Jewish leadersRomeAct_28:17-20; Act_28:25-28

Appendix 3

Paul’s Epistles
PeriodEpistleOriginDate
After the 1st missionary journeyGalatiansAntioch of SyriaA.D. 49
During the 2nd missionary journey1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
Corinth
Corinth
A.D. 51
A.D. 51
During the 3rd missionary journey1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Romans
Ephesus
Macedonia
Corinth
A.D. 56
A.D. 56
A.D. 57
During the 1st Roman imprisonmentEphesians
Philippians
Colossians
Philemon
Rome
Rome
Rome
Rome
A.D. 60-62
A.D. 60-62
A.D. 60-62
A.D. 60-62
Between the 1st and 2nd Roman imprisonments1 Timothy
Titus
Macedonia?
Macedonia?
A.D. 62-66
A.D. 62-66
During the 2nd Roman imprisonment2 TimothyRomeA.D. 67

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