the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Dr. Constable's Expository Notes Constable's Expository Notes
by Thomas Constable
The writer of this Gospel did not identify himself as such in the text. This is true of all the Gospel evangelists. Nevertheless there is evidence within this Gospel, as well as in the writings of the church fathers, that the writer was the Apostle John.
The internal evidence from the Gospel itself is as follows. In Joh_21:24 the writer of "these things" (i.e., the whole Gospel) was the same person as the disciple whom Jesus loved (Joh_21:7). That disciple was one of the seven disciples mentioned in Joh_21:2. He was also the disciple who sat beside Jesus in the upper room when He instituted the Lord’s Supper and to whom Peter motioned (Joh_13:23-24). This means that he was one of the Twelve since only they were present in the upper room (Mar_14:17; Luk_22:14). The disciple whom Jesus loved was also one of the inner circle of three disciples, namely, Peter, James, and John (Mar_5:37-38; Mar_9:2-3; Mar_14:33; Joh_20:2-10). James died in the early history of the church, probably in the early 40s (Act_12:2). There is good evidence that whoever wrote this Gospel did so after then. The writer was also not Peter (Joh_21:20-24). This evidence points to John as the disciple whom Jesus loved who was also the writer of this Gospel. The writer claimed to have seen Jesus’ glory (Joh_1:14; cf. Joh_1:1-4), which John did at the Transfiguration. There are several Johns in the New Testament. This one was one of Zebedee’s sons who was a fisherman before Jesus called him to leave his nets and follow Him.
"To a certain extent each of the Gospels reflects the personality of its author, but in none of them is there a more distinctive individuality manifested than in John." [Note: Merrill C. Tenney, "The Author’s Testimony to Himself," Bibliotheca Sacra 120:479 (July-September 1963):223.]
In the article just quoted, the writer showed how John projected his personality into his writing of this Gospel.
The external evidence also points to the Johannine authorship of the fourth Gospel. Irenaeus, the bishop of Lyons (ca. A.D. 130-200), wrote that he had heard Polycarp (ca. A.D. 69-155), a disciple of John. It was apparently from Polycarp that Irenaeus learned that, "John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, had himself published a Gospel during his residence in Ephesus in Asia." [Note: Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 3:1.] Other later church fathers supported this tradition including Theophilus of Antioch (ca. A.D. 180), Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian of Carthage, and Tatian. [Note: See Edwin A. Blum, "John," in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament, p. 267; Merrill C. Tenney, "John," in John-Acts, vol. 9 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, pp. 5-6; and George R. Beasley-Murray, John, pp. lxvi-lxxv.] Eusebius (fourth century) also specifically mentioned that Matthew and John among the apostles wrote the Gospels that bear their names. [Note: Eusebius, The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus, 3:24:3-8.]
Some scholars have rejected this seemingly clear evidence and have refused to accept Johannine authorship. This criticism generally comes from those who hold a lower view of Scripture. Answering their objections lies outside the purpose of these notes. [Note: For treatment of these views, see Donald A. Carson, The Gospel According to John, pp. 68-81, and books on Bible Introduction.]
PLACE OF WRITING
Eusebius also wrote that John ministered to the church in Ephesus, which Paul had founded (Act_19:1-20), for many years. [Note: Eusebius, 3:24:1.] The Isle of Patmos, where John spent some time in exile, is close to Ephesus (cf. Rev_1:9-11). Eusebius wrote that John composed his Gospel when he was at Ephesus. [Note: Ibid., 3:24:3-8.] During the first century, that city was one of the largest centers of Christian activity in the Gentile world. Antioch of Syria and Alexandria in Egypt have been suggested as sites of composition, but they do not have as good support as Ephesus. [Note: For discussion, see Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John: Revised Edition, pp. 54-55.]
A few scholars believe John could have written this book as early as A.D. 45, the date when Saul of Tarsus’ persecutions drove many Christians out of Jerusalem (cf. Act_8:1-4). [Note: E.g., Edwin R. Goodenough, "John: A Primitive Gospel," Journal of Biblical Literature 64 (1945): Part 2:145-82.] There are two main problems with such an early date. First, John seems to have assumed that the Synoptic Gospels were available to the Christian public. There is some doubt about this since it assumes an assumption, but most scholars believe, on the basis of content, that John selected his material to supplement material in the Synoptics. This would put the fourth Gospel later than the Synoptics. Second, according to early church tradition the Apostle John lived long into the first century. This would make a later date possible even though it does not prove a later date. Some students of the book believe that Joh_21:18-22 implies that Peter would die before John did, and Peter died about A.D. 67. In general, most authorities reject a date this early for these and other reasons.
Some conservatives date the Gospel slightly before A.D. 70 because John described Palestine and Jerusalem as they were before the Roman destruction (cf. Joh_5:2). [Note: E.g., Morris, p. 30; and Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, pp. 531, 177-205.] This may be a weak argument since John frequently used the Greek present tense to describe things in the past. Some who hold this date note the absence of any reference to Jerusalem’s destruction in John. However there could have been many reasons John chose not to mention the destruction of Jerusalem if he wrote after that event. A date of writing before the destruction of Jerusalem is also a minority opinion among scholars.
Many conservative scholars believe that John wrote his Gospel between A.D. 85 and 95. [Note: E.g., Tenney, "John," p. 9; Blum, p. 268; Carson, p. 82; and Mark L. Bailey, in The New Testament Explorer, p. 154.] Early church tradition was that John wrote it when he was an older man. Moreover even the early Christians regarded this as the fourth Gospel and believed that John wrote it after the Synoptics. It is not clear if John had access to the Synoptic Gospels. He did not quote from any of them. However, his choice of material for his own Gospel suggests that he probably read them and chose to include other material from Jesus’ ministry in his account to supplement them. [Note: R. V. G. Tasker, The Gospel According to St. John: An Introduction and Commentary, p. 32.]
The latest possible date would be about A.D. 100, though some more liberal scholars date this Gospel in the second century. The Egerton papyrus, which dates from early in the second century, contains unmistakable allusions to John’s Gospel. [Note: Tenney, "John," p. 9; Carson, p. 82.] This seems to rule out a second century date.
It seems impossible to identify the date of writing precisely, as evidenced by the difference of opinion that exists between excellent conservative scholars. However a date sometime between A.D. 65 and 95 is probable. I favor a date in the 90s.
CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES AND PURPOSE
John’s presentation of Jesus in his Gospel has been a problem to many modern students of the New Testament. Some regard it as the greatest problem in current New Testament studies. [Note: E.g., Blum, p. 268.] Compared to the Synoptics, which present Jesus as a historical figure, John stressed the deity of Jesus. Obviously the Synoptics present Jesus as divine also, but the emphasis in the fourth Gospel is more strongly on Jesus’ full deity. This emphasis runs from the beginning, with the Word becoming flesh (Joh_1:1; Joh_1:14), to the end, where Thomas confessed Jesus as his Lord and "God" (Joh_20:28). John’s purpose statement (Joh_20:30-31) explains why he stressed Jesus’ deity. It was so his readers would believe that He is the Christ, the Son of God, and thereby have eternal life.
The key word in the book is the verb "believe" (Gr. pisteuo), which appears 98 times. The noun form of the word (Gr. pistis, "faith") does not occur at all. This phenomenon shows that John wanted to stress the importance of active, vital trust in Jesus. Other key words are witness, love, abide, the Counselor (i.e., the Holy Spirit), light, life, darkness, Word, glorify, true, and real. [Note: Tenney, "John," p. 12.] These words identify important themes in the Gospel.
John’s unique purpose accounted for his selection of material, as was true of every biblical writer. He omitted Jesus’ genealogy, birth, baptism, temptation, exorcizing demons, parables, transfiguration, institution of the Lord’s Supper, agony in Gethsemane, and ascension. He focused on Jesus’ ministry in Jerusalem, the Jewish feasts, Jesus’ private conversations with individuals, and His preparation of His disciples.
John selected seven signs or miracles that demonstrate that Jesus was the divine Messiah (chs. 2-12). He also recorded the discourses that Jesus gave following these signs that explained their significance. Moreover he stressed Jesus’ claims that occur in the seven unique "I am" statements (Joh_6:35; Joh_8:12; Joh_10:7; Joh_10:9; Joh_10:11; Joh_10:14; Joh_11:25; Joh_14:6; Joh_15:1; Joh_15:5).
About 93 percent of the material in John’s Gospel does not appear in the Synoptics. [Note: Blum, p. 269.] This fact indicates the uniqueness of this Gospel compared with the other three and explains why they bear the title "Synoptic" and John does not. For example, John recorded no story parables of Jesus, though he did include many extended discourses and personal conversations that the other evangelists omitted. All four Gospels are quite similar, and the three Synoptics are very similar, though each Gospel has its own distinctive features. John, on the other hand, is considerably different from the others. Specifically, it stresses Jesus’ deity stronger than the others do. It is, I believe, impossible to determine for certain whether or not John used or even knew of the Synoptic Gospels. [Note: For discussion of this issue, see Morris, pp. 43-45, and James D. Dvorak, "The Relationship Between John and the Synoptic Gospels," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 41:2 (June 1998):201-13.] I suspect that he did.
Another difference between the Synoptics and the fourth Gospel is the writers’ view of eschatology. They all share the same basic view, namely, that the Jews’ rejection of their Messiah resulted in the postponement of the messianic kingdom. However the Synoptic writers stressed the future aspects of eschatology more than John, who put more emphasis on the present or realized aspects of eschatology. This is not to say that John presented the kingdom as having begun during Jesus’ first advent. He did not. He did stress, however, the aspects of kingdom life that Christians currently enjoy as benefits of the new covenant, which Jesus inaugurated with His death. These include especially the Holy Spirit’s ministries of indwelling and illuminating the believer. Such a shift in emphasis is understandable if John wrote later than the other Gospel evangelists. By then it was clear that God had postponed the messianic kingdom, and believers’ interest was more on life in the church than it was on life in the messianic kingdom (cf. chs. 13-17).
"It is . . . quite possible that one of John’s aims was to combat false teaching of a docetic type. The Docetists held that the Christ never became incarnate; everything was ’seeming.’ That the docetic heresy did not appear in the first century seems clear, but certain elements that later were to be embodied in this heresy seem to have been quite early." [Note: Morris, p. 31.]
The Greek word dokein, meaning "to seem," is the origin of the name of this heresy.
"We have suggested that the Fourth Gospel was addressed to two groups within the Johannine community, each of which represented an extreme interpretation of the nature of Jesus: one which did not accept him as God, and the other which did not accept him as man (see the introduction, xxiii; also Smalley, John, 145-48). The perfectly balanced christology of the Fourth Gospel was intended, we believe, to provide a resolution of this theological crisis: to remind the ex-Jewish members of the group, with their strong emphasis on the humanity of Jesus, that the Christ was divine; and to insist, for the benefit of the ex-pagan members (with their docetic outlook), that Jesus was truly human." [Note: Stephen S. Smalley, 1, 2, 3 John, p. 101.]
The context of Jesus’ ministry accounts for the strong Jewish flavor that marks all four Gospels. Yet John’s Gospel is more theological and cosmopolitan and less Jewish than the others.
"It has . . . a wider appeal to growing Christian experience and to an enlarging Gentile constituency than the others.
"The Synoptics present him for a generation in process of being evangelized; John presents him as the Lord of the maturing and questioning believer." [Note: Tenney, "John," p. 4.]
As a piece of literature, John’s Gospel has a symphonic structure.
"A symphony is a musical composition having several movements related in subject, but varying in form and execution. It usually begins with a dominant theme, into which variations are introduced at intervals. The variations seem to be developed independently, but as the music is played, they modulate into each other until finally all are brought to a climax. The apparent disunity is really part of a design which is not evident at first, but which appears in the progress of the composition." [Note: Idem, "The Symphonic Structure of John," Bibliotheca Sacra 120:478 (April-June 1963):117-18.]
Tenney identified the major themes as the signs, the sonship and messiahship of Christ, and eternal life. Tasker described the fourth Gospel as "the simplest and yet the most profound of the Christian Gospels." [Note: Tasker, p. 10.]
The preceding quotation (from Tenney’s commentary on John) implies that John wrote primarily for Christians. This implication may seem to be contrary to John’s stated purpose (Joh_20:30-31). Probably John wrote both to convince unbelievers that Jesus was the Son of God and to give Christians who faced persecution confidence in their Savior. [Note: Cf. Beasley-Murray, p. lxxxix.] The word "believe" in Joh_20:31 may be in the present tense to imply that Christian readers should continue believing. It could be in the aorist tense to suggest that pagan readers should believe initially. An evangelistic purpose does not exclude an edification purpose. Indeed, all 66 books of the Bible have edifying value for God’s people (2Ti_3:16-17). John’s purpose for unbelievers is that they might obtain eternal life, and his purpose for believers is that we might experience abundant eternal life (Joh_10:10).
John explained Jewish customs, translated Jewish names, and located Palestinian sites. These facts suggest that he was writing for Gentile readers who live primarily outside Palestine. Furthermore the prologue seems addressed to readers who thought in Greek categories. John’s inclusion of the Greeks who showed interest in seeing Jesus (Joh_12:20-22) may also suggest that he wrote with them in view. Because of John’s general purposes it seems best to conclude that the original readers were primarily Gentile Christians and Gentile unbelievers. Carson argued that John’s purpose was specifically to evangelize Jews and Jewish proselytes. [Note: Carson, pp. 87-95.]
"By the use of personal reminiscences interpreted in the light of a long life of devotion to Christ and by numerous episodes that generally had not been used in the Gospel tradition, whether written or oral, John created a new and different approach to understanding Jesus’ person. John’s readers were primarily second-generation Christians he was familiar with and to whom he seemed patriarchal." [Note: Tenney, "John," p. 10.]
The writer did not indicate the geographical location of the original recipients of his Gospel. This was undoubtedly intentional since the message of John has universal appeal. Perhaps its first readers lived in the Roman province of Asia, the capital of which was Ephesus. [Note: See Donald A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament, pp. 225-84, for extensive discussion of introductory matters.]
|Summary of Gospel Introductions|
I. Prologue Joh_1:1-18
II. Jesus’ public ministry Joh_1:19 to Joh_12:50
F. Jesus’ second visit to Jerusalem ch. 5
[ 4. The woman caught in adultery Joh_7:53 to Joh_8:11 ]
6. The sixth sign: healing a man born blind ch. 9
I. The conclusion of Jesus’ public ministry chs. 11-12
III. Jesus’ private ministry chs. 13-17
C. Jesus’ high priestly prayer ch. 17
IV. Jesus’ passion ministry chs. 18-20
2. The question of Jesus’ kingship Joh_18:33-38 a
V. Epilogue ch. 21
Allen, Ronald B. "Affirming Right-of-Way on Ancient Paths." Bibliotheca Sacra 153:609 (January-March 1996):3-11.
Aloisi, John. "The Paraclete’s Ministry of Conviction: Another Look at Joh_16:8-11." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 47:1 (March 2004):55-69.
Ante-Nicene Christian Library: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. 35 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1873.
Arndt, William F., and F. Wilbur Gingrich. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.
The Babylonian Talmud. 10 vols. Translated and edited by Michael L. Rodkinson. Boston: The Talmud Society, 1918.
Bailey, Mark L., and Thomas L. Constable. The New Testament Explorer. Nashville: Word Publishing, 1999. Reissued as Nelson’s New Testament Survey. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999.
Barclay, William. The Gospel of John 2 vols. The Daily Study Bible series. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1955.
Barrett, C. K. Essays on John. London: SPCK, 1982.
_____. The Gospel According to St John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes onthe Greek Text. 2nd ed. London: SPCK, 1978.
_____. The New Testament Background, Selected Documents. London: SPCK, 1957.
Bauckham, Richard. "Jesus’ Demonstration in the Temple." In Law and Religion: Essays on the Place of the Law in Israel and Early Christianity, pp. 72-89. Edited by Barnabas Lindars. London: SPCK, 1988.
Baylis, Charles P. "The Woman Caught in Adultery: A Test of Jesus as the Greater Prophet." Bibliotheca Sacra 146:582 (April-June 1989):171-84.
Beasley-Murray, G. R. John. Second ed. Word Bible Commentary series. Waco: Word Books, 1987.
Bennema, Cornelis. "The Character of John in the Fourth Gospel." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 52:2 (June 2009):271-84.
Berg, Laurna L. "The Illegalities of Jesus’ Religious and Civil Trials." Bibliotheca Sacra 161:643 (July-September 2004):330-42.
Bernard, J. C. The Gospel According to St. John. International Critical Commentary series. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928.
Blum, Edwin A. "John." In Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament, pp. 267-348. Edited by John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications, Victor Books, 1983.
Bowman, John. "Samaritan Studies." Bulletin of John Rylands University Library of Manchester 40:2 (March 1958):298-327.
Bray, Gerald. "The Double Procession of the Holy Spirit in Evangelical Theology Today: Do We Still Need It?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 41:3 (September 1998):415-26.
Brindle, Wayne A. "Biblical Evidence for the Imminence of the Rapture." Bibliotheca Sacra 158:630 (April-June 2001):138-51.
Brown, R. E. The Gospel According to John: Introduction, Translation and Notes. Anchor Bible series. 2 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966-71.
Bruce, F. F. The Gospel of John: Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1983.
Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Translated by G. R. Beasley-Murray, R. W. N. Hoare, and J. K. Riches. Oxford: Blackwell, 1971.
Calvin, John. Calvin’s Commentaries: The Gospel According to St. John 2 vols. Translated by T. H. C. Parker. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1959-61.
Carson, Donald A. "Current Source Criticism of the Fourth Gospel: Some Methodological Questions." Journal of Biblical Literature 97 (1978):411-29.
_____. Divine Sovereignty and Human Responsibility: Biblical Perspectives in Tension. London: Marshall, Morgan and Scott, 1981.
_____. "The Function of the Paraclete in Joh_16:7-11." Journal of Biblical Literature 98 (1979):547-66.
_____. The Gospel According to John. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, and Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991.
_____. "Matthew." In Matthew-Luke. Vol. 8 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein and J. D. Douglas. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984.
Carson, Donald A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005.
Chafer, Lewis Sperry. Systematic Theology. 8 vols. Dallas: Dallas Seminary Press, 1947-48.
Coggins, R. J. Samaritans and Jews: The Origins of Samaritanism Reconsidered. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Colwell, E. C. "A Definite Rule for the Use of the Article in the Greek New Testament." Journal of Biblical Literature 52 (1933):12-21.
Constable, Thomas L. Talking to God: What the Bible Teaches about Prayer. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1995; reprint ed., Eugene, Oreg.: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2005.
Culpepper, R. Alan. Anatomy of the Four Gospel: A Study in Literary Design. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983.
_____. "The Pivot of John’s Prologue." New Testament Studies 27 (1981):1-31.
Dahms, John V. "The Subordination of the Son." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37:3 (September 1994):351-64.
Dana, H. E., and Julius R. Mantey. A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. New York: Macmillan Co., 1927.
Daube, D. The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism. London: Athlone Press, 1956.
Derickson, Gary W. "Viticulture and Joh_15:1-6." Bibliotheca Sacra 153:609 (January-March 1996):34-52.
_____. "Viticulture’s Contribution to the Interpretation of Joh_15:1-6." Paper presented at the meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society, Lisle, Ill., 19 November 1994.
Derrett, J. Duncan M. Law in the New Testament. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1970.
A Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by James Hastings. 1906 ed. S.v. "Numbers, Hours, Years, and Dates," by W. M. Ramsay, extra volume:473-84.
Dillow, Joseph C. "Abiding Is Remaining in Fellowship: Another Look at Joh_15:1-6." Bibliotheca Sacra 147:585 (January-March 1990):44-53.
_____. The Reign of the Servant Kings. Miami Springs, Fla.: Schoettle Publishing Co., 1992.
Dodd, C. H. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953.
_____. "Note on John 21, 24." Journal of Theological Studies NS4 (1953):212-13.
Dods, Marcus. The Gospel of St. John. Expositer Bible series. 2 vols. 6th ed. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1901.
Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Ark, 1984.
Duke, Paul D. Irony in the Fourth Gospel. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1985.
Duncan, Dan. "Avodah Zarah, Makkoth, and Kerithoth." Exegesis and Exposition 3:1 (Fall 1988):52-54.
Dvorak, James D. "The Relationship Between John and the Synoptic Gospels." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 41:2 (June 1998):201-13.
The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus. Twin Brooks series. Popular ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1974.
Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 2 vols. New York: Longmans, Green, 1912.
Ehrman, Bart D. "Jesus and the Adulteress." New Testament Studies 34 (1988):24-44.
Emerton, John A. "Some New Testament Notes." Journal of Theological Studies 11NS (1960):329-36.
Enns, Paul. "The Upper Room Discourse: The Consummation of Christ’s Instruction." Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1979.
Gaebelein, Arno C. The Gospel of John. New York: "Our Hope," 1925.
Geisler, Norman L. "A Christian Perspective on Wine-Drinking." Bibliotheca Sacra 139:553 (January-March 1982):46-56.
Gianotti, Charles R. "The Meaning of the Divine Name YHWH." Bibliotheca Sacra 142:565 (January-March 1985):38-51.
Godet, F. Commentary on the Gospel of John, with a Critical Introduction. 2 vols. Translated by M. D. Cusin. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1887.
Goodenough, Edwin R. "John: A Primitive Gospel." Journal of Biblical Literature 64 (1945): Part 2:145-82.
A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. By C. G. Wilke. Revised by C. L. Wilibald Grimm. Translated, revised and enlarged by Joseph Henry Thayer. New York, Cincinnatti, Chicago: American Book Co., 1889.
Gundry, Robert H. "’In my Father’s House are many Monai’ (John 14 2)." Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 58 (1967):68-72.
Haas, N. "Anthropological Observations on the Skeletal Remains from Giv’at ha-Mivtar." Israel Exploration Journal 20 (1970):38-59.
Haenchen, Ernst. A Commentary on the Gospel of John. Translated by Robert W. Funk. Edited by Robert W. Funk and Ulrich Busse. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.
Harris, Gregory H. "Satan’s Work as a Deceiver." Bibliotheca Sacra 156:622 (April-June 1999):190-202.
Harris, W. Hall. "A Theology of John’s Writings." In A Biblical Theology of the New Testament, pp. 167-242. Edited by Roy B. Zuck. Chicago: Moody Press, 1994.
Harrison, Everett F. "The Gospel According to John." In The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, pp. 1071-1122. Edited by Charles F. Pfeiffer and Everett F. Harrison. Chicago: Moody Press, 1962
Hart, H. St. J. "The Crown of Thorns in John 19, 2-5." Journal of Theological Studies 3 (1952):66-75.
Hendriksen, W. Exposition of the Gospel According to John 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1953-54.
Hengel, Martin. Crucifixion. Translated by John Bowden. London: SCM Press, and Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977.
Hengstenberg, E. W. Commentary on the Gospel of John 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1865-71.
Hiebert, D. Edmond Mark: A Portrait of the Servant. Chicago: Moody Press, 1974.
Higgins, A. J. B. "The Origins of the Eucharist." New Testament Studies 1 (1954-55):200-9.
Hodges, Zane C. Absolutely Free! A Biblical Reply to Lordship Salvation. Dallas: Redencion Viva, and Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, Academie Books, 1989.
_____. "The Angel at Bethesda-Joh_5:4." Bibliotheca Sacra 136:541 (January-March 1979):25-39.
_____. "Coming to the Light-Joh_3:20-21." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:540 (October-December 1978):314-22.
_____. "Form-Criticism and the Resurrection Accounts." Bibliotheca Sacra 124:496 (October-December 1967):339-48.
_____. "Grace after Grace-Joh_1:16." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:537 (January-March 1978):34-45.
_____. "Rivers of Living Water-Joh_7:37-39." Bibliotheca Sacra 136:543 (July-September 1979):239-48.
_____. "Those Who Have Done Good-Joh_5:28-29." Bibliotheca Sacra 136:542 (April-June 1979):158-66.
_____. "Untrustworthy Believers-Joh_2:23-25." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:538 (April-June 1978):139-52.
_____. "Water and Spirit-Joh_3:5." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:539 (July-September 1978):206-20.
_____. "Water and Wind-Joh_3:5." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:539 (July-September 1978):206-20.
_____. "The Woman Taken in Adultery (Joh_7:53 to Joh_8:11): The Text." Bibliotheca Sacra 136:544 (October-December 1979):318-32.
_____. "The Women and the Empty Tomb." Bibliotheca Sacra 123:492 (October-December 1966):301-9.
Hoehner, Harold W. Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Contemporary Evangelical Perspectives series. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1977.
Horsley, G. H. R. New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity. 4 vols. N.c.: Macquarie University (New South Wales, Australia), 1981-86.
Hoskins, Paul M. "Deliverance from Death by the True Passover Lamb: A Significant Aspect of the Fulfillment of the Passover in the Gospel of John." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 52:2 (June 2009):285-99.
Hoskyns, Edwin Clement. The Fourth Gospel. Edited by F. N. Davey. London: Faber and Faber, 1940.
Howard, James M. "The Significance of Minor Characters in the Gospel of John." Bibliotheca Sacra 163:649 (January-March 2006):63-78.
Hutchinson, John C. "The Vine in John 15 and Old Testament Imagery in the ’I Am’ Statements." Bibliotheca Sacra 168:669 (January-March 2011):63-80.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1982 ed. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley; et al. S.v. "Gabbatha," by D. J. Wieand.
Irenaeus. Against Heresies. Vol. 1 of The Ante-Nicene Fathers. 10 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, and Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.
Jeremias, Joachim. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. 3rd ed. Revised. Translated by Norman Perrin. London: SCM, 1966.
Johnson, John E. "The Old Testament Offices as Paradigm for Pastoral Identity." Bibliotheca Sacra 152:606 (April-June 1995):182-200.
Johnston, George. The Spirit-Paraclete in the Gospel of John. Vol. 12 in the Society for New Testament Studies Monograph series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.
Jones, Timothy Paul. "The Necessity of Objective Assent in the Act of Christian Faith." Bibliotheca Sacra 162:646 (April-June 2005):150-57.
Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. Antiquities of the Jews and The Wars of the Jews. London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1866.
Kim, Stephen S. "The Christological and Eschatological Significance of Jesus’ Miracle in John 5." Bibliotheca Sacra 165:660 (October-December 2008):413-24.
_____. "The Christological and Eschatological Significance of Jesus’ Passover Signs in John 6." Bibliotheca Sacra 164:655 (July-September 2007):307-22.
_____. "The Literary and Theological Significance of the Johannine Prologue." Bibliotheca Sacra 166:644 (October-December 2009):421-35.
_____. "The Relationship of Joh_1:19-51 to the Book of Signs in John 2-12." Bibliotheca Sacra 165:659 (July-September 2008):323-37.
_____. "The Significance of Jesus’ Healing the Blind Man in John 9." Bibliotheca Sacra 167:667 (July-September 2010):307-18.
_____. "The Significance of Jesus’ Raising Lazarus from the Dead in John 11." Bibliotheca Sacra 168:669 (January-March 2011):53-62.
Kysar, Robert. John. Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament series. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1986.
Lacomara, Aelred. "Deuteronomy and the Farewell Discourse (Joh_13:31 to Joh_16:33)." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 36 (1974):65-84.
Lancaster, Jerry R., and R. Larry Overstreet. "Jesus’ Celebration of Hanukkah in John 10." Bibliotheca Sacra 152:607 (July-September 1995):318-33.
Laney, J. Carl. "Abiding Is Believing: The Analogy of the Vine in Joh_15:1-6." Bibliotheca Sacra 146:581 (January-March 1989):55-66.
Lange, John Peter, ed. A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. 25 vols. New York: Charles Scribner, 1865-80; reprint ed., 12 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, n.d. Vol. 9: The Gospel According to John, by J. P. Lange. Translated, revised, enlarged, and edited by Philip Schaff.
Lea, Thomas D. "The Reliability of History in John’s Gospel." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38:3 (September 1996):387-402.
Lenski, Richard C. H. The Interpretation of St. John’s Gospel. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1961.
Lewis, C. S. Mere Christianity. New York: Macmillan, 1958.
Liddell, H. G., and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. New ed. Revised by H. S. Jones and R. Mackenzie. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1940.
Lightfoot, J. B. Biblical Essays. London: Macmillan, 1893.
Lightfoot, R. H. St. John’s Gospel: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956.
Lindars, Barnabas. The Gospel of John. New Century Bible series. London: Oliphants, 1972.
MacArthur, John A., Jr. The Gospel According to Jesus. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, Academie Books, 1988.
Macdonald, John. The Theology of the Samaritans. London: SCM, 1964.
MacLeod, David J. "The Benefits of the Incarnation of the Word." Bibliotheca Sacra 161:642 (April-June 2004):179-93.
_____. "The Creation of the Universe by the Word: Joh_1:3-5." Bibliotheca Sacra 160:638 (April-June 2003):187-201.
_____. "The Eternality and Deity of the Word: Joh_1:1-2." Bibliotheca Sacra 160:637 (January-March 2003):48-64.
_____. "The Incarnation of the Word: Joh_1:14." Bibliotheca Sacra 161:641 (January-March 2004):72-88.
_____. "The Reaction of the World to the Word: Joh_1:10-13." Bibliotheca Sacra 160:640 (October-December 2003):398-413.
_____. "The Witness of John the Baptist to the Word: Joh_1:6-9." Bibliotheca Sacra 160:639 (July-September 2003):305-20.
Martyn, J. Louis. History and Theology in the Fourth Gospel. New York: Abingdon Press, 1979.
Martyr, Justin. Dialogue with Trypho. Vol. 1 of The Ante-Nicene Fathers. 10 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, and Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.
McCoy, Brad. "Obedience Is Necessary to Receive Eternal Life." Grace Evangelical Society News 9:5 (September-October 1994):1, 3.
McKay, Kenneth L. "Style and Significance in the Language of Joh_21:15-17." Novum Testamentum 27 (1985):319-33.
Merrill, Eugene H. "Deuteronomy, New Testament Faith, and the Christian Life." In Integrity of Heart, Skillfulness of Hands, pp. 19-33. Edited by Charles H. Dyer and Roy B. Zuck. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1994.
Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. London and New York: United Bible Societies, 1971.
The Mishnah. Translated by Herbert Danby. London: Oxford University Press, 1933.
Mitchell, John G. An Everlasting Love: A Devotional Study of the Gospel of John. Portland, Oreg.: Multnomah Press, 1982.
Montgomery, David A. "Directives in the New Testament: A Case Study of Joh_1:38." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 50:2 (June 2007):275-88.
Moo, Douglas J. The Old Testament in the Gospel Passion Narratives. Sheffield, England: Almond Press, 1983.
Morgan, G. Campbell. The Gospel According to John. Westwood, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell Co., n.d.
_____. Living Messages of the Books of the Bible. 2 vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912.
Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to John. New International Commentary on the New Testament series. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1971.
_____. The Gospel According to John: Revised Edition. New International Commentary on the New Testament series. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1995.
Murray, John. Redemption-Accomplished and Applied. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1955.
Neirynck, Frans. Evangelica: Gospel Studies-Etudes d’Evangile. Collected Essays. Edited by F. van Segbroeck. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1982.
Newbigin, Lesslie. The Light Has Come: An Exposition of the Fourth Gospel. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1982; reprint ed. Edinburgh: Handsel Press, 1987.
The New Scofield Reference Bible. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein, William Culbertson, et al. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Nouwen, Henri J. M. In the Name of Jesus: Reflections on Christian Leadership. New York: Crossroad, 1994.
Odeberg, Hugo. The Fourth Gospel. 1929. Rev. ed. Amsterdam: B. R. Grüner, 1968.
Overstreet, R. Larry. "Roman Law and the Trial of Christ." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:540 (October-December 1978):323-32.
Patrick, Johnstone G. "The Promise of the Paraclete." Bibliotheca Sacra 127:508 (October-December 1970):333-45.
Pentecost, J. Dwight. The Words and Works of Jesus Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981.
Pink, Arthur W. Exposition of the Gospel of John. Swengel, Pa.: I. C. Herendeen, 1945; 3 vols. in 1 reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1968.
Porter, Stanley E. Verbal Aspect in the Greek of the New Testament, with Reference to Tense and Mood. Studies in Biblical Greek series. New York: Peter Lang, 1989.
Pryor, John W. "Joh_4:44 and the Patris of Jesus." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 49 (1987):254-63.
Pyne, Robert A. "The Role of the Holy Spirit in Conversion." Bibliotheca Sacra 150:598 (April-June 1993):203-18.
Reynolds, Edwin E. "The Role of Misunderstanding in the Fourth Gospel." Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 9:1-2 (1998):150-59.
Robertson, A. T. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. 3rd ed. New York: Hodder & Stoughton, 1919.
Rydelnik, Michael A. "The Jewish People and Salvation." Bibliotheca Sacra 165:660 (October-December 2008):447-62.
Sanders, J. N. A. Commentary on the Gospel According to St. John. Black’s New Testament Commentaries series. Edited and compiled by B. A. Mastin. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1968.
Saucy, Mark R. "Miracles and Jesus’ Proclamation of the Kingdom of God." Bibliotheca Sacra 153:611 (July-September 1996):281-307.
Sava, A. F. "The Wound in the Side of Christ." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 19 (1957):343-46.
Shepard, J. W. The Christ of the Gospels. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1946.
Sherwin-White, A. N. Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963.
Showers, Renald E. Maranatha Our Lord, Come: A Definitive Study of the Rapture of the Church. Bellmawr, Pa.: Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, 1995.
Skinner, Christopher W. "Another Look at ’the Lamb of God’," Bibliotheca Sacra 161:641 (January-March 2004):89-104.
Smalley, Stephen S. 1, 2, 3 John. Word Biblical Commentary series. Waco: Word Books, 1984.
_____. John: Evangelist and Interpreter. Exeter, England: Paternoster Press, 1978.
Smith, David. "Jesus and the Pharisees in Socio-Anthropological Perspective." Trinity Journal 6NS:2 (Autumn 1985):151-56.
Staley, Jeff. "The Structure of John’s Prologue: Its Implications for the Gospel’s Narrative Structure." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 48:2 (April 1986):241-63.
Stanton, Gerald B. Kept from the Hour. Fourth ed. Miami Springs, Fla.: Schoettle Publishing Co., 1991.
Stauffer, Ethelbert. Jesus and His Story. Translated by D. M. Barton. London: SCM Press, 1960.
Stein, Robert H. "Wine-Drinking in New Testament Times." Christianity Today 19:19 (June 20, 1975):9-11.
Strachen, R. H. The Fourth Gospel: Its Significance and Environment. 3rd ed. London: SCM Press, 1941.
Tacitus. The Histories and the Annals. 4 vols. With an English translation by John Jackson. The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, and London: William Heinemann, 1962-63.
Tasker, R. V. G. The Gospel According to St. John: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries series. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1960.
Tenney, Merrill C. "The Author’s Testimony to Himself." Bibliotheca Sacra 120:479 (July-September 1963):214-23.
_____. "The Imagery of John." Bibliotheca Sacra 121:481 (January-March 1964):13-21.
_____. "John." In John-Acts. Vol. 9 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein and J. D. Douglas. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981.
_____. John: The Gospel of Belief. 1948. Rev. ed. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1954.
_____. "The Old Testament and the Fourth Gospel." Bibliotheca Sacra 120:480 (October-December 1963):300-8.
_____. "The Symphonic Structure of John." Bibliotheca Sacra 120:478 (April-June 1963):117-25.
_____. "Topics from the Gospel of John." Bibliotheca Sacra 132:525 (January-March 1975):37-46; 526 (April-June 1975):145-60; 527 (July-September 1975):229-41; 528 (October-December 1975):343-57.
Thatcher, Tom. "Jesus, Judas, and Peter: Character by Contrast in the Fourth Gospel." Bibliotheca Sacra 153:612 (October-December 1996):435-48.
_____. "A New Look at Asides in the Fourth Gospel." Bibliotheca Sacra 151:604 (October-December 1994):428-39.
Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Edited by Gerhard Kittle. S.v. elencho, by F. Büchsel.
_____. S.v., lithos, by Joachim Jeremias.
Thomas, Robert L. Evangelical Hermeneutics: The New Versus the Old. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2002.
Thomas, W. H. Griffith. "The Plan of the Fourth Gospel." Bibliotheca Sacra 125:500 (October-December 1968):313-23.
Torrey, Charles C. "The Date of the Crucifixion According to the Fourth Gospel." Journal of Biblical Literature 50:4 (1931):229-41.
Toussaint, Stanley D. "The Significance of the First Sign in John’s Gospel." Bibliotheca Sacra 134:533 (January-March 1977):45-51.
Trench, Richard Chenevix. Synonyms of the New Testament. New Edition. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1915.
Tucker, John A. "The Inevitability of Fruitbearing: An Exegesis of Joh_15:6 - Part I." Journal of Dispensational Theology 15:44 (April 2011):51-68.
_____. "The Inevitability of Fruitbearing: An Exegesis of Joh_15:6 - Part II." Journal of Dispensational Theology 15:45 (August 2011):49-68.
Unger’s Bible Dictionary, 1957 ed. S.v. "Pretorium."
Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1996.
Warren, Rick. The Purpose-Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here For? Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2002.
Westcott, B. F. The Gospel According to St. John: The Authorised Version with Introduction and Notes. London: James Clarke & Co., Ltd., 1958.
_____. The Gospel According to St. John: The Greek Text with Introduction and Notes. 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1908.
Wiersbe, Warren W. The Bible Exposition Commentary. 2 vols. Wheaton: Scripture Press, Victor Books, 1989.
Wilkinson, John. Jerusalem as Jesus knew it: Archaeology as Evidence. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978.
Witmer, John A. "Did Jesus Claim to Be God?" Bibliotheca Sacra 125:498 (April-June 1968):147-56.
Wuest, Kenneth S. Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament. Vol. 4: Golden Nuggets, Untranslatable Riches, Bypaths, and In These Last Days. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1966.
Yamauchi, Edwin M. "Cultural Aspects of Marriage in the Ancient World." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:539 (July-September 1978):241-52.
Yarid, John R., Jr. "John’s Use of the Upper Room Discourse in First John." Ph.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 2002.
Zerwick, Maximilian. Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples. Translated by Joseph Smith. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1963.
Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Edited by Merrill C. Tenney. S.v. "Jacob’s Well," by R. L. Alden.
_____. S.v. "Spikenard," by W. E. Shewell-Cooper.