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by Arno Clemens Gaebelein
THE BOOK OF GENESIS
The first book of the Bible is called in the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Old Testament) “Genesis.” Genesis means “origin.” The Hebrews call it by the first Hebrew word “Bereshith”--in the beginning. It is the book of all beginnings. We can trace here the beginnings of creation and everything else, except God, who has no beginning. The book of Genesis is the great foundation upon which the entire revelation of God rests. The marvellous structure of the Bible, composed of the different books, written by different instruments of the Spirit of God at different times, is built upon this great, majestic book. It is the root out of which the tree of God’s revelation has grown. Internal evidences prove the most complete unity, that is the work of one chosen instrument, Moses, and that it is not of a composite authorship. But more than that, the book of Genesis establishes the divine unity of the Bible. The last book of the Bible, the Revelation, confirms this. Genesis tells of the origin of all things; Revelation reveals the destiny of all things.
It is an interesting study, profitable and suggestive, to trace the great doctrines of the Bible in this first book. They are all found somewhere in Genesis, either in typical foreshadowings or in direct words. Here, too, we may discover the dispensational and prophetic truths of the Bible in germ. Genesis 3:15 is the prediction out of which the rest of prophecy has been developed. The entire New Testament in its doctrinal statements rests upon this book. It is quoted there as the Word of God scores of times. If the revelations of Genesis, especially the opening chapters, the supreme foundation, if these chapters were myths, the entire New Testament would have to be given up as unauthoritative. Indeed, the great doctrines in Romans, starting from the fact that man is a fallen being and lost, would be just as much myths, if the fall of man were a myth. The Lord Jesus Christ has put His seal to this great book.
The Criticism of Genesis
The book of Genesis, being the foundation of the whole Bible, and of such vast importance, it does not surprise us that the enemy of the truth of God has directed first of all his attacks against this book to break down its authority. A hundred years ago and less the cunning inventions of the father of lies, directed against the inspiration of Genesis and its unity, occupied mostly, if not altogether, the minds of theologians and scholars. It is different now. The stock of trade of the destructive critics, differing but little from that of accredited infidels, has become the common property of evangelical Christendom. The rationalistic theories concerning the date and authorship of Genesis are now liberally and almost universally displayed. In theological seminaries they are openly taught and hundreds of men, who claim to be teachers of the oracles of God, deny the inspiration of the book of Genesis.
The Paternity of Higher Criticism
That such a denial is not of God is self-evident. But it is interesting to examine the source from which the destructive criticism of Genesis and the Pentateuch has come. The man who has been called the “Sir Isaac Newton of criticism” is jean Astruc. He was a French physician, a freethinker, who led a wicked, immoral life. In 1753 this man gave to the world his doubts in a work which he called, “Conjectures Regarding the Original Memoirs in the Book of Genesis.” In this work he taught that the use of the two names of God in Genesis, Elohim (translated by God) and Jehovah (translated by Lord) showed that two different documents were used in the composition of the book. The hypothesis of a Jehovist and Elohist writer, so called, was invented by this unsaved man. It was, however, reserved for a German scholar and rationalist to formulate the denial of the unity and inspiration of Genesis into a system. This man was Professor Eichhorn. He coined the phrase, “higher criticism,” and is therefore called the “father” of it. He introduced successfully into the theological institutions of Germany the theory of Astruc. On account of his great learning his invented higher criticism took hold upon the minds of thousands of people. But who was Professor Eichhorn? Let another higher critic give the answer. Ewald, himself such a powerful factor of this most dangerous infidelity, wrote: “We cannot fail to recognize that, from the religious point of view the Bible was to him a closed book.”
Such is the paternity of the now widely accepted higher criticism: an immoral, infidel Frenchman and an unconverted, blind leader of the blind, a German Professor.
After Eichhorn came other men, such as Vater and Hartman, who tried to undermine the Mosaic authorship of Genesis by still another theory. Professor DeWette, of Heidelberg, followed closely in the steps of infidel Eichhorn. Bleeck taught still another theory. Then we mention Ewald, Hupfeld, Prof. Kuenen, Dr. Davidson, Robertson Smith, Canon Driver, George Adams Smith, Professor Briggs, W. Harper, Marcus Dods and many others, who may all be fitly called the disciples of the immoral Frenchman and the infidel German. For instance, George Adams Smith saith: “The framework of the first eleven chapters of Genesis is woven from the raw material of myth and legend” And the works of this man and others are now sold at popular prices by so called Christian publishers.
A Complicated Science
They call this kind of criticism scientific. It surely has all the marks of so-called science. Speculation, uncertainty and complicated statements are the leading characteristics of this criticism. They claim now that the Pentateuch (the five books written by Moses) were never written by him, but that these books consist of four diverse documents. These they designate as follows: 1. The Jehovist. 2. The Elohist. 3. The Deuteronomist. 4. The Priestly Code. The authorship of Moses has been completely given up and it is claimed that the earliest part of the Pentateuch was written perhaps six hundred years after Moses’ death. They put the date of the greater part of these five books after the Babylonian captivity.
A writer has recently given a fine description of this higher critical “scientific” nonsense, part of which we quote:
They conjecture that these four suppositive documents were not compiled and written by Moses, but were probably constructed somewhat after this fashion: For some reason, and at some time, and in some way, someone no one knows who, or why, or when, or where, wrote Jehovist. Then someone else, no one knows who, or why, or when, or where, wrote another document, which is now called Elohist. And then at a later time, the critics only know who, or why, or when, or where, an anonymous personage, whom we may call Redactor I, took in hand the reconstruction of these documents, introduced new material, harmonized the real and apparent discrepancies, and divided the inconsistent accounts of one event into two separate transactions. Then some time after this, perhaps one hundred years or more, no one knows who, or why, or when, or where, some anonymous personage wrote another document, which they styled Deuteronomist. And after awhile another anonymous author, no one knows who, or why, or when, or where, whom we will call Redactor II, took this in hand, compared it with Jehovist and Elohist, revised them with considerable freedom and, in addition, introduced quite a body of new material. Then someone else, no one knows who, or why, or when, or where, probably, however, about 525, or perhaps 425, wrote the Priestly Code; and then another anonymous Hebrew, whom we may call Redactor III, undertook to incorporate this with the triplicated composite Jehovist, Elohist, and Deuteronomist, with what they call redactional additions and insertions (Canon Hague).
This describes the infidel mud puddle into which these “great” scholars have plunged and into which they would like to lead the sheep and even the little lambs.
The Mosaic Authorship
“All tradition, from whatever source it is derived, whether inspired or uninspired, unanimously affirms that the first five books of the Bible were written by one man, and that man was Moses. There is no counter-testimony in any quarter.” With these words, Prof. William Henry Green begins his learned work on the unity of Genesis. Other learned men in past generation up to the present time stand firm for the Mosaic authorship of Genesis, and thereby affirm the fact of revelation. The cry of the higher critics--”ripe scholarship,” “access to better sources,” etc.--is a bluff. The best scholarship stands by the truth. Some of the arguments advanced against Moses as writer of Genesis are exactly the argument for it and the evidences of inspiration. For instance, the use of the name of God as Elohim and Jehovah. Elohim is the name of God as Creator--Jehovah is His name as entering into covenant relation with man. The use of these names is a precious evidence of the work of the Spirit of God and not an evidence of different writers and documents.
The highest authority that Moses wrote Genesis and the other four books, and that Genesis is the revelation of God, is the Lord Jesus Christ. He spoke repeatedly of Moses and reminded His hearers of the historic facts as given in Genesis. This fact is met by the critics with the statement that our Lord was not a critical scholar and limited in His knowledge. Such statements are akin to blasphemy.
The information concerning the criticism upon this great Bible book we are about to study is much needed. Many Christians hear of higher criticism without knowing what it is and how it originated. The information given shows that it originated with wicked men and that it is an attempt to destroy the very foundations upon which the whole Scriptures rest. Sometimes higher critics have a way of telling uninformed Christians that the views they hold are the consensus of the best scholarship. This is untrue. Others, again, who have imbibed these views hide the worst features of them. For this reason we deem it expedient to give this information.
The study of Genesis will deepen the faith in the inspiration and revelation of the first book of the Bible. There is nothing which convinces of the divinity of the Bible like the prayerful and spiritual study of the Bible itself. And the Bible has nothing to fear. It needs neither apology nor concessions.
Revelation or Myth?
A FEW OBJECTIONS CONSIDERED
From the sides of infidelity, higher criticism and a certain class of scientists objections are made against the opening chapters of Genesis. Not only is the Mosaic authorship denied but the revelation contained in these chapters is branded as unscientific and at variance with the facts revealed by science. Others class these sublime truths concerning creation, the fall of man, the deluge, etc., with the legends of primitive nations and thus the fact of revelation is altogether denied. Inasmuch as these wicked statements are heard on all sides from pulpits and chairs of educational institutions, it becomes necessary that we consider briefly some of these objections and uncover their absolute worthlessness. The purpose of our work forbids a more extended treatment of these objections. Many helpful and interesting books have been written by scholars against these attacks. Elsewhere in this booklet the reader will find a number of works mentioned which deal with these attacks in a masterly way.
Is the Creation Account Contradicted by Science?
That the creation account is unscientific and in clash with the discoveries of modern science is one of the common statements. It has, however, no foundation whatever. The proofs that there is no error in the account of creation as revealed in the first chapter of Genesis, have been furnished by the investigation of science. The order of creation as given in the first chapter is the order, which, after years of searching--the most laborious searching--science has discovered. Over and over again has science with its guesses and speculations been forced to bow in submission before the simple and brief description of the creation in God’s Word. There is no clash between the Bible and the results of true scientific research. Geology, astronomy, and other sciences have had to retrace their steps more than once and acknowledge their mistake; the first chapter of Genesis will never have to do that.
Years ago scientists ridiculed the divine statement that the first thing called into existence was light: “let there be light,” and that the sun was made on the fourth day. That sneer is forever silenced, for science has found out that light existed first. Again for a long time it was denied that vegetation came first before animal life was on this globe. This denial has likewise been stopped by scientific discoveries. Other evidences that the Bible is right and science had to accept the truthfulness of the creation account we must pass by. What scientists should explain is, how in a simple record of a few verses, which antedates all scientific research and discovery, such accurate information is given without any error whatever. Where did Moses get his marvellous knowledge which the scientific research of the nineteenth century confirms correct in every way? There is only one answer. It is the revelation of God.
This becomes still more evident when the creation chapter in Genesis is compared with the conceptions of the origin of the earth as found in the records of the oldest nations. What ridiculous things were believed concerning creation and the universe! Why did Moses not write the same childish things but instead gives a majestic account of the creation of the earth and the heavens? The answer is and ever will be, his account is the revelation of God how the earth and the heavens came into existence.
Is There a Contradiction Between the First and Second Chapters of Genesis?
Another favorite argument against the infallible record of creation is that the first and second chapters are contradictory. A certain New York preacher stated some years ago in Appleton’s Magazine this supposed difficulty. He said, “How can we trouble about reconciling Genesis and science” while the two accounts of the first two chapters “are so hopelessly at variance?” Criticism has used this alleged discrepancy as an argument for its infidel theories. There is, however, no contradiction between these two chapters. The second chapter in Genesis is not another history of creation nor does it contradict the account in the first chapter. The historical account of creation as a whole is found in Genesis 1-2:3. The division of chapters in the Authorized version is unfortunate. From chapter 2:4 to the close of the chapter we have not a historical account of creation at all, but a divine statement of the relationships of creation, that is, man’s place in it as its head. There are no contradictions in anything. Genesis 1:27 is said to clash with 2:21-22. Such a clash does not exist. Genesis 1:27 does not say that man and woman were created together, nor does it say that the woman was created directly and not formed as revealed in the second chapter.
The Myths of Ancient Nations
It is a well known fact that ancient nations such as the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Hindus, possessed myths in which one can hear now and then a faint echo of a primeval revelation and knowledge, which must have been in possession of all mankind at one time. That such was the case Romans 1:21-23 fully confirms. All mankind knew God and was acquainted with the great facts of history, the events recorded in the first eleven chapters of Genesis. As they became vain, their foolish heart was darkened, they rushed into idolatry. Their traditions, however, here and there give glimpses of the truth they once knew. It is impossible to give here evidences of it as discovered in the Assyrian tablets, which have something to say of the creation and the deluge, known now as “the Chaldean Genesis.” Other traces are found in ancient Phoenician sources as well as in India, among the Romans and the Greeks, Babylonians, Chinese and other nations. However, all these, including “the Chaldean Genesis” are miserable contortions.
There are a few resemblances and many more differences between the Biblical and especially the Babylonian accounts. It is claimed that Moses, or since Moses did not write according to this infidel theory, somebody else, made use of these myths in writing the opening chapters of Genesis. This farfetched invention has no foundation at all. The book of Genesis is not the offspring of Babylonian tradition. God gave to Moses the account of creation and the beginnings of history by direct revelation as the blessed foundation of all subsequent revelation in His holy Word. The man, who boasts of scholarship, and brands the first eleven chapters of Genesis as myths, putting them alongside of the traditions of ignorant ancient nations, but reveals his ignorance and blindness.
This great catastrophe has also been denied and ridiculed. It is painful to mention all these denials, but it is needful to call attention to these attacks on the foundation of the Bible. Hundreds of men, who claim to be exponents of Christianity speak of Noah as a myth and the deluge reported in Genesis as an unconfirmed event. Traditions of the flood are found among all nations and exhibit in many cases a very striking agreement with the divinely given record. These traditions are found in India, China, Egypt, and Greece as well as among the Chaldeans and Babylonians. Peruvians, Mexicans, Greenlanders, and the Teutonic races possess these traditions. Geology also gives the most decisive evidence of such a judgment by water through which the earth passed. The surface of the earth exhibits a deposit, which originated after a universal flood and which is called diluvial (flood) land. Vast quantities of bones and teeth of antediluvian animals, masses of rock and boulder, carried by the flood, are found in this diluvial deposit. Many pages could be filled with such evidences.
Nothing Left Unattacked
Nothing has been left unattacked in the opening chapters of Genesis. The existence of paradise, the fall of man, the curse, the story of Cain and Abel, Enoch’s translation, the tower of Babel and every other recorded event has been denied and is increasingly denied. That our Lord referred repeatedly to these first chapters of the Bible and thereby confirmed their historicity and revelation, is not at all taken in consideration by these enemies of the Word of God.
But the foundation rock of the Bible, the book of Genesis stands as firm as it ever stood. It can never be moved. Let them dig away! Let them dash against it with their heads. They will perish, but God’s Word abideth forever. In a day when apostasy sweeps through Christendom like a mighty avalanche, let us cling closer to the living Word of the living God and hold fast the testimony of its inerrancy. And now with thankful hearts and a prayer for the Holy Spirit’s guidance we come to the book itself.
The Division of Genesis
Every book of the Bible has a key and also hints on the division of the book. The correct way in unlocking the book is to use the key and the Division as given by the Holy Spirit in the book itself. The book of Genesis has been divided in perhaps more different ways than any other book. In looking through Genesis for a characteristic word we have no difficulty in finding it in the word “generations” (Hebrew: toledoth). It is used eleven times in this book. The first time the word generations occurs is in chapter 2:4. The creation account stands therefore by itself. This gives us twelve sections.
I. THE CREATION ACCOUNT (1-2:3)
II. THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH (Genesis 2:4 )
III. THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM (5-6:8)
IV. THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH (Genesis 6:9-29 )
V. THE GENERATIONS OF THE SONS OF NOAH (10-11:9)
VI. THE GENERATIONS OF SHEM (11:10-26)
VII. THE GENERATIONS OF TERAH (11:27-25:11)
VIII. THE GENERATIONS OF ISHMAEL (25:12-18)
IX. THE GENERATIONS OF ISAAC (25:19-35)
X. THE GENERATIONS OF ESAU (36:1-8)
XI. THE GENERATIONS OF ESAU’S SONS (36:9-43)
XII. THE GENERATIONS OF JACOB (37:2-50:26)
We fully agree with the scholarly remarks of Prof. Green about the importance of this division. “These titles are designed to emphasize and render more prominent and palpable an important feature of the book, the genealogical character of its history. This results from its main design, which is to trace the line of descent of the chosen race from the beginning to the point where it was ready to expand to a great nation, whose future organization was already foreshadowed, its tribes being represented in the twelve sons of Jacob, and its tribal divisions in their children, The genealogies contained in the book are not merely incidental or subordinate, but essential, and the real basis of the whole. They are not to be regarded as addenda to the narrative, scraps of information introduced into it; they constitute the skeleton or framework of the history itself.”
“There is, accordingly, a regular series of genealogies of like structure, or rather one continuous genealogy extending from Adam to the family of Jacob. This is interrupted and suspended from time to time, as occasion requires, for the sake of introducing or incorporating facts of the history at particular points where they belong; after which it is resumed again precisely at the same point, and proceeds regularly as before until it reaches its utmost limit, thus embracing the entire history within itself.”
It is interesting to note the beginning and the end of these sections. We leave this as a suggestion with the reader. The reign of death after the entrance of sin is in full evidence in these sections. “Death reigned from Adam to Moses” (Romans 5:14 ). The last section ends with Joseph’s death “and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.”
In our annotations, following the above division, we shall trace the historical account and point out some spiritual and dispensational truths giving many hints, which may be followed in a more extended study of this great book.
Dictionary of the Proper Names of Genesis with Their Meaning
Abel -- Vanity, vapor.
Abel-mizraim -- Mourning of Egypt.
Abidah -- Father of knowledge.
Abimael -- My father from God.
Abimelech -- My father is king.
Abraham -- Father of many. Abram -- Father exalted.
Accad -- Band; city of Nisibis.
Achbar -- Mouse; Swift.
Adah -- Adorned.
Adam -- Man (red).
Adheel -- Sorrow from God.
Admah -- Red earth.
Adullamite -- From Adullam; Restingplace.
Aholibamah -- Tent of the high place.
Ahuzzath -- Possession.
Ajah -- A young hawk.
Akan -- Wresting.
Allon-bachuth -- Oak of weeping.
Almodad -- Beyond measure.
Alvah -- Wickedness.
Alvan -- Unrighteous.
Amalek -- A nation that licks up.
Amorite -- Mountain dweller.
Amraphel -- Uttering dark sentences.
Anah -- An answer.
Anamin -- Gushing of the waters.
Aner -- Exile; Sprout.
Aram -- Exalted.
Aran -- Wild goat.
Ararat -- High or holy ground.
Arbah -- Four.
Ard -- Fugitive (uncertain).
Areli -- Lion of God.
Arioch -- Strong lion.
Arkite -- One who gnaws.
Arodi -- Roaming, untamed.
Arphaxad -- Laying on or at the side.
Arvadite -- Break loose; Wanderer.
Asenath -- Devoted to the goddess Neith.
Ashbel -- Fire of Bel; or, Correction of God.
Asher -- Happy.
Ashkenaz -- Scattered fire.
Ashteroth-Karnaim -- Dougle-homed
Astarte (Phoenician); Venus.
Asshur -- Step.
Asshurim -- Steps.
Atad -- Bramble.
Avith -- Ruins.
- B -
Baal-hanan -- Baal is merciful.
Babel -- Confusion.
Bashemath -- Pleasant smell.
Becher -- First born.
Bedad -- Solitary, separate.
Beeri -- My well.
Beersheba -- Well of the oath.
Bela -- Devouring.
Benammi -- Son of my people.
Benjamin -- Son of the right hand.
Ben-oni -- Son of my sorrow.
Beor -- Torch; Burning.
Bera -- Excelling in evil.
Beriah -- Unfortunate.
Bethel -- House of God.
Beer-lahai-roi -- Well of the living and seeing.
Bethlehem -- House of bread.
Bethuel -- Separated of God.
Bilhah -- Timid.
Bilhan -- Their fear.
Birsha -- Son of wickedness.
Bozrah -- Sheep fold.
Buz -- Contempt.
- C -
Cain -- Acquisition; Acquired of Jehovah.
Cainan -- Deplorable.
Calah -- Completion, old age.
Calneh -- Complete wailing (Cal-neh.)
Canaan -- Merchant; Trafficker.
Caphtorim -- Crowns.
Carmi -- My vineyard.
Casluhim -- Barren mountains.
Chedorlaomer -- Handful of sheaves.
Cheran -- Their lamb; joyous shouts.
Chesed -- Meaning is unknown.
Chezib -- Lying.
Cush -- Black.
- D -
Damascus -- City of activities.
Dan -- Judging.
Deborah -- Bee, or her words.
Dedan -- Their leading forward.
Diklah -- Palm tree.
Dinah -- Vindicated; judgment.
Dinhabah -- She gives judgment.
Dishan -- Their threshing; Gazelle.
Dishon -- A thresher.
Dodanim -- Leader, or loves.
Dothan -- Decrees.
Dumah -- Silence.
- E -
Ebal -- Heaps of barrenness.
Eber -- He that passes over, a passenger.
Edar -- A flock.
Eden -- Delight, according to others, a plain.
Edom -- Red.
Ehi -- My brother.
Elah -- Strength, an oak.
Elam -- Forever, eternal.
El-bethel -- God, God’s house.
Eldaah -- God’s knowledge.
El-elohe-Israel -- God, the God of Israel.
Eliezer -- My God is help.
Eliphaz -- My God is fine gold.
Elishah -- My God is salvation.
Ellasar -- Of uncertain meaning.
Elon -- Mighty; Oak.
El-Paran -- The might of their adorning.
Emims -- Terrors.
En-misphat -- Fountain of judgment.
Enoch -- Dedicated; Teaching.
Enos -- Frail, mortal man.
Ephah -- Darkness.
Epher -- A young hart.
Ephraim -- Great fruitfulness, doubly fruitful.
Ephron -- A fawn; Of dust.
Ephrath -- Fruitful.
Er -- Watcher; Stirring up; Enmity.
Eri -- My watching; My enmity.
Erech -- Length.
Esau -- Hairy.
Eschol -- A cluster.
Eshban -- Very red.
Ethiopia -- Black.
Euphrates -- Fruitfulness; Sweet water.
Eve -- Life, life giver.
Ezbon -- Uncertain meaning; perhaps, Hastening of the son.
Ezer -- Help.
- G -
Gad -- Good fortune is come; Invading.
Gaham -- Flame, burning.
Galeed -- Heap of witness.
Gatam -- Coming in touch.
Gaza -- Fortified.
Gera -- Rumination.
Gerar -- Sojourning.
Gershon -- Outcast, stranger.
Gether -- Turning aside; A spy.
Gihon -- Breaking forth.
Gilead -- Rocky; Heap of witness.
Girgasites -- Dwellers in swamps.
Gomer -- Completion.
Gomorrah -- Heap or bundled together.
Goshen -- Meaning obscure.
Guni -- Protected.
- H -
Hadar -- Honor, ornament.
Hadad -- Sharp, noisy.
Hadoram -- Exalted people.
Hagar -- Flight, sojourner.
Haggi -- My feast.
Hai -- Ruins.
Ham -- Hot; Black; Sunburnt.
Hamathite -- Defender; Fortress.
Hamor -- An ass.
Hamul -- One who has been pitied.
Hanoch -- Dedicated.
Haran -- Their Mountain; Parched.
Havilah -- Trembling in pain (childbirth).
Hazarmaveth -- Court of death.
Hazezon-Tamar -- Pruning of the palm.
Hazo -- Vision.
Heber -- A company; also, Passing through.
Hebron -- Fellowship.
Hemam -- Destruction; Crushed.
Hemdan -- Delight.
Heth -- Dread; Fear.
Hezron -- Walled in; Division of song.
Hiddekel -- The swift; Tigris.
Hirah -- Nobility.
Hittite -- Same as Heth.
Hivite -- Together; Villagers; Winding.
Hobah -- Hiding place.
Hori, Horites -- Dwellers in caves.
Hul -- Writhing in pain.
Huppim -- Coverings.
Husham -- Haste.
Hushim -- Hasters.
Huz -- Counsellor.
- I -
Irad -- City of witness.
Iram -- Belonging to their city.
Isaac -- Laughter.
Iscah -- Gaze upon, or She will see.
Ishbak -- He will remain.
Ishuah -- He will be equal.
Ishmael, Ishmaelites -- God will hear.
Israel -- Prince with God.
Issachar -- Bringing wages; He will be hired.
Isui -- He will level.
- J -
Jaalam -- He will hide.
Jabal -- A river.
Jabbok -- He will pour out.
Jachin -- He will establish.
Jacob -- The supplanter.
Jahleel -- Hope of God.
Jahzeel -- Allotted of God.
Jamin -- Right hand.
Japheth -- Expansion.
Jared -- Descent.
Javan -- Clay (Greece).
Jebusite -- Treader down.
Jegarsahadutha -- Heap of witness.
Jehovah-jireh -- The Lord will see.
Jemuel -- Day of God.
Jerah -- Moon.
Jetheth -- Strengthener; A nail.
Jetur -- Encircle; Defence.
Jeush -- Gathering together.
Jezer -- Form; Purpose.
Jidlaph -- He will weep.
Jimnah -- Right-handed; Prosperity.
Job -- One who returns
Jobab -- Crying aloud.
Jokshan -- Ensnaring.
joktan -- He will be small.
Jordan -- Descending.
Joseph -- Let him add.
Jubal -- Musician.
Judah -- Praise.
Judith -- Jewish; Praising (in Phoenician form).
- K -
Kadesh -- Set apart; Devoted to licentious idolatry.
Kadmonites -- Ancients.
Kedar -- Dark-skinned.
Kedemah -- Eastward.
Kemuel -- Congregation of God.
Kenaz -- Hunter.
Kenites -- Acquiring.
Kenizzites -- Hunter.
Keturah -- Incense; Fragrance.
Kirjath-arba -- City of four.
Kittim -- Subduers.
Kohath -- Congregation, Waiting.
Korah -- Ice.
- L -
Laban -- White.
Lahai-roi -- The living and seeing one.
Lamech -- Powerful.
Leah -- Weary.
Lehabim -- Flames.
Letushim -- Hammered ones.
Leummim -- Nations.
Levi -- Joined.
Lot -- Covering.
Lotan -- Covering up.
Lud, Luddim -- of uncertain meaning; perhaps, to shine.
Luz -- Perverting.
- M -
Maachah -- Oppression.
Machir -- Seller.
Machpelah -- Double; Folded together.
Madai -- My extension.
Magdiel -- Preciousness of God; others; Mighty tower.
Magog -- Expansion, overtowering.
Mahalaleel -- Praise of God; The Blessed God.
Mahalath -- Stringed instrument; Harp; also, To be weak.
Mahanaim -- Two hosts or camps.
Malchiel -- My King is God.
Mamre -- Fatness; Strength.
Manahath -- Gift; Resting place.
Manasseh -- Forgetfulness.
Marah -- Bitterness.
Masrekah -- Vineyard.
Massa -- Bearing patiently; A burden; An utterance.
Matred -- Thrusting forward.
Medan -- Strife.
Mehetahel -- Benefited of God.
Mehujael -- Destroyed of God; or, Blot out that Jah is God.
Merari -- My bitterness.
Mesha -- Deliverance brought.
Meshech -- Drawing out.
Mesopotamia -- Exalted.
Methusael -- Dying who are of God.
Methuselah -- Death sent away.
Mezahab -- Waters of gold.
Mibsam -- Sweet smell.
Mibzar -- Defence.
Midian, Midianites -- Contention; Strife.
Milcah -- Queen.
Mishma -- Hearing.
Mizpah -- Watch-tower.
Mizraim -- Egypt; Double distresses.
Mizzah -- From sprinkling.
Moab -- From father, Water of father.
Muppim -- Anxieties; Shakings.
- N -
Naamah -- Pleasantness.
Naaman -- The same as Naamah.
Nahath -- Rest.
Nahor -- Snorter.
Naphish -- Refreshment.
Naphtali -- My wrestling.
Naphtuhim -- Openings.
Nebajoth -- Exalted places.
Nimrod -- Rebel.
Nineveh -- House of Ninus.
Noah -- Comfort.
- O -
Obal -- Stripped of leaves.
Ohad -- To be wild; joined together.
Omar -- Eloquent.
On -- Light; Sun (Egyptian).
Onam -- Vanity; Iniquity.
Onan -- Iniquity.
Ophir -- Abundance.
- P -
Padan-aram -- Plain of Aram (Mesopotamia).
Paran -- Abundance of foliage.
Pathrusim -- Southern countries.
Pau -- Crying out.
Peleg -- Division.
Peniel -- Face of God.
Perrizites -- Country folks.
Phallu -- Distinguished.
Pharaoh -- The King; a title.
Pharez -- Breach.
Phichol -- Mouth of all.
Philistines -- Land of wanderers.
Phut -- Extension.
Phuvah -- Mouth.
Pildash -- Flame of fire.
Pinon -- Distraction.
Pison -- Great increase.
Potiphar -- Devoted to Ra (Egyptian).
Poti-phera -- The same meaning.
- R -
Raamah -- Roaring; Thunder.
Rachel -- An ewe.
Rameses -- Son of the sun.
Rebekah -- Typing; rope Rehoboth -- Streets.
Rephaims -- Giants.
Resen -- Bridle.
Reu -- Friend, associate.
Reuben -- Behold a son.
Reuel -- Friend of God.
Reumah -- Exalted.
Riphath -- Crushing.
Rosh -- Chief, Head.
- S -
Sabtah -- Breaking through.
Salah -- Sent forth.
Salem -- Peace.
Samlah -- Covering; Enwrapping.
Sarah -- A princess.
Sarai -- My princess.
Saul -- Asked for.
Seba -- Drink thou; Drunkard.
Seir -- Rough, hairy.
Sephar -- Numbering; Census.
Serah -- A princess; same as Sarah.
Sered -- Fear; Trembling.
Serug -- A branch.
Seth -- Set; Appointed.
Shalem -- Peace.
Shamah -- Hearing.
Shaul -- Asked for (Saul).
Shaveh-Kiriathain -- Plain of cities.
Sheba -- To the oath.
Shebah -- The same.
Shechem -- Shoulder.
Shelah -- Sent forth; Sprout.
Sheleph -- Drawn out.
Shem -- Name.
Shemeher -- Name of wing.
Shepo -- Prominent.
Shillem -- Retribution.
Shimron -- A keeper.
Shinab -- Tooth of father.
Shinar -- Dispersing.
Shobab -- Backsliding.
Shuah -- Sink down; Depression; also: Riches.
Shuni -- Quiet; My rest.
Shur -- A wall.
Sichem -- Shoulder.
Siddim -- Plains; Name of a valley.
Sidon -- Fishing.
Simeon -- Hearing in obedience.
Sinite -- Clay.
Sitnah -- Accusation; Enmity.
Sodom -- Scorching; Burning; Locked up (Arabic).
Succoth -- Booths.
Syria -- Lifted up; Sublime.
- T -
Tamar -- A palm tree.
Tarshish -- Subjection; Scattering.
Tebah -- Slaughtering.
Tema -- Desert; Southern region.
Teman -- The same.
Terah -- Delay.
Thahash -- Badger; Seal.
Tidal -- Fear; Reverence.
Timna -- Restraint.
Timnah -- The same.
Timnath -- A portion.
Tiras -- Desire.
Togarmah -- Breaking bones.
Tola -- Little worm; (Cocus-cacti: from which comes the scarlet color).
Tubal -- Flowing forth.
Tubal-cain -- Coming forth of Cain.
- U -
Ur -- Light.
Uz -- Counsel.
Uzal -- Flooded; Going to and fro.
- Z -
Zaavan -- Great unrest.
Zaphnath-paaneah -- Revealer of secrets.
Zarah -- Sun rising.
Zeboim -- Troops.
Zeboiim -- The same.
Zebulun -- Habitation.
Zemarites -- Double cuttings off.
Zepho -- Watchfulness.
Zerah -- Rising of light.
Zibeon -- Of many colors.
Zilpah -- Dropping.
Zillah -- Shadow.
Zimran -- Their song.
Ziphim -- Smelters.
Zohar -- Whiteness; Light.
Zuzims -- Murmuring; Commotions.
Chronological Arrangement of Some Leading Persons and Events in Genesis
The creation of Adam...... 4004
The birth of Seth......... 3874
Enos born................. 3769
Cainan born............... 3679
Mahaleel born............. 3609
Jared born................ 3544
Enoch born................ 3382
Methuselah born........... 3317
Lamech born............... 3130
Adam’s death.............. 3074
Enoch’s translation....... 3017
Noah’s birth.............. 2948
The Flood................. 2348
Peleg born................ 2247
Nahor born................ 2155
Terah’s birth............. 2126
Noah’s death.............. 1998
Abraham’s birth........... 1996
Abraham’s call in Ur...... 1945
Terah’s death............. 1921
Second call to Abraham.... 1921
Abraham in Egypt.......... 1920
His return................ 1912
Abraham takes Hagar....... 1911
The birth of Ishmael...... 1910
The Covenant sign given... 1897
Birth of Isaac............ 1896
Sarah’s death............. 1859
Isaac’s marriage.......... 1856
Jacob born................. 1836
Abraham’s death............ 1821
Marriage of Esau........... 1796
Death of Ishmael........... 1773
Jacob’s flight............. 1759
His marriages.............. 1752
Jacob’s flight............. 1739
Meets his brother.......... 1738
Jacob at Bethel............ 1731
Death of Rachel............ 1728
Joseph sold................ 1727
Joseph in Egypt............ 1717
Death of Isaac............. 1716
Joseph interprets dreams... 1715
Egyptian famine......... 1707-01
Jacob’s death.............. 1689
Joseph’s death............. 1635
the Fifth Week after Easter