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The Book of Deuteronomy is didactic rather than historic. It consists of a collection of the final utterances of Moses and is a Book of review.
It commences with a discourse in which Moses reviewed the forty years. This occupies chapters 1 Timothy 4:0, verse 43. The whole journey from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea should have occupied eleven days (verse Deu 1:2 ). The distance was not more than 125 miles. Because of unbelief they had spent forty years in the wilderness.
We have in this chapter a review of the first movement from Horeb to Kadesh-barnea. The call which had come to them at Horeb emphasized the fact that they were under the divine government, and indicated the purpose of God that they should go in and possess the land. Looking back, Moses reminded the people of their rebellion in the matter of the spies and of the consequent discipline to which they had been subjected. In doing this he was careful to set all the facts in the light of the government of God. He reminded them that their disturbance at Horeb was due to the direct commandment of God, that even though the way of the wilderness had been a terrible one, they had not been left to grope their way through it alone. God had constantly moved before them, choosing them the place of encampment at every pause, indicating where they should pitch their tents.
It is noticeable that when he now referred to the mission of the spies, he quoted the report of the minority rather than that of the majority.
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Morgan, G. Campbell. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 1". "Morgan's Exposition on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent