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Bible Commentaries
1 Samuel 16

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy ScripturesEverett's Study Notes

Verses 1-23

1 Samuel 16:1-13 Samuel Anoints David In 1 Samuel 16:1-13 the prophet Samuel anoints young David to be the next king. However, David’s journey to kingship will be a long journey with many trials to test and strengthen his faith in the God of Israel. David has known God in his times of worship. He will soon fight Goliath and learn that God is also Lord of Hosts, a God of war. He will begin by playing the harp before King Saul, then be promoted to the kings armour bearer. There David will learn of God’s ways in battle. In a strange twist of event, David will flee into exile for a period of time. During this most difficult period in his life David will write some of his greatest psalms, as he sees God’s hand of divine providence and provision. It is an important time in David’s journey to kingship, helping him to develop humility and strength of character. In God’s divine providence King Saul is slain by the sword and David take leadership over his tribe Judah. Still David’s faith is tested for another seven years as he learns to honour all twelve tribes on Israel. The day finally comes when the entire kingdom will be placed into his hands. But this will not be the same young David that was anointed by the prophet Samuel many years earlier. David is now a man of war, seasoned in God’s ways and walking in a godly character before God and his nation.

1 Samuel 16:2 And Samuel said, How can I go? if Saul hear it, he will kill me. And the LORD said, Take an heifer with thee, and say, I am come to sacrifice to the LORD.

1 Samuel 16:2 “And Samuel said, How can I go? if Saul hear it, he will kill me” Comments - This shows the wickedness of Saul, as seen by Samuel.

1 Samuel 16:10 Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD hath not chosen these.

1 Samuel 16:10 Comments - Notice the number seven in this verse. The number seven represents completeness. Under the Mosaic Law, a person was declared unclean seven days. But the eighth day, he was made clean. A slave was in bondage seven years, but in the eighth year, he was made free. God judged a nation seven years, but in the eighth years, the nation was free. Thus, the number eight represents a time of new beginnings and freedom from bondage.

Since David is a type and figure of Christ, he was numbered as the eighth son. This eighth son is a symbol of the fact that Christ came to bring man out of bondage into a new beginning.

1 Samuel 16:12 And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.

1 Samuel 16:12 Now he was ruddy” Word Study on “ruddy” Gesenius says the Hebrew word “ruddy” ( אַדְמׂנִי ) or ( אַדְמוֹנִי ) (H132) means, “Red, i.e., red haired, used of Esau and of David.” Strong says it means, “reddish (of the hair or the complexion),” and comes from ( אָדַם ) (H119), which means, “to show blood (in the face), i.e., flush or to turn rosy.” Holladay and HALOT say it means, “reddish.” Webster says the English word “ruddy” means, “Having a red, healthy appearance or complexion.”

Note other uses of this Hebrew word:

Genesis 25:25, “And the first came out red , all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau.”

1 Samuel 16:12, “And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy , and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look.”

1 Samuel 17:42, “And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy , and of a fair countenance.”

Comments - When Jesse Duplantis was being interviewed by Benny Hinn on This Is Your Day, he said that he was caught up in a heavenly visitation in 1988. During this visitation, he met King David. Duplantis said that he was red-headed. [31]

[31] Jesse Duplantis, interviewed by Benny Hinn, This is Your Day (Irving, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California, July 16, 2002), television program.

1 Samuel 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.

1 Samuel 16:13 “the spirit of the Lord came upon David fro that day forward” Comments - This is the reason David was able to kill the lion and the bear (1 Samuel 17:36) and Goliath (1 Samuel 17:5).

1 Samuel 17:36, “Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.”

1 Samuel 17:51, “Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled.”

David becomes mighty in battle (1 Samuel 16:18; 1 Samuel 18:7).

1 Samuel 16:18, “Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, that is cunning in playing, and a mighty valiant man, and a man of war, and prudent in matters, and a comely person, and the LORD is with him.”

1 Samuel 18:7, “And the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.”

1 Samuel 16:13 Comments - Saul is our example of a man anointed king and filled with Holy Ghost, but he was lifted up with pride and the Holy Spirit taken from him (1 Samuel 16:14), and he died in battle against the enemy (1 Samuel 31:4-6). This is a type of believer who can turn in disobedience against God with pride and put the blood of Christ to open shame, with which God removes His Spirit from him and the latter end becomes worse than before believing, as was Saul’s latter end. Saul was troubled by an evil spirit in the end (1 Samuel 16:14). See Hebrews 6:4-6 and Hebrews 10:26-29.

1 Samuel 16:14, “But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.”

1 Samuel 31:6, “So Saul died, and his three sons, and his armourbearer, and all his men, that same day together.”

1 Samuel 16:13 Comments - David was anointed king and filled with the Holy Ghost long before he received his crown. He patiently endured persecution before Saul’s death This is figurative of us as Christians being anointed as kings and priests by the anointing of the Holy Ghost (Revelation 1:6, Acts 2:38), but we are to endure persecution until God destroys the enemy and we receive our heavenly crowns. (See 1 Corinthians 9:25, 2 Timothy 4:8, Jas 1:12 , 1 Peter 5:4, Revelation 2:10; Revelation 3:11)

Revelation 1:6, “And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.”

Acts 2:38, “Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.”

1 Corinthians 9:25, “And every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible.”

2 Timothy 4:8, “Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.”

James 1:12, “Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him.”

1 Peter 5:4, “And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.”

Revelation 2:10, “Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.”

Revelation 3:11, “Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown.”

David blessed Saul like we are commanded to do in Matthew 5:43-45.

Matthew 5:43-45, “Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.”

Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghe/1-samuel-16.html. 2013.
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