Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

Genesis 10

Verse 1

Introduction - Genesis 10:1 introduces the three patriarchs in the Table of Nations, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Genesis 10:1 Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.

Genesis 10:1Comments- Introduction to the Table of Nations - Genesis 10:1 serves as an introduction to the Table of Nations listed in Genesis 10:2-32, listing the three sons of Noah as Shem, Ham, and Japheth. In this passage of Scripture we the genealogies of the sons of Japheth ( Genesis 10:2-5), the sons of Ham ( Genesis 10:6-20) and the sons of Shem ( Genesis 10:21-31). The order of birth of Noah's three sons were Japheth (the elder) ( Genesis 10:21), and perhaps Ham as second and Shem third. The Talmud reflects an ancient Jewish tradition that Shem was the youngest son and Japheth the oldest. It says that Shem is listed first in this verse because of his wisdom. 136]

136] The Talmud reads, "And that the Scripture used to enumerate according to Wisdom of Solomon, and not age, may be seen from [ibid. vi 10]: ‘And Noah begat three sons--Shem, Ham, and Japheth.' And from the latter passage it is inferred that Shem was the youngest, and nevertheless he is named first, because of his wisdom. Said R. Kahana: I told this to R. Zebith of Nahardea, and he answered: Ye learned this from the cited passage. We, however, infer this from [ibid. x 21]: ‘But unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Elier the brother of Japheth the elder.' Hence we see that Japheth was the oldest of all the brothers." (Sanhedrin book 8, folio 69b) See Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 15-16 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 204.

Genesis 10:21, "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born."

On every occasion in the Scriptures when the three sons of Noah are listed together, they are always listed in the same order ( Genesis 5:32; Genesis 6:10; Genesis 7:13; Genesis 9:18, 1 Chronicles 1:4).

Genesis 5:32, "And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth."

Genesis 6:10, "And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth."

Genesis 7:13, "In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah"s wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark;"

Genesis 9:18, "And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan."

1 Chronicles 1:4, "Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth."

Genesis 10:1Word Study on "Shem" - Strong tells us that the Hebrew name "Shem" ( שֵׁם) (H 8035) means, "name," and that it is derived from the same Hebrew primitive root ( שֵׁם) (H 8034), which means, "name, reputation, fame, glory, memorial, monument."

Genesis 10:1Word Study on "Ham" - Strong tells us that the Hebrew name "Ham" ( חָם) (H 2526) means, "hot," and that it is derived from the same Hebrew primitive root ( חָם) (H 2525), which means, "hot, warm."

Genesis 10:1Word Study on "Japheth" - Strong tells us that the Hebrew name "Japheth" ( יֶפֶת) (H 3315) means, "expansion," and is derived from the primitive root ( פָּתָה) (H 6601), which means, "to be spacious, be open, be wide."

Verses 1-9

The Genealogy of the Sons of Noah- The fourth genealogy in the book of Genesis is entitled "The Genealogy of the Sons of Noah" ( Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9), which tells us how the sons of Noah fulfilled the divine commission to be fruitful and multiply. The previous genealogy of Noah tells us that the calling and destiny of Noah was to multiply and to replenish the earth ( Genesis 9:1). This genealogy shows the fulfillment of this commission in his sons. This passage of Scripture contains the Table of Nations, which show us that God divided mankind up into seventy nations in order to fulfill this commission. This table lists the genealogies of the sons of Noah, but only one of them would carry the seed of righteousness, which was Shem. All of their genealogies are listed briefly in this table because Noah had favor with God, so that God's blessings would come upon his children; however, only Shem fulfilled his divine destiny that was a part of God's eternal plan of redemption in that the seed of righteousness descended from him through Abraham. The other sons of Noah failed to fulfill their destinies, bearing wicked seed that continued the seed of corruption upon the earth. After reading in the Table of Nations concerning the seventy nations that were divided by their families and their tongues ( Genesis 10:1-32), we read the story of Babel of how the tongues of man were divided, which caused in the division of the nations ( Genesis 11:1-9). The Genealogy of the Sons of Noah closes by saying that God spread the seventy nations upon the earth ( Genesis 11:9), which would be to fulfill the divine commission for mankind to be fruitful and multiply.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. The Table of Nations — Genesis 10:1-32

2. The Tower of Babel — Genesis 11:1-9

The Origin of the Nations - Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9 describes the origins of the nations as we know them today. After Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 9:29 takes us through the series of events that shaped characteristics of the heavens and the earth as we know them today, which are listed as "seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease" ( Genesis 8:22), we are given a passage of Scripture that explains the origin of the seventy nations speaking distinct tongues that make up prophetic history until the new heavens and earth are created in eternity ( Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9). This passage will serve as a foundation for the next section in the book of Genesis, which explains the origin of the nation of Israel that God calls out to create a righteous people to repopulate the earth ( Genesis 11:10 to Genesis 50:26).

The Importance of Possessing Land- Genesis 10:1 to Genesis 11:9 identifies the names of seventy nations of the earth which were divided at the Tower of Babel. The Scriptures will refer to them from now until the book of Revelation as "the Gentiles" in contrast to the nation of Israel, which has yet to be established from the loins of Abraham whose ancestor is Heber. It is important to note that from God's perspective the nation of Israel will then take center stage throughout the history of mankind, except for the two thousand period of Church history. This is why Paul was able to identify three distinct people groups that exist on earth from a divine perspective, which is Israel, the Church and the Gentiles ( 1 Corinthians 10:32).

1 Corinthians 10:32, "Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:"

The Importance of Land Ownership- If we look at the existing boundaries of these 70 nations, we immediately begin to understand their economic importance. Each of these nations departed from the Tower of Babel with an equal opportunity for prosperity. We know that some countries inherited more productive land than others. A country's wealth is determined by its ability to subdue its land and exploit its resources. A drive into Brownsville, Texas is a clear illustration of this point. Part of this town is in the U.S.A. and part of it is in Mexico. As you pass from Texas through customs and into Mexico, you go from prosperity to poverty. The boundary fence running through this border city determines whether people are wealthy or poor, based upon the divine blessings upon their nation.

The Lord was so accurate regarding the importance of His people owning real estate that He had Joshua divide the Promised Land by lot to the twelve tribes. These tribes divided their lots up by clans, families and individuals. Without land ownership a person would have no hope for prosperity. This is why God gave the tribes certain rules on how to provide for the Levites since they had no land inheritance, but were scattered throughout the other tribes. When a person fell into poverty, he sold his land and served as a slave to others with no hope of obtaining prosperity. Song of Solomon, under the Mosaic Law, land ownership was carefully regulated because it held the keys to one's potential for prosperity.

I have lived in East Africa for a number of years now. As I observe wise investors in a country where corruption is widespread and inflation is high, it appears that the only sure place for someone to invest their money is in land. Having come from the U.S.A. with a strong economy, I felt that there were many secure investment opportunities; but in developing countries, land becomes the only secure investment. This helps illustrate the importance of these nations having their own secure boundaries, because this was a major factor in determining their future prosperity.

We read a statement in Ecclesiastes 5:9 "Moreover the profit of the earth is for all: the king himself is served by the field." This tells us that through the principles of economics, taxes eventually make their way into the hands of the king. From the laborer all of the way up to the king, every person in a society experiences the blessings from the field. Note that everything that you see around you, buildings, cars, furniture, even our physical bodies, comes from the ground. These minerals are the building blocks of materials and even life. So land is important and the boundaries of nations and the ownership and control of real estate plays a leading role in the conflicts and wars that are fought throughout the Scriptures between these seventy nations.

Verses 1-32

The Table of Nations- The Seventy Nations that Came Forth from the Three Sons of Noah - Genesis 10:1-32 tells us the names of the nations that descended from the three sons of Noah. We are told in the ancient Jewish writing of The Book of Jubilees that there were seventy nations and seventy languages divided upon the earth prior to the time of Abraham.

"And all the souls of Jacob which went into Egypt were seventy souls. These are his children and his children"s children, in all seventy, but five died in Egypt before Joseph, and had no children. And in the land of Canaan two sons of Judah died, Er and Onan, and they had no children, and the children of Israel buried those who perished, and they were reckoned among the seventy Gentile nations." (The Book of Jubilees 4432-34)

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Introduction — Genesis 10:1

2. The Sons of Japheth (Fourteen Nations) — Genesis 10:2-5

3. The Sons of Ham (Thirty Nations) — Genesis 10:6-20

4. The Sons of Shem (Twenty-Six Nations) — Genesis 10:21-31

The Original Language of Adam and Eve- As we read the list of names in Genesis 10:1-32 we realize that this passage is telling us that the nations on earth were divided by their languages and by their families ( Genesis 10:5). We find that there are indeed seventy names listed here besides the names of Noah and his three sons. These seventy descendants listed in Genesis 10:1-32 represent the seventy nations of the earth that were established after the Tower of Babel with Abraham's descendants being reckoned among the nations at a later date. We have a hint of the nation of Israel within this passage when it refers to Eber before his name comes up in the genealogy, "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber." ( Genesis 10:21); for the Hebrew people derived their name from this ancestor. The final verse of this passage says, "and from these (names) the nations were divided on the earth after the flood" ( Genesis 10:32), which tells us that the nations of the earth were in fact divided according to the names listed in this passage.

What would have happened to the original language that God gave to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, which would have been spoken up until the time of the Tower of Babel? The Book of Jubilees tells us that God gave this language back to mankind when He had called and separated Abraham. Thus, tradition says that Abraham spoke the original language of creation, which was Hebrew and handed it down to the children of Israel.

"And I opened his (Abraham's) mouth, and his ears and his lips, and I began to speak with him in Hebrew in the tongue of the creation. And he took the books of his fathers, and these were written in Hebrew, and he transcribed them, and he began from henceforth to study them, and I made known to him that which he could not (understand), and he studied them during the six rainy months." (The Book of Jubilees 1226-27)

The Significance of the Number of Nations- It is interesting to note that just as God called seventy nations at the tower of Babel to serve as the foundation for the nations of the earth, so did God call seventy souls to found the nation of Israel ( Exodus 1:1-7). We know that Moses called seventy elders to establish the laws of the nation of Israel ( Exodus 24:1, Numbers 11:24-25). Jesus trained seventy disciples to carry the Gospel to the world ( Luke 10:1; Luke 10:17). Thus, the number seventy is found when God establishes a new government institution upon the earth: when He established the nations, called out the nation of Israel, instituted the Law of Moses, and established the New Testament Church. The number seven or multiples of seven are popularly believed to express "the idea of completeness or perfection." 134] Jim Goll says the number ten represents "law" or "government." 135] Thus, the combination of the numbers seven and ten serves as a testimony that God divinely orchestrated a complete number of seventy nations upon earth to establish law and order.

134] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Number(s): Rhetorical Use of Numbers."

135] Jim Goll says, "Multiples of these Numbers, or doubling or tripling carry basically the same meaning, only they intensify the truth." See Jim W. Goll, The Seer: The Prophetic Power of Visions, Dreams, and Open Heavens (Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image Publishers, Inc, 2004), 111.

The Times of the Gentiles in Prophetic Prophecy - Although there were many nations that divided themselves upon the earth after the Tower of Babel, from God's perspective, it was the nation of Israel that took front and center stage in the history of mankind from its inception through the loins of Abraham up until Israel's deportation into Babylon in 586 B.C. At this time in history, prophetic prophecy enters a time, or dispensation, which Jesus Christ ( Luke 21:24) and Paul the apostle ( Romans 11:25) call "The Times of the Gentiles."

Luke 21:24, "And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled."

Romans 11:25, "For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in."

The Times of the Gentiles is a period in history when Gentile nations began to control the affairs of mankind and even fulfilled biblical prophecy. We have a clear description of this time of Gentile dominion upon the earth in Daniel 2:1-49 when God gave King Nebuchadnezzar a dream and showed him the four kingdoms that would dominate the earth during the time of the Gentiles. However, a fifth kingdom would be made without the hands of Prayer of Manasseh, referring to the Kingdom of God, and this Kingdom would grow and crush the kingdoms of man to dust. I believe that the Time of the Gentiles will end at Jesus' Second Coming when He will set up His earthly kingdom in the holy city of Jerusalem where He will rule and reign while the nation of Israel will serve as place where all nations come to bring their offerings unto the Lord in order to be blessed.

It is also important to note that some of the nations listed in Genesis 1:1-31 will be named as nations who play a key role in these end times. For example, Ezekiel 38:1 to Ezekiel 39:28 refers to at least eight of these nations by name when it tells us of one of three end-time prophetic events that will usher Israel back into the forefront of world history. This passage of Scripture is about Israel's great and final battle with Magog, Meshech and Tubal, Libya (Phut), Ethiopia (Cush) and the nations under Persian control, with Sheba, Dedan, and Tarshish also being mentioned. Thus, end-time prophecy reflects back to this Table of Nations and draws from these names, rather than using the names of nations who developed out of the original seventy nations, such as the modern nations of the U.S.A, Great Britain, Russia, Germany, etc. I believe that just because some modern nations are not mentioned by name in these end-time prophecies, it does not mean that they are excluded from partaking in such prophecies; for these predictions only draw upon the Table of Nations, and not upon modern names.

Verses 2-5

The Sons of Japheth (Fourteen Nations) - Genesis 10:2-4 tells us the names of the fourteen nations that descended from the loins of Japheth the son of Noah.

Josephus says:

"Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited Song of Solomon, that, beginning at the mountain Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, and along Europe to Cadiz; and setting themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names:" (Josephus, Antiquities 161)

According to The Book of Jubilees, the sons of Japheth migrated to the north after the flood.

"And in the sixth year 1567 A.M.] thereof, she bare him Song of Solomon, and he called his name Peleg; for in the days when he was born the children of Noah began to divide the earth amongst themselves: for this reason he called his name Peleg. And they divided (it) secretly amongst themselves, and told it to Noah. And it came to pass in the beginning of the thirty-third jubilee 1569 A.M.] that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each, in the first year in the first week, when one of us who had been sent, was with them. And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father. And there came forth on the writing as Shem"s lot the middle of the earth which he should take as an inheritance for himself and for his sons for the generations of eternity, from the middle of the mountain range of Rafa, from the mouth of the water from the river Tina, and his portion goes towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extends till it reaches the water of the abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours its waters into the sea Me"at, and this river flows into the great sea. And all that is towards the north is Japheth"s, and all that is towards the south belongs to Shem." (The Book of Jubilees 88-13)

Note a more detailed description in The Book of Jubilees of the land of Japheth that lay to the north of the Middle East.

"And for Japheth came forth the third portion beyond the river Tina to the north of the outflow of its waters, and it extends north-easterly to the whole region of Gog, and to all the country east thereof. And it extends northerly to the north, and it extends to the mountains of Qelt towards the north, and towards the sea of Ma"uk, and it goes forth to the east of Gadir as far as the region of the waters of the sea. And it extends until it approaches the west of Fara and it returns towards "Aferag, and it extends easterly to the waters of the sea of Me"at. And it extends to the region of the river Tina in a north-easterly direction until it approaches the boundary of its waters towards the mountain Rafa, and it turns round towards the north. This is the land which came forth for Japheth and his sons as the portion of his inheritance which he should possess for himself and his sons, for their generations for ever; five great islands, and a great land in the north. But it is cold, and the land of Ham is hot, and the land of Shem is neither hot nor cold, but it is of blended cold and heat." (The Book of Jubilees 825-30)

In a further detailed description in The Book of Jubilees of the land to the north, we read that Noah ended by placing a curse upon any of his sons that attempts to seize the inheritance of another. This curse that Noah pronounced was that God would destroy them with the sword and with fire, which is exactly the way Ezekiel describes that manner in which God destroys Gog and his allies in Ezekiel 38:18-22 when they come against the nation of Israel.

"And Japheth also divided the land of his inheritance amongst his sons. And the first portion came forth for Gomer to the east from the north side to the river Tina; and in the north there came forth for Magog all the inner portions of the north until it reaches to the sea of Me"at. And for Madai came forth as his portion that he should posses from the west of his two brothers to the islands, and to the coasts of the islands. And for Javan came forth the fourth portion every island and the islands which are towards the border of Lud. And for Tubal there came forth the fifth portion in the midst of the tongue which approaches towards the border of the portion of Lud to the second tongue, to the region beyond the second tongue unto the third tongue. And for Meshech came forth the sixth portion, all the region beyond the third tongue till it approaches the east of Gadir. And for Tiras there came forth the seventh portion, four great islands in the midst of the sea, which reach to the portion of Ham [and the islands of Kamaturi came out by lot for the sons of Arpachshad as his inheritance]. And thus the sons of Noah divided unto their sons in the presence of Noah their father, and he bound them all by an oath, imprecating a curse on every one that sought to seize the portion which had not fallen (to him) by his lot. And they all said, ‘So be it; so be it.' for themselves and their sons for ever throughout their generations till the day of judgment, on which the Lord God shall judge them with a sword and with fire for all the unclean wickedness of their errors, wherewith they have filled the earth with transgression and uncleanness and fornication and sin." (The Book of Jubilee 97-15)

According to Ezekiel 38:2-3, at this time in prophetic history a prince by the name of Gog who lives in the land of Magog will rule over his brothers Meshech and Tubal.

Regarding the other three sons of Japheth who are not listed in this coalition of armies that rises up in the last days, the ISBE suggests their identity. Javan is considered to be identical with the name "Ion," who was the father of the Ionians. These were the ancestors of the region of Greece. 137] Tiras refers to Tarshish, the Thracians (Thrakes) or the Tursenioi, a race of Pelasgian pirates, "who left many traces of their ancient power in the islands and coasts of the Aegean, and who were doubtless identical with the Etruscans of Italy." 138] Madai refers to the Medes. 139] These three areas are considered to be land to the north of the Middle East and was part of the inheritance of the sons of Japheth. Gomer, the seventh son of Japheth, is referred to in Genesis 38:6. His descendants are believed to be a barbaric horde of Aryans who in the seventh century B.C. left "Southern Russia and poured through the Caucasus into Western Asia." 140]

137] David Francis Roberts, "Javan," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

138] Horace J. Wolf, "Tiras," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

139] W. St. Clair Tisdall, "Madai," and "Medes," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

140] George Ricker Berry, "Gomer," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

Genesis 10:2Word Study on "Gomer" (1st nation) - Gesenius says the Hebrew name "Gomer" ( גֹּמֶר) (H 1586) means, "to complete, finish, to leave off, to fail." Strong says it means, "complete." The Enhanced Strong says the name "Gomer" occurs six times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Gomer 6." Outside of its place in two genealogies in Genesis 10:2-3 and 1 Chronicles 1:5-6, this name only occurs in one reference to biblical prophecy ( Ezekiel 38:6).

Ezekiel 38:6, "Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee."

Comments- Josephus tells us, "Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians [Gauls], but were then called Gomerites." (Antiquities 161) Gesenius says that Togarmah (the Armenians) descended from Gomer. He says that Gomer is "understood to be the Cimerii ( κιμμέριοι ) inhabiting the Tauric Ehersonese and the region near the Don and Danube," who invaded Asia Minor during the sixth century B.C. BDB says Gomer was "the progenitor of the early Cimmerians and other branches of the Celtic family." The ISBE says that Gomer is believed to be a reference to "a barbaric horde of Aryans who in the seventh century B.C. left Southern Russia and poured through the Caucasus into Western Asia." 141] PTW says that they may have been "the Cimmerians of classical history."

141] George Ricker Berry, "Gomer," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:2Word Study on Magog" (2nd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Magog" ( מָגֹוג) (H 4031) means, "the land of Gog." PTW says that it literally means, "covering, roof," and "region of God." The name Magog occurs only four times in the Old Testament and one time in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Magog." This name is referred to in the genealogies of Genesis 10:1 and 1 Chronicles 1:5. It also occurs in the end-time prophecies of Ezekiel ( Genesis 38:2-3; Genesis 39:6) and the book of Revelation ( Genesis 20:8).

1 Chronicles 1:5, "The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras."

Ezekiel 38:2-3, "Son of Prayer of Manasseh, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him, And say, Thus saith the Lord GOD Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal:"

Ezekiel 39:6, "And I will send a fire on Magog, and among them that dwell carelessly in the isles: and they shall know that I am the LORD."

Revelation 20:8, "And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea."

Comments- Josephus (Antiquities 161) and Gesenius believe these are the Scythians. The ISBE notes that some associate Magog with Lydia because of the "resemblance between the names Gog and Gyges (Gugu), king of Lydia." 142] BDB says it refers to "the mountainous region between Cappadocia and Media."

142] John A. Lees, "Magog," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:2Word Study on "Madai" (3rd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Madai" ( מָדַי) (H 4074) means, "middle land." Many believe Madai refers to the Medes, since the word Madia occurs 16 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Medes 8, Media 6, Madai 2."

Comments- Josephus says, "Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes by the Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia and all the Grecians are derived." (Antiquities 161) PTW suggests that Madai refers to the inhabitants of Media. BDB says Media was "located northwest of Persia proper, south and southwest of the Caspian Sea, east of Armenia and Assyria, and west and northwest of the great salt desert of Iram."

Genesis 10:2Word Study on "Javan" (4th nation) - Gesenius says the Hebrew name "Javan" ( יָוָן) (H 3120) comes from an unused root word that means, "boiling up, bubbling up, being in a ferment." The Enhanced Strong says this name occurs 11times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Javan 7, Grecia 3, Greece 1."

Comments- Gesenius believes Javan was a region east of Greece, and later became associated with "the rest of Greece." Javan is generally considered to be identical with the name "Ion," who was the father of the Ionians, who were the ancestors of the region of Greece. PTW suggests that Javan is "Ionia, and may denote the Greeks."

Genesis 10:2Word Study on "Tubal" (5th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Tubal" ( תֻּבַל) (H 8422) means, "thou shall be brought." The Enhanced Strong says this name is found 8 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Tubal 8." Beside the two references in the genealogies of Genesis 10,1Chronicles 1, this name only occurs in end-time prophecy. Note that the name "Tubal" is always used in juxtaposition with his brothers in Scripture ( Genesis 10:2, 1 Chronicles 1:5, Isaiah 66:19, Ezekiel 27:13; Ezekiel 32:26; Ezekiel 38:2-3; Ezekiel 39:1).

1 Chronicles 1:5, "The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras."

Isaiah 66:19, "And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles."

Ezekiel 27:13, "Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy merchants: they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass in thy market."

Ezekiel 32:26, "There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword, though they caused their terror in the land of the living."

Ezekiel 38:2-3, "Son of Prayer of Manasseh, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him, And say, Thus saith the Lord GOD Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal:"

Ezekiel 39:1, "Therefore, thou son of Prayer of Manasseh, prophesy against Gog, and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal:"

Comments- Josephus says, "Thobel (Tubal) founded the Thobelites, who are now called Iberes."(Antiquities 161) PTW says that these are "a people of eastern Asia Minor…called ‘Tabal' in ancient Assyrian inscriptions." BDB says it refers to "a region in east Asia Minor…perhaps nearly equal to Cappadocia."

Genesis 10:2Word Study on "Meshech" (6th nation) - Strong says the Hebrew name "Meschech" ( מֶשֶׁךְ) (H 4902) means, "a sowing, a possession." BDB says the name means, "drawing out." PTW says that it means, "long, tall." The Enhanced Strong says this word is found 9 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Meshech 8, Mesech 1."

Comments- Some scholars believe that these people were located in the area of Armenia based upon a reference to Meschech by Herodotus, "The Moschi [ ΄όσχοισι ], Tibareni, Macrones, Mossynoeci, and Mares, the nineteenth province, were ordered to pay three hundred." (History of Herodotus 394) 143] Josephus says, "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians. There is also a mark of their ancient denomination still to be shown; for there is even now among them a city called Mazaca, which may inform those that are able to understand, that so was the entire nation once called." (Antiquities 161) Note these comments from the ISBE regarding "Meshech."

143] Herodotus II, trans. A. D. Godley, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1928), 123.

"It is thought that the ‘Tibareni and Moschi' of the classical writers refer to the same people. Doubtless they appear in the annals of Assyria as enemies of that country under the names Tabali and Mushki--the latter the descendants of Meshech and the former those of Tubal to whom the term ‘Tibareni' may refer in the clause above. This juxtaposition of names is in harmony with practically every appearance of the word in Scripture." 144]

144] Henry Wallace, "Meschech," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

PTW suggests that they were the Musku, "a people who inhabited the land in the mountains north of Assyria."

Genesis 10:2Word Study on "Tiras" (7th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Tiras" ( תִּירָס) (H 8494) means, "desire." This name only occurs two times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Tiras 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:5, "The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras."

Comments- The ISBE says that the name Tiras refers to Tarshish, the Thracians (Thrakes) or "the Tursenioi, a race of Pelasgian pirates, who left many traces of their ancient power in the islands and coasts of the Aegean, and who were doubtless identical with the Etruscans of Italy." 145] PTW says that they were "possibly the inhabitants of Thrace," or perhaps "the Tyrsenoi, a people who inhabited the islands and coastlands of the Aegean." Josephus says, "Thiras also called those whom he ruled over, Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians." (Antiquities 161)

145] Horace J. Wolf, "Tiras," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

Genesis 10:3Word Study on "Ashkenaz" (8th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Ashkenaz" ( אַשְׁכְּנַז) (H 813) means, "a man as sprinkled: fire as scattered." This name is found three times in the Old Testament.

1 Chronicles 1:6, "And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah."

Jeremiah 51:27, "Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers."

Comments- Josephus says, "Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians." (Antiquities 161) BDB says this is "a northern people, perhaps of Bithynia." PTW suggests that this was a people "who dwelt near Ararat and Minni in eastern Armenia."

Genesis 10:3Word Study on "Riphath" (9th nation) - BDB and PTW say the Hebrew name "Riphath" ( רִיפַת) (H 7384) means, "spoken." This name is found only two times in the Scriptures ( Genesis 10:3, 1 Chronicles 1:6). In the book of Chronicles it is found in the form "Diphath" ( דִּיפַת). This is considered an orthographical error, where a scribe accidentally wrote the Hebrew letter daleth ( ד) instead of resh ( ר). The error obviously occurred because the two letters are very similar in shape and in pronunciation.

1 Chronicles 1:6, "And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah."

Comments- Josephus says, "So did Riphath found the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians." (Antiquities 161) PTW suggests that these were "the Paphlagonians on the Black Sea."

Genesis 10:3Word Study on "Togarmah" (10th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Togarmah" ( תֹּגַרְמָה) (H 8425) means, "thou wilt break her." Togarmah was the son of Gomer and grandson of Japhath. There are only four references to this name in the Old Testament, the other three being:

1 Chronicles 1:6, "And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah."

Ezekiel 27:14, "They of the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses and horsemen and mules."

Ezekiel 38:6, "Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee."

Comments- Josephus says, "and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians." (Antiquities 161) PTW says they are "a people of the north who inhabited the mountains northwest of Mesopotamia, between Anti-Taurus and the Euphrates, or perhaps the area on the upper Euphrates between Samosata and Melita." BDB suggests that these descendants dwelt in the area of Armenia. We can see the letters "armah" within the name.

Genesis 10:4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

Genesis 10:4Word Study on "Elishah" (11th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Elishah" ( אֱלִישָׁה) (H 473) means, "God of the coming (one)," and was the "ancestor of the Aeolians." PTW says that it means, "God is Saviour." This name is found three times in the Old Testament.

1 Chronicles 1:7, "And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."

Ezekiel 27:7, "Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail; blue and purple from the isles of Elishah was that which covered thee."

Comments- Josephus says, "Elisa gave name to the Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are now the Aeolians." (Antiquities 161) PTW says it may refer to "the people of Cyprus or the inhabitants of Alasiya, the country near Cilicia."

Genesis 10:4Word Study on "Tarshish" (12th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Tarshish" ( תַּרְשִׁישׁ) (H 8659) means, "yellow jasper." This word is used 28 times in the Old Testament as "Tarshish 24, Tharshish 4."

Comments- Josephus says, "Tharsus to the Tharsians; for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of which is this, that the noblest city they have, and a metropolis also, is Tarsus, the tau being by change put for the theta." (Antiquities 161) PTW suggests they are "a people who inhabited a region in Spain," which may be the modern city of Tartessus near Gibraltar.

Genesis 10:4Word Study on "Kittim" (13th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Kittim" ( כִּתִּיִּים) (H 3794) means, "bruisers." PTW says that it means, "knotty." The Enhanced Strong says this name is found 8 times in the Old Testament as "Chittim 6, Kittim 2."

Numbers 24:24, "And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber, and he also shall perish for ever."

1 Chronicles 1:7, "And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."

Isaiah 23:1, "The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them."

Isaiah 23:12, "And he said, Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon: arise, pass over to Chittim; there also shalt thou have no rest."

Jeremiah 2:10, "For pass over the isles of Chittim, and see; and send unto Kedar, and consider diligently, and see if there be such a thing."

Ezekiel 27:6, "Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; the company of the Ashurites have made thy benches of ivory, brought out of the isles of Chittim."

Daniel 11:30, "For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant."

Comments- Josephus says, "Cethimus possessed the island Cethima; it is now called Cyprus: and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the seacoasts, are named Cethim (Kittim) by the Hebrews; and one city there is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve its denomination; it is called Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the name of Cethim." (Antiquities 161) PTW says it refers to "the inhabitants of Cyprus and the islands nearby."

Genesis 10:4Word Study on "Dodanim" (14th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Dodanim" ( דֹּדָנִים) (H 1721) means "leaders." The Hebrew text reads "Dodaniym" ( דֹּדָנִים) in Genesis 10:4, but in its parallel passage in 1 Chronicles 1:7 the Hebrew text reads "Rodaniym" ( רֹודָנִים), although the KJV spells it as "Dodaniym" ( דֹּדָנִים). This is considered an orthographical error, where a scribe accidentally wrote the Hebrew letter daleth ( ד) instead of resh ( ר). The error obviously occurred because the two letters are very similar in shape and in pronunciation. 146]

146] I have spent over a decade living and working in Uganda, East Africa, where Luganda is the national language. The leading university in the capital of Kampala is spelled "Makerere," but the local people pronounce it "Makelele." They have difficulty pronouncing the letter "r" simply because they articulate their words at the front of their mouths, while "r" is a guttural sound articulated deeper in the throat. Such distinctions in dialects and localized pronouncations could have let to the variant readings of "Dodanim" and "Rodanim" among the ancient Jews. For example, the book of Judges records the battle between the Gileadites and Ephriamites, in which one tribe distinguished between the other by asking their adversaries to pronounce "Shibboleth." ( Judges 12:6, "Then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth: and he said Sibboleth: for he could not frame to pronounce it right.") Judges 12:6 shows that the Hebrew silibant "shin" ( שׁ) was also pronounced "sin" ( שׂ) by the Ephraimites. The Scriptures also record that the apostle Peter spoke with a distinct dialect, "And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth thereto." ( Mark 14:70) Thus, the variant readings of "Dodanim" and "Rodanim" may simply be variations in pronunciations from different periods of Jewish history.

1 Chronicles 1:7, "And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim."

Comments- Because of the tremendous reverence that the Jews gave the Hebrew Scriptures, they feared to correct the text even when it was an obvious scribal error. Therefore, any corrections of recognized errors were made in the margin or footnote of the text, while the misspelled words were retained within in the text. 1 Chronicles 1:7 gives us a classic example of this practice.

Because the LXX, the Samaritan Pentateuch, 147] 1 Chronicles 1:7, and some of the manuscripts of the Massoretic Text read "Rodanim," most scholars believe that the correct form should read "Rodanim." As a result, some modern translations take the liberty to correct the reading, such as the NIV, "The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittim and the Rodanim…" ( Genesis 10:4) However, the majority of manuscripts of the Masoretic Text read "Dodanim," so that the BHS retains this distinction. Regardless of the interpretation, it is generally agreed that this name refers to the Rhodians, which denotes the inhabitants of the island of Rhodes. Smith says, "Dodanim is regarded as identical with the Dardani, who were found in historical times in Illyricum and Troy."

147] Samaritan Pentateuch, Der Hebrische Pentateuch der Samaritaner, ed. A. F. von Gall. Giessen: Verlag von Alfred Topelmann, 1918.

Genesis 10:5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

Genesis 10:5Word Study on "the isles" - BDB says the Hebrew word "isles" ( אִי) (H 339) means, "coast, island, shore, region." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 36 times in the Old Testament, and translated in the KJV as, "isle(s) 30, islands 5, country 1." Modern translations are divided as to how to translate this word. Depending upon the interpretation of the context of the passage, it has been translated both "island" and "boundaries."

Comments - The Hebrew word ( אִי) (H 339) is translated as either "islands, coastlands," or "boundaries" in modern English versions.

(1) "Islands" - Some translations interpret this to mean that these were people that lived near the sea or migrated to the islands of the sea. The NIV reads, "the maritime peoples spread out into their territories" as if to say that it was the sons of Japheth that took to the seacoasts and populated the islands.

BBE, "From these came the nations of the sea-lands..."

Rotherham, "From these, were dispersed the inhabitants of the coastlands of the nations..."

RSV, "From these the coastland peoples spread…"

(2) "Boundaries" - Other translations interpret this word to means cultural boundaries of nations. The NASB reads, "the coastlands of the nations were separated into their lands…"

ASV, "Of these were the isles of the nations divided in their lands…"

LITV, "The coasts of the nations were divided by these in their lands each by his tongue".

The translation "boundaries" means that Genesis 10:5 refers to the entire list of seventy (70) Gentile nations that descended from the sons of Noah as listed in Genesis 10:1-32.

Genesis 10:5Word Study on "of the Gentiles" - Strong tells us that the Hebrew word "Gentiles ( גֹּוי) ( גֹּויִם) (H 1471) means, "a foreign nation; hence, a Gentile." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 558 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "nation 374, heathen 143, Gentiles 30, people 11."

Verses 6-20

The Sons of Ham (Thirty Nations) - Genesis 10:6-20 tells us the names of the thirty nations that descended from the loins of Ham, the son of Noah.

Josephus says, "The children of Ham possessed the land from Syria and Amanus, and the mountains of Libanus, seizing upon all that was on its seacoasts and as far as the ocean, and keeping it as their own. Some indeed of its names are utterly vanished away; others of them being changed, and another sound given them, are hardly to be discovered; yet a few there are which have kept their denominations entire." (Antiquities 162)

Genesis 10:6 And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.

Genesis 10:6Word Study on "Cush" (15th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Cush," or "Ethiopian," ( כּוּשׁ) (H 3568) means, "black." The Enhanced Strong says it is found 30 times in the Old Testament, and in the KJV as "Ethiopia 19, Cush 8, Ethiopians 3."

Comments- Josephus say, "for of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name of Chus; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Chusites." (Antiquities 162) Strong says that Cush, or Ethiopia, refers to "the son of Ham and grandson of Noah and the progenitor of the southernmost peoples located in Africa," and that "the land that the descendants of Cush initially occupied was located around the southern parts of the Nile (Ethiopia)."

Genesis 10:6Word Study on "Mizraim" (16th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Mizraim" ( מִצְרַיִם) (H 4714) means, "double straits." Strong says it is the dual of ( מָצֹור) (4693), which means, "besieged places, defence, fortified." Strong says "Mizraim" serves as the name for Upper and Lower Egypt. The Enhanced Strong says this Hebrew word is used 681times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Egypt 586, Egyptian 90, Mizraim 4, Egyptians + 011211."

Comments- Josephus says, "The memory also of the Mesraites is preserved in their name; for all we who inhabit this country [of Judea] call Egypt Mestre, and the Egyptians Mestreans." He goes on to say, "Now all the children of Mesraim, being eight in number, possessed the country from Gaza to Egypt, though it retained the name of one only, the Philistim; for the Greeks call part of that country Palestine." (Antiquities 162) BDB says this land is "a country at the northeastern section of Africa, adjacent to Palestine, and through which the Nile flows."

Genesis 10:6Word Study on "Phut" (17th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Phut" ( פּוּט) (H 6316) means, "a bow." The Enhanced Strong says this Hebrew word is used 7 times in the Old Testament, bring translated in the KJV as "Put 2, Phut 2, Libyan 2, Libya 1."

Comments- Josephus says, "Phut also was the founder of Libya, and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself: (133) there is also a river in the country of the Moors which bears that name; whence it is that we may see the greatest part of the Grecian historiographers mention that river and the adjoining country by the appellation of Phut: but the name it has now, has been by change given it from one of the sons of Mesraim, who was called Lybyos. We will inform you presently what has been the occasion why it has been called Africa also." (Antiquities 162) Gesenius notes that the LXX and the Vulgate translate it "Lybia" in some passages where this word occurs. BDB says Phut refers to "a nation and people of north Africa; probably Libya."

Genesis 10:6Word Study on "Canaan" (18th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Canaan" ( כְּנַעַן) (H 3667) means, "lowland." The Enhanced Strong says this Hebrew word is used 94times in the Old Testament, being translated "Canaan 89, merchant 3, traffick 1, traffickers 1."

Comments- Josephus says, "Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, inhabited the country now called Judea, and called it from his own name Canaan." (Antiquities 162) BDB says Canaan was "the progenitor of the Phoenicians and of the various nations who peopled the seacoast of Palestine."

Genesis 10:7 And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.

Genesis 10:7Word Study on "Seba" (19th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Seba" ( סְבָא) (H 5434) means, "drink thou." This word is used 4times in the Old Testament, the other three uses being found in:

1 Chronicles 1:9, "And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan."

Psalm 72:10, "The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts."

Isaiah 43:3, "For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee."

Comments- Josephus says, "Sabas, who founded the Sabeans." (Antiquities 162) BDB says it is "a nation south of Palestine, perhaps Ethiopia." However, Isaiah 43:3 makes a distinction between these two countries.

Genesis 10:7Word Study on "Havilah" (20th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Havilah" ( חֲוִילָה) (H 2341) means, "circle." The Enhanced Strong says this word is found 7 times in the Old Testament as "Havilah 7." In Genesis 2:11, the river Pison was located in the land of Havilah.

Genesis 2:11, "The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;"

Comments- There were two individuals in the Old Testament by this name. In Genesis 10:29 a second individual named "Havilah" was the son Joktan, who is the son of Eber, who is a descendant of Shem.

Genesis 10:29, "And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan."

Josephus says, "Evilas, who founded the Evileans, who are called Getuli." (Antiquities 162)

Genesis 10:7Word Study on "Sabtah" (21st nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Sabtah" ( סַבְתָּא) (H 5454) means, "striking." This name is only used two times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

1 Chronicles 1:9, "And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan."

Comments- Josephus says, "Sabathes founded the Sabathens; they are now called by the Greeks, Astaborans." (Antiquities 162)

Genesis 10:7Word Study on "Raamah" (22nd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Raamah" ( רַעְמָה) (H 7484) means, "horse"s mane." Raamah was the son of Cush and father of Sheba and Dedan. This name is found five times in the Old Testament, the other passages being:

1 Chronicles 1:9, "And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan."

Ezekiel 27:22, "The merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy merchants: they occupied in thy fairs with chief of all spices, and with all precious stones, and gold."

Comments- Josephus says, "and Ragmus the Ragmeans; and he had two sons, the one of whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans, a nation of the western Ethiopians, and left them his name; as did Sabas to the Sabeans." (Antiquities 162)

Genesis 10:7Word Study on "Sabtecha" (23rd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Sabtecha" ( סַבְתְּכָא) (H 5455) means, "striking." This name is used two times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

1 Chronicles 1:9, "And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan."

Comments- Josephus says, "Sabactas settled the Sabactens." (Antiquities 162)

Genesis 10:7Word Study on "Sheba" (24th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Sheba" ( שְׁבָא) (H 7614) means, "seven" or "an oath or covenant." The Enhanced Strong says this word occurs 23times in the Old Testament, bring translated in the KJV as "Sheba 23." However, there are five different individuals by this name in the Old Testament.

Comments- In the Table of Nations ( Genesis 10:1-32) there are two individuals named Sheba listed in this genealogy as the sons of Noah. The first Sheba was the son of Raamah the son of Cush who was the son of Ham ( Genesis 10:7). The second individual named Sheba ( Genesis 10:28) was the son of Joktan son of Eber who was a descendant of Shem. Some scholars, such as Gesenius, suggest that Sheba the Hamite of Genesis 10:7 is twice identified with his brother Dedan (see Ezekiel 38:13) in an effort to make him a distinct individual from Sheba the Shemite of Genesis 10:28. Gesenius suggests that Sheba the Hamite lived in northern Arabia "near the Persian Gulf and near the mouth of the Euphrates," while Sheba the Shemite would be a reference to the country of Sheba in southern Arabia.

Regarding this south Arabian country of Sheba, the Old Testament refers to the queen of Sheba ( 1 Kings 10:1-13, 1 Chronicles 9:1-12), which scholars recognize as a country in southern Arabia from whom come the Sabaens. These people are referred to as traders in gold and spices who inhabited a land remote from Palestine ( Psalm 72:15, Isaiah 60:6, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:22). Jesus referred to the queen of Sheba as the queen of the south ( Matthew 12:42). Joel refers to the Sabeans as "a people afar off" who will purchase the Israelites as slaves. In Job 1:15 the Sabeans fell upon Job's possessions and took them. The ISBE says the Arab genealogists tell us that "Saba is represented as the great-grandson of Qachtan (= Joktan) and ancestor of all the South-Arabian tribes. He is the father of Chimyar and Kahlan. He is said to have been named Saba because he was the first to take prisoners (shabhah) in war. He founded the capital of Saba and built its citadel Marib (Mariaba), famous for its mighty barrage." 148] Its capital was Marib, located in modern day Yemen. 149] The ISBE says we can also find the names of other brothers to Sheba the Shemite in southern Arabia, giving the modern example of the name Hazarmaveth = Hadhramaut ( Genesis 10:26) in this region. 150]

148] Thomas Hunter Weir, "Sheba," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

149] David J. A. Clines, Job 1-20, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans, vol 17, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), 31.

150] Thomas Hunter Weir, "Sheba," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:7Word Study on "Dedan" (25th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Dedan" ( דְּדָן) (H 1719) means, "low country." He was the brother of Sheba and the son of Raamah the son of Cush who was the son of Ham. This name is mentioned 15 times in the Old Testament in reference to two different individuals.

Comments- A reference to this people in Isaiah 21:13 called them inhabitants of Arabia who traveled in caravans. This is one reason why some scholars suggest that Dedan's brother Sheba the Hamite ( Genesis 10:7) is identical with Sheba the Shemite ( Genesis 10:28), since Sheba the Shemite clearly inhabited southern Arabia. Gesenius says this name can still be identified on the island of Daden, "an island of the Persian Gulf." This individual is not to be confused with Dedan the son of Jokshan and grandson of Abraham and Keturah who dwelt in the neighbourhood of Edom.

Genesis 10:8 And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

Genesis 10:8Word Study on "Nimrod" - BDB says the Hebrew name "Nimrod" ( נִמְרֹד) (H 5248) means, "rebellion" or "valiant." This person has yet to be identified in archeological records. This word is used only four times in the Scriptures ( Genesis 10:8-9, 1 Chronicles 1:10, Micah 5:6).

1 Chronicles 1:10, "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be mighty upon the earth."

Also, Babylon was referred to as "the land of Nimrod."

Micah 5:6, "And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders."

Genesis 10:8Word Study on "a mighty one" - Gesenius says the Hebrew word "a mighty one" ( גִּבֹּור) (H 1368) means, "strong, mighty, impetuous." Strong says means, "powerful," and by implication, "warrior, tyrant," being the intensive use of the root verb ( גָּבַר) (H 1396), which means, "to be strong." Holladay translates this word as "despot." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 158 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as, "mighty 63, mighty Prayer of Manasseh 68, strong 4, valiant 3, ... ones 4, mighties 2, Prayer of Manasseh 1:2, valiant men 2, strong Prayer of Manasseh 1:1, upright Prayer of Manasseh 1:1, champion 1, chief 1, excel 1, giant 1, men"s 1, mightiest 1, strongest 1."

Comments- I have not been able to find an English translation that uses the negative meaning of tyrant. However, the GNB reads, "the world's first great conqueror."

Genesis 10:9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD.

Genesis 10:9Word Study on "hunter" - Strong says the Hebrew word "hunter" ( צַיִד) (H 6718) means, "the chase, game (taken from a chase), lunch (esp. for a journey)." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 19 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as, "venison 8, hunter 3, victuals 2, provision 2, hunting 1, catch 1, food 1, hunting 1."

Comments- Strong says this word comes from the primitive root ( צוּד) (H 6679), which means, "to lie alongside," and by implication, "to catch an animal." Thus, The Enhanced Strong says it is translated, "hunt 13, take 2, chased 1, provision 1, sore 1."

Genesis 10:9Comments- After the Flood God placed the fear of man within the animals ( Genesis 9:2). Before the Flood this fear did not exist. In other words, man could walk around the animals without scaring them off. However, now that God has allowed man to hunt and eat animals, there arose a need for them to hide from man for self preservation. This appears to be the reason why God did this.

Genesis 9:2, "And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered."

Genesis 10:8-9Comments- Brenton reads, "And Chus begot Nebrod: he began to be a giant upon the earth. He was a giant hunter before the Lord God; therefore they say, As Nebrod the giant hunter before the Lord."

Genesis 10:10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

Genesis 10:10Word Study on "Babel" - Strong says the Hebrew word "Babel" ( בָּבֶל) (H 894) means, "confusion," and is an abbreviated form of the word "Babylon." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 262times in the Old Testament and translated as "Babylon" 257 times. Strong says "Babel" comes from a primitive root ( בָּלַל) (H 1101), which means, "to overflow," and by implication, "to mix, to fodder." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 44times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV, it is translated, "mingled 37, confound 2, anointed 1, mixed 1, give provender 1, tempered 1, non translated variant 1."

Genesis 10:10Word Study on "Erech" - Hebrew ( אֶרֶךְ) (H 751) - The ISBE says, "The derivation of the name [Erech] is well known, being the Semitic-Babylonian Uruk, from the Sumerian Unug, a word meaning ‘seat,' probably in the sense of ‘residential city.'" 151] Genesis 10:10 contains the only use of this Hebrew word in the Old Testament.

151] T. G. Pinches, "Erech," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:10Word Study on "Accad" - Hebrew ( אַכַּד) (H 390) - The ISBE says Accad is a city in Mesopotamia that "is well known by ancient inscriptions of Sargon and his son Naram-Sin as well as omen-texts of later eras." 152] Youngblood says, "The dynasty of Accad was founded by Sargon the Great and lasted from the 23to the 21century b.c." 153] Genesis 10:10 contains the only use of this Hebrew word in the Old Testament.

152] A. T. Clay, "Babylonia," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

153] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Accad."

Genesis 10:10Word Study on "Calneh" - Hebrew ( כַּלְנֵה) (H 3641) - The exact location of this ancient remains unknown. Scholars know little about this city, so they must make speculations derived from ancient historical accounts. This word is found three times in the Old Testament. Its other two uses are:

Isaiah 10:9, "Is not Calno as Carchemish? is not Hamath as Arpad? is not Samaria as Damascus?"

Amos 6:2, "Pass ye unto Calneh, and see; and from thence go ye to Hamath the great: then go down to Gath of the Philistines: be they better than these kingdoms? or their border greater than your border?"

Genesis 10:10 — "in the land of Shinar" - Comments- The land of Shinar, located in southern Mesopotamia, was later known as Babylon, Chaldea and Sumner. 154]

154] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Shinar."

Genesis 10:8-12Comments- The Kingdom of Nimrod- The first kingdom in the history of mankind was started by Nimrod, who established the kingdom of Babel. This is the first time that man forces his rule over other cultures and nations. In Genesis 1:26-28 God told man to take dominion over the earth. This involved the domestication of animals, inventions and technology and the development of societies for the well-being of mankind. But this commandment did not say that man was to take dominion over one another. This was Satan's perversion of God's divine plan. Nimrod rose up and built a kingdom called Babel. This was the first time that man began to exert dominion over his fellow man. God never intended this form of oppression to exist upon the earth. However, the dominance that Nimrod instituted was Satan's perverted copy of what God intended for good. If fact, Satan showed his earthly kingdoms to Jesus during our Saviour's forty-day temptation ( Luke 4:5).

Luke 4:5-6, "And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it."

The story of the tower of Babel ( Genesis 11:1-9) reveals that this kingdom was a rebellious kingdom, one that was in defiance of God. It is out of this same people that the kingdom of Assyria will one day rise and destroy the northern kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. It is the same spiritual force of Satan that will one day conquer southern Judah in 596 B.C. under the rule of Nebuchadnezzer. Peter recognized this as the same spirit that raised up the Roman Empire.

1 Peter 5:13, "The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son."

Peter used this title for the city of Rome in the same sense that Jesus called John the Baptist by the name of Elijah, since John bore the same spirit as Elijah bore.

Matthew 11:14, "And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for to come."

Luke refers to the "spirit of Elijah."

Luke 1:17, "And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord."

It is the same spiritual force that will rise up in the last days in the book of Revelation in the form of the antichrist. John refers to the "spirit of antichrist" in his first epistle.

1 John 4:3, "And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world."

As the ancient kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon were anti-Semitic, so is the Babylon found in the book of Revelation. It is the powers of darkness at war against God's people, both Jews and Christians alike. The New Testament refers to different types of spirits, such as unclean spirit, spirits of infirmity, spirits of divination, deaf and dumb spirits, seducing spirits, etc. But the spirit of antichrist is a particular spirit that will focus on making war against the children of God. 1 John 4:3 tells us that this spirit is already in the world and has been making war with God's children since his day. Jesus describes the antichrist when He told His disciples, "that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service."

John 16:2, "They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service."

Jesus also refers to this spirit in Matthew 24-25.

Matthew 24:9, "Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name"s sake."

Genesis 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,

Genesis 10:12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city.

Genesis 10:13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,

Genesis 10:13Word Study on "Ludim" (26th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Ludim" ( לוּד) (3866) means, "to the firebrands, travailings." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 3times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Ludim 2, Lydians." The other passages are:

1 Chronicles 1:11, "And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,"

Jeremiah 46:9, "Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow."

Comments- Josephus calls this nation "Ludicim" (Antiquities 162). Its name is listed with other countries of North Africa in Ezekiel 30:5.

Ezekiel 30:5, "Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword."

Genesis 10:13Word Study on "Anamim" (27th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Anamin" ( עֲנָמִים) (H 6047) means, "affliction of the waters." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

1 Chronicles 1:11, "And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,"

Comments- Josephus calls this nation "Enemim" (Antiquities 162). BDB says they were "a tribe of the Egyptians."

Genesis 10:13Word Study on "Lehabim" (28th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Lehabin" ( לְהָבִים) (H 3853) means, "flames," being used 2times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

1 Chronicles 1:11, "And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,"

Comments- Josephus says, "and Labim, who alone inhabited in Libya, and called the country from himself." (Antiquities 162) BDB says this was "an Egyptian tribe descended from Mizraim."

Genesis 10:13Word Study on "Naphtuhim" (29th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Naphtuhim" ( נַפְתֻּחִים) (H 5320) means, "openings." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

1 Chronicles 1:11, "And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,"

Comments- Josephus calls this nation "Nedim" (Antiquities 162). BDB says it was "an unclear reference to Egypt; perhaps Lower Egypt."

Genesis 10:14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.

Genesis 10:14Word Study on "Pathrusim" (30th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Pathrusim" ( פַּתְרֻסִים) (H 6625) is related to "Pathros," meaning, "region of the south," The Enhanced Strong says it used 2times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

1 Chronicles 1:11-12, "And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (of whom came the Philistines,) and Caphthorim."

Comments- Josephus calls this nation "Phethrosim" (Antiquities 162). BDB calls them "inhabitants of Pathros."

Genesis 10:14Word Study on "Casluhim" (31st nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Casluhim" ( כַּסְלֻחִים) (H 3695) means, "fortified," being used 2times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

1 Chronicles 1:11-12, "And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (of whom came the Philistines,) and Caphthorim."

Comments- Josephus calls this nation "Chesloim" (Antiquities 162). BDB says they were "a people or tribe descended from Mizraim (Egypt) progenitors of the Philistines and Caphtorim."

Genesis 10:14Word Study on "Philistim" (32nd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Philistim" ( פְּלִשְׁתִּי) (H 6430) means, "immigrants." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 288 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Philistine 287, Philistim 1."

Comments- Josephus tells us that of the eight sons of Mizraim, only the Philistim kept their name upon the land; for the others were overthrown in the Ethoipic war (Antiquities 162). BDB says they were "an inhabitant of Philistia; descendants of Mizraim who immigrated from Caphtor (Crete?) to the western seacoast of Canaan."

Genesis 10:14Word Study on "Caphtorim" (33rd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Caphtorim" ( כַּפְתֹּרִי) (H 3732) means, "a crown." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, the other passage being:

Deuteronomy 2:23, "And the Avims which dwelt in Hazerim, even unto Azzah, the Caphtorims, which came forth out of Caphtor, destroyed them, and dwelt in their stead.)"

1Chonicles Genesis 1:12, "And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (of whom came the Philistines,) and Caphthorim."

In addition, the related word "Caphtor" (Hebrew "kaf-tore") ( כַּפְתֹּור) (H 3731) occurs three times in the Old Testament. The other two uses being:

Jeremiah 47:4, "Because of the day that cometh to spoil all the Philistines, and to cut off from Tyrus and Zidon every helper that remaineth: for the LORD will spoil the Philistines, the remnant of the country of Caphtor."

Amos 9:7, "Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?

Comments- Josephus calls this nation "Cephthorim" (Antiquities 162). BDB says the Caphtorim were "the Cretans as the inhabitants of Caphtor as distinct from the Philistines."

Genesis 10:13-14Comments- The Children of Mizraim- Josephus says, "Now all the children of Mesraim, being eight in number, possessed the country from Gaza to Egypt, though it retained the name of one only, the Philistim; for the Greeks call part of that country Palestine. As for the rest, Ludicim, and Enemim, and Labim, who alone inhabited in Libya, and called the country from himself, Nedim, and Phethrosim, and Chesloim, and Cephthorim, we know nothing of them besides their names; for the Ethiopic war, which we shall describe hereafter, was the cause that those cities were overthrown." (Antiquities 162)

Genesis 10:15 And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth,

Genesis 10:15Word Study on "Sidon" (34th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew word "Sidon" ( צִידֹון) (H 6721) means, "hunting." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 22times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Zidon 20, Sidon 2."

Comments- Throughout the Scriptures, Sidon refers to an ancient Phoenician city, on Mediterranean coast north of Tyre.

Genesis 10:15Word Study on "Heth" (35th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Heth" ( חֵת) (H 2845) means, "terror." Strong says this word is derived from "chathath" ( חָתַת) (H 2865), which means, "to prostrate, to break down." The Enhanced Strong says this name is found 14times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Heth 14."

Comments- Heth, the son of Canaan, is the one who sold the burial cave to Abraham for a burying place ( Genesis 23:1-20). We find that Esau, the son of Jacob, took the daughters of Heth as his wives. These became a grief unto Isaac and Rebekah his parents ( Genesis 26:34-35).

Genesis 26:34-35, "And Esau was forty years old when he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite: Which were a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah."

From the descendants of Heth come the Hittites ( חִתִּי) (H 2850).

Genesis 10:16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite,

Genesis 10:16Word Study on "the Jebusite" (36th nation) - BDB says the Jebusites ( יְבוּסִי) (H 2983) were "descendants of the third son of Canaan who lived in or around the site of Jebus, the early name for Jerusalem." ( Judges 19:10) The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 41times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Jebusite 41." The word Jebus is found 4times in the Old Testament, and always refers to the city of Jerusalem.

Judges 19:10, "But the man would not tarry that night, but he rose up and departed, and came over against Jebus, which is Jerusalem; and there were with him two asses saddled, his concubine also was with him."

Genesis 10:16Word Study on "the Amorite" (37th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Amorite" ( אֱמֹרִי) (H 567) means, "a sayer." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 87 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Amorite 87."

Comments- BDB says the Amorites were "one of the peoples of east Canaan and beyond the Jordan, dispossessed by the Israelite incursion from Egypt."

Genesis 10:16Word Study on "the Girgasite" (38th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Girgasite" ( גִּרְגָּשִׁי) (H 1622) means, "dwelling on a clayey soil." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 7 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Girgashite 6, Girgasite 1."

Comments- BDB says the Girgasites were the "descendants of Canaan and one of the nations living east of the Sea of Galilee when the Israelites entered the Promised Land."

Genesis 10:17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,

Genesis 10:17Word Study on "the Hivite" (39th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Hivite" ( חִוִּי) (H 2340) means, "villagers." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 25 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Hivite 25."

Comments- BDB says the Hivites "were living in northern Canaan near Mount Hermon at the time of the conquest," ( Joshua 11:3; Joshua 11:19, Judges 3:3). This was the only people that were able to make peace with Joshua during Israel's conquest of Canaan (see Joshua 9:1-27).

Joshua 11:3, "And to the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite in the mountains, and to the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh."

Joshua 11:19, "There was not a city that made peace with the children of Israel, save the Hivites the inhabitants of Gibeon: all other they took in battle."

Judges 3:3, "Namely, five lords of the Philistines, and all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, and the Hivites that dwelt in mount Lebanon, from mount Baalhermon unto the entering in of Hamath."

Genesis 10:17Word Study on "the Arkite" (40th nation) - Strong says the Hebrew name "Arkite" ( עַרְקִי) (H 6208) means, "a tush." This word is used 2times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Arkite 2." Its other use is:

1 Chronicles 1:13-16, "And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, The Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite."

Comments- Josephus says, "Arucas possessed Arce, which is in Libanus" (Antiquities 162). BDB says they are "inhabitants of Arki or Arka."

Genesis 10:17Word Study on "the Sinite" (41st nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Sinite" ( סִינִי) (H 5513) means, "thorn," or "clay." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Sinite 2." Its other use is:

1 Chronicles 1:13-16, "And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, The Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite."

Comments- BDB says the Sinites were "a tribe of the Canaanites descended from Canaan inhabiting the northern part of the Lebanon district."

Genesis 10:18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

Genesis 10:18Word Study on "the Arvadite" (42nd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Arvadite" ( אַרְוָדִי) (H 721) means, "I shall break loose." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Arvadite 2." Its other use is:

1 Chronicles 1:13-16, "And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, The Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite."

Comments- Josephus says, "Arudeus possessed the island Aradus" (Antiquities 162). BDB says they were "the descendants of Arvad, a son of Canaan."

Genesis 10:18Word Study on "the Zemarite" (43rd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Zemarite" ( צְמָרִי) (H 6786) means, "double woolens." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Zemarite 2." Its other use is:

1 Chronicles 1:13-16, "And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, The Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite."

Comments- BDB tells us that they were "one of the Hamite tribes descended from Canaan and inhabitants of an unknown Canaanite city."

Genesis 10:18Word Study on "the Hamathite" (44th nation) - Strong says the Hebrew name "Hamathite" ( חֲמָתִי) (H 2577) is derived from ( חֲמָת) (2574), which means, "walled." The Enhanced Strong says the word "Hamathite" is used 2times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Hamathite 2." Its other use is:

1 Chronicles 1:13-16, "And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, The Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite."

Comments- Josephus says, "Amathus inhabited in Amathine, which is even now called Amathe by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians named it Epiphania, from one of his posterity." (Antiquities 162). Gesenius says Hamath was "a distinguished city of Syria." This city played a role in the history of Israel.

Genesis 10:19 And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha.

Genesis 10:19Comments- The Canaanites are described in Numbers 13:29 as "dwelling by the sea."

Numbers 13:29, "The Amalekites dwell in the land of the south: and the Hittites, and the Jebusites, and the Amorites, dwell in the mountains: and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan."

This piece of land did not belong to the Canaanites. According to Jewish tradition, the three sons of Noah divided the earth into three lots during the days of Peleg ( Genesis 10:25) and the land of Canaan was one of the areas that was given to Shem and to his descendants. But when the children of Noah scattered and moved into their heritage, Canaan, the son of Ham, took the land of Canaan, which belonged to the sons of Shem, and he refused to enter into his appointed inheritance. As a result, the curse that Noah spoke over those children who took possession of another person's land was placed upon Canaan. Thus, the Canaanites were living on land that did not belong to them and God chose to remove them from this land, which rightfully belonged to Shem and his descendants, one of which was Abraham. Thus, Abraham has legal rights to the land of Canaan. We can read in The Book of Jubilees of how Abraham saw this as the reason that God would one day cut off the seed of Canaan when he was about to die and blessed Jacob.

"Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife from any seed of the daughters of Canaan; For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth. For, owing to the transgression of Ham, Canaan erred, And all his seed shall be destroyed from off the earth and all the residue thereof, And none springing from him shall be saved on the day of judgment." (The Book of Jubilees 2220-21)

Genesis 10:15-19Comments- The Canaanites - We find in Genesis 10:15-19 the genealogy of Canaan, the son of Ham, the son of Noah. There will be eleven families, or nations, that will come from the loins of Canaan. The Canaanites will play an important role in the history of Israel because they inhabited the Promised Land that God gave to Abraham. For this reason, the author gives a lengthy account of the Canaanites when compared to the other families listed in this chapter.

Josephus says, "The sons of Canaan were these: Sidonius, who also built a city of the same name; it is called by the Greeks, Sidon; Amathus inhabited in Amathine, which is even now called Amathe by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians named it Epiphania, from one of his posterity: Arudeus possessed the island Aradus: Arucas possessed Arce, which is in Libanus; but for the seven others, [Eueus], Chetteus, Jebuseus, Amorreus, Gergesus, Eudeus, Sineus, Samareus, we have nothing in the sacred books but their names, for the Hebrews overthrew their cities; and their calamities came upon them on the occasion following:" (Antiquities 162)

According to Deuteronomy 7:1, six of the seven nations that God will drive out of the Promised Land during the time of Joshua are listed in Genesis 10:15-19 : Canaan, Heth (father of the Hittites), the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, and the Hivite. The only nation not listed is the Perizzites.

Deuteronomy 7:1, "When the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, and hath cast out many nations before thee, the Hittites, and the Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and mightier than thou;"

It is interesting to note the order in which these eleven nations are listed. Sidon became the most important city in ancient times from this list of eleven nations. This passage then lists five nations that Joshua drove out of the Promised Land. After mentioning these historical nations, there are five remaining nations listed, the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. These five nations play no role in the history of Israel and are only mentioned by name one other time in the Old Testament, being found in a genealogy in 1 Chronicles 1:13-16.

1 Chronicles 1:13-16, "And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth, The Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite."

Thus, these nations seem to be listed to some degree in order of historical importance.

Genesis 10:20 These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations.

Verses 21-31

The Sons of Shem (Twenty-Six Nations) - Genesis 10:21-31 tells us the names of the twenty-six nations that descended from the loins of Shem the son of Noah.

Genesis 10:21 Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born.

Genesis 10:21 — "the father of all the children of Eber" - Comments- The phrase that refers to Eber was probably added in Genesis 10:21 because he was a direct ancestor of Abraham and the nation of Israel and from whom their family name "the Hebrews" is derived. In fact the writer of the book of Genesis will soon expound upon the lineage of Shem in Genesis 11:10-26 in order to show that Abraham is one of his descendants. The children of Eber will become the seventieth nation within the list of the Table of Nations in Genesis 10:1-32.

Genesis 10:21"the brother of Japheth the elder" - Comments- Japheth was the elder of Noah"s three sons. Ham was probably second and Shem third, which is the way they are listed in Genesis 10:1-32.

Genesis 10:22 The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.

Genesis 10:22Word Study on "Elam" (45th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Elam" ( עֵילָם) (H 5867) means "eternity." PTW tells us that it means, "high land." The Enhanced Strong says this word is found 28 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Elam 28."

Comments- Scholars identify eight or nine individuals in the Scriptures by this name. Elam became a province east of Babylon and northeast of the lower Tigris. It is a name that is used in prophecy in the Scriptures.

Genesis 10:22Word Study on "Asshur" (46th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Asshur" ( אַשּׁוּר) (H 804) means, "a step." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 151times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Assyria 118, Assyrian 19, Asshur 8, Assyrian + 011215, Assur 1."

Comments- This second son of Shem became the ancestor of the Assyrians, and played an important role in Israel's history.

Genesis 10:22Word Study on "Arphaxad" (47th nation) - The Enhanced Strong says the Hebrew name "Arphaxad" "ar-pak-shad" ( אַרְפַּכְשַׁד) (H 775) means, "I shall fail as the breast," or "he cursed the breast-bottle," being used 9 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Arphaxad 9." This name is only referred to in genealogies in its nine uses.

Genesis 10:22Word Study on "Lud" (48th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Lud" ( לוּד) (H 3865) means, "strife."

Comments- BDB says Lud is the fourth son of Shem and ancestor of the Lydians. Gordon Wendham suggests they may be "the Lydians of Asia Minor (so Josephus, Antiquities 164)" or "... the Lubdu who lived on the upper Tigris." He acknowledges that there is difficulty in their identification. 155] John Gill says that these Lydians must be differentiated from the Lydians of North Africa, whose ancestor Ludim was the son of Mizraim ( Genesis 10:13). 156]

155] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans, vol 1, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), 230.

156] John Gill, Genesis, in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Genesis 10:22.

Genesis 10:13, "And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,"

Genesis 10:22Word Study on "Aram" (49th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Aram" ( אֲרָם) (H 758) means, "exalted." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used times in the Old Testament times, being translated in the KJV as "Syria 67, Syrians 56, Aram 7, Syriadamascus + 046011, Syriamaachah + 046011."

Comments- BDB says that Aram was the ancestor of "the Syrian or Aramean people."

Genesis 10:23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.

Genesis 10:23Word Study on "Uz" (50th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Uz" ( עוּץ) (H 5780) means, "wooded." PTW says it means, "counsel, firmness," being used 8 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Uz 8."

Comments- Strong says that it refers to "the country of Job; probably east and southeast of Palestine somewhere in the Arabian desert." PTW suggests that it was located either in "Hauran, south of Damascus," or in "the area between Edom and north Arabia." Lamentations 4:21 suggests that it was located near Edom.

Lamentations 4:21, "Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, that dwellest in the land of Uz; the cup also shall pass through unto thee: thou shalt be drunken, and shalt make thyself naked."

Since Uz was a descendant of Shem's, it is likely that Job was from this lineage.

Job 1:1, "There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil."

Genesis 10:23Word Study on "Hul" (51st nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Hul" ( חוּל) (H 2343) means, "circle." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Scriptures, being translated in the KJV as "Hul 2". Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:17, "The sons of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech."

Comments- PTW says that this probably refers to "an Aramean tribe," and "some have suggested the Hulia near Mount Masius," which Smith tells us is in northern Mesopotamia.

Genesis 10:23Word Study on "Gether" (52nd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Gether" ( גֶּתֶר) (H 1666) means, "fear." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Gether 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:17, "The sons of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech."

Comments- PTW suggests that this may refer to "an unknown family of Arameans."

Genesis 10:23Word Study on "Mash" (53rd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Mash" ( מַשׁ) (H 4851) means, "drawn out." This word is used only one time in the Scriptures. Most likely, we see a variant reading of this same name in 1 Chronicles 1:17 as "Meshech." (The other Meshech referred to in the Scriptures is the son of Japheth.)

1 Chronicles 1:17, "The sons of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech."

Comments- PTW suggests that this is a people living near Mount Masius in northern Mesopotamia.

Genesis 10:24 And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber.

Genesis 10:24Word Study on "Salah" (54th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Shelach, Salah" ( שֶׁלַח) (H 7974) means, "sprout." PTW suggests "petition, sprout." Nothing is known about this individual other than the fact that he is listed as an ancestor of Christ in Luke 3:35. This word is found 9 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Salah 6, Shelah 3."

Genesis 10:24Word Study on "Eber" (55th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Eber" ( עֵבֶר) (H 5677) means, "the region beyond." PTW gives us the meanings, "the other side, beyond." This individual was the great grandson of Shem, the son of Noah. However, the importance of his name lies in the fact that the Hebrew people will derive their name from him. Although there is no direct correlation between Eber and the Hebrew nation founded by Abraham, ISBE says that the name "‘Hebrew'…is intended to denote the people or tribe who came "from the other, side of the river" (i.e. the Euphrates), from Haran ( Genesis 11:31), whence Abraham and his dependents migrated to Canaan." 157] Thus, Abraham will be the first individual in the Old Testament to be called a Hebrew.

157] A. C. Grant, "Eber," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:24 — "Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber" - Comments- The genealogy in Luke differs from this one in Genesis 10:24. The one in Luke 3:35-36 tells us that Arphazad begat Caanan, who begat Salah, who begat Eber, while Genesis leaves out the name Caanan.

Luke 3:35-36, "Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala, Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem, which was the son of Noe, which was the son of Lamech,"

The difference can be explained by noting that the LXX version of Genesis 10:24 includes the name Cainan, " καὶ αρφαξαδ ἐγέννησεν τὸν καιναν, καὶ καιναν ἐγέννησεν τὸν σαλα, σαλα δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν εβερ." 158] Luke follows the Septuagint version. The authors of the KJV followed the Massoretic Text (the traditional Hebrew Old Testament) and the Latin Vulgate, which drops the name "Cainan" from Genesis 10:24.

158] Septuaginta: With Morphology, ed. Alfred Rahlfs (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, c 1979, 1996), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), Genesis 10:24.

Genesis 10:25 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother"s name was Joktan.

Genesis 10:25Word Study on "Peleg" (56th nation) - Gesenius says the Hebrew name "Peleg" ( פֶּלֶג) (H 6389) means, "division, part." Strong says it means, "earthquake." The TWOT says it means, "divide." The ISBE says that the Aramaic word "pelagh" and the Arabic word "phalaj" both mean "division." 159] The Enhanced Strong says this word is found 7 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Peleg 7."

159] S. F. Hunter, "Peleg," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Comments- Arthur Custance suggests that the descendants of Peleg were "the Pelasgians of antiquity, who were great sea-going merchants and sometimes pirates." He writes:

"When the Thracians descended to the Aegean from the north in the 14th century B.C, they displaced the Pelasgians from the territory which they held between the Hebrus and the Strymon. It is curious to find the Pelasgians occupying a territory adjacent to a river, the Hebrus, bearing a name so much reminiscent of Eber who, according to Genesis 10:25, was their father. After they were displaced, these people seem to have been swallowed up by the Greek population with whom they were subsequently confused." 160]

160] Arthur Custance, The Doorway Papers: A Study in the Names in Genesis 10 [on-line]; accessed 28 March 2009; available from http://www.custance.org/Library/Volume 1/Part_II/Chapter 4.html; Internet, 3.

Genesis 10:25 — "for in his days was the earth divided" - Word Study on "the earth" - The commonly used Hebrew word "earth" ( אֶרֶץ) (H 776) has a wide range of meanings, which Gesenius says are, "the earth," "earth, land, continent," "a land, country," "land, piece of land," "the ground," or "the element of the earth, earthly part." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 2,504times in the Old Testament being translated in the KJV as "land 1543, earth 712, country 140, ground 98, world 4, way 3, common 1, field 1, nations 1, wilderness + 040571."

Word Study on "divided" - Strong says the Hebrew word "divided" ( פָּלַג) (H 6385) is a primitive root meaning, "to divide, split." The Enhanced Strong says it is used only 4times in the Old Testament being translated in the KJV as "divide 4."

Comments- According to Genesis 11:10-16, Peleg was born one hundred and one (101) years after the flood. This passage suggests that the nations were still living primarily in the Mesopotamian area up until the time of the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel. Thus, within the context of Genesis 10-11, the phrase "for in his days was the earth divided" is a reference to the tower of Babel and the scattering of the nations across the face of the earth. Ancient Jewish tradition supports this view. The Book of Jubilees says in the days of Peleg the nations were dividing themselves upon the earth. The divided the earth into three lots according to the inheritance of the three sons of Noah. Since this document dates a few centuries before the time of Christ, it shows to us how the Jews may have interpreted this passage in Genesis.

"And in the sixth year 1567 A.M.] thereof, she bare him Song of Solomon, and he called his name Peleg; for in the days when he was born the children of Noah began to divide the earth amongst themselves: for this reason he called his name Peleg. And they divided (it) secretly amongst themselves, and told it to Noah. And it came to pass in the beginning of the thirty-third jubilee 1569 A.M.] that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each, in the first year in the first week, when one of us who had been sent, was with them." (The Book of Jubilees 88-11)

There are two references within the Scriptures to such an allotment of land to the sons of Noah.

Deuteronomy 32:8, "When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel."

Acts 17:24-26, "God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; Neither is worshipped with men"s hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things; And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;"

Therefore, this interpretation is followed by some modern English translations.

AmpBible, "To Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg [meaning division], because [the inhabitants of] the earth were divided up in his days, and his brother's name was Joktan."

BBE, "And Eber had two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, because in his time the peoples of the earth became separate; and his brother"s name was Joktan."

NAB, "To Eber two sons were born: the name of the first was Peleg, for in his time the world was divided; and the name of his brother was Joktan."

NLT, "Eber had two sons. The first was named Peleg (which means "division"), for during his lifetime the people of the world were divided into different language groups. His brother's name was Joktan."

Genesis 10:25Word Study on "Joktan" (57th nation) - Strong says the Hebrew name "Joktan" ( יָקְטָן) (H 3355) means, "he will be made little," and comes from the primitive root ( קָטֹן) (6994) meaning, "to be small, be insignificant." BDB says this name means, "smallness." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 6 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Joktan 6."

Genesis 10:26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah,

Genesis 10:26Word Study on "Almodad" (58th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Almodad" ( אַלְמֹודָד) (H 486) means, "not measured." PTW suggests the meaning "the agitator." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Almodad 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:26Word Study on "Sheleph" (59th nation) - Strong says the Hebrew name "Sheleph" ( שֶׁלֶף) (H 8026) means, "extract." BDB says it means, "a drawing forth." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Shelep 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:26Word Study on "Hazarmaveth" (60th nation) - Strong says the Hebrew name "Hazarmaveth" ( חֲצַרְמָוֶת) (H 2700) means, "village of death." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Hazarmaveth 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:26Word Study on "Jerah" (61st nation) - BDB says the Hebrew word "Jerah" ( יֶרַח) (H 3392) means, "new moon." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Jerah 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah,

Genesis 10:27Word Study on "Hadoram" (62nd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Hadoram" ( הֲדֹורָם) (H 1913) means, "noble honour." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Hadoram 4." Although there are two other individuals in the Scriptures by this name, only one other verse refers to this son of Joktan. Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:27Word Study on "Uzal" (63rd nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Uzal" ( אוּזָל) (H 187) means, "I shall be flooded." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Uzal 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:27Word Study on "Diklah" (64th nation) - The BDB says the Hebrew name "Diklah" ( דִּקְלָה) (H 1853) means, "palm grove." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Diklah 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba,

Genesis 10:28Word Study on "Obal" (65th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Obal" ( עֹובָל) (H 5745) means, "stripped bare." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 1times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Diklah 1." However, the parallel genealogy in 1 Chronicles 1:20-23 reads "Ebal" instead of "Obal," obviously referring to the same individual. Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:28Word Study on "Abimael" (66th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Abimael" ( אֲבִימָאֵל) (H 39) means, "my father is El (God)." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Abimael 2." Note the other use:

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:28"Sheba" (67th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Sheba" ( שְׁבָא) (H 7614) means, "seven" or "an oath or covenant." The Enhanced Strong says it occurring 23times in the Old Testament, bring translated in the KJV as "Sheba 23." However, there are five different individuals by this name in the Old Testament.

Comments- In the Table of Nations ( Genesis 10:1-32) there are two individuals named Sheba listed in this genealogy as the sons of Noah. The first Sheba was the son of Raamah the son of Cush who was the son of Ham ( Genesis 10:7). The second individual named Sheba ( Genesis 10:28) was the son of Joktan son of Eber who was a descendant of Shem. Some scholars, such as Gesenius, suggest that Sheba the Hamite of Genesis 10:7 is twice identified with his brother Dedan (see Ezekiel 38:13) in an effort to make him a distinct individual from Sheba the Shemite of Genesis 10:28. Gesenius suggests that Sheba the Hamite lived in northern Arabia "near the Persian Gulf and near the mouth of the Euphrates," while Sheba the Shemite would be a reference to the country of Sheba in southern Arabia.

Regarding this south Arabian country of Sheba, the Old Testament refers to the queen of Sheba ( 1 Kings 10:1-13, 1 Chronicles 9:1-12), which scholars recognize as a country in southern Arabia from whom come the Sabaens. These people are referred to as traders in gold and spices who inhabited a land remote from Palestine ( Psalm 72:15, Isaiah 60:6, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:22). Jesus referred to the queen of Sheba as the queen of the south ( Matthew 12:42). Joel refers to the Sabeans as "a people afar off" who will purchase the Israelites as slaves. In Job 1:15 the Sabeans fell upon Job's possessions and took them. The ISBE says the Arab genealogists tell us that "Saba is represented as the great-grandson of Qachtan (= Joktan) and ancestor of all the South-Arabian tribes. He is the father of Chimyar and Kahlan. He is said to have been named Saba because he was the first to take prisoners (shabhah) in war. He founded the capital of Saba and built its citadel Marib (Mariaba), famous for its mighty barrage." 161] Its capital was Marib, located in modern day Yemen. 162] The ISBE says we can also find the names of other brothers to Sheba the Shemite in southern Arabia, giving the modern example of the name Hazarmaveth = Hadhramaut ( Genesis 10:26) in this region. 163]

161] Thomas Hunter Weir, "Sheba," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

162] David J. A. Clines, Job 1-20, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans, vol 17, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), 31.

163] Thomas Hunter Weir, "Sheba," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Genesis 10:29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan.

Genesis 10:29Word Study on "Ophir" (68th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew word "Ophir" ( אֹופִיר) (H 211) means, "reducing to ashes." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 13times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Ophir 13." BDB says it refers "a land, or city, in southern Arabia in Solomon"s trade route where gold evidently was traded for goods."

Genesis 10:29Word Study on "Havilah" (69th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew name "Havilah" ( חֲוִילָה) (H 2341) means, "circle." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 7 times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Havilah 7."

Genesis 10:29Word Study on "Jobab" (70th nation) - BDB says the Hebrew word "Jobab" ( יובָב) (H 3103) means, "a desert." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 9 times in the Old Testament, being found in the KJV as "Jobab 9." Although there were five individuals by this name in the Old Testament, this son of Joktan is only referred to in Genesis 10:29 and 1 Chronicles 1:23.

1 Chronicles 1:20-23, "And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah, And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan."

Genesis 10:30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east.

Genesis 10:30Comments- Regarding the boundaries of the thirteen sons of Joktan, we refer to a description by Arthur Custance.

"The first boundary referred to in Genesis 10:30 perhaps refers to Massa (cf. Genesis 25:14), a northern Arabian tribe about midway between the Gulf of Akaba and the Persian Gulf. On the other hand, there is a seaport called Mousa, or Moudza, mentioned by Ptolemy, Pliny, Arrian and other ancient geographers, perhaps representing the place mentioned here. This was a town of some importance in classical times, but has since fallen into decay, if the modern Mousa is the same place. Gesenius, from the latitude given by Ptolemy, places Mesha at Maushid on the west coast of Yemen. If the latter is correct, then the second geographical locality is perhaps to be found in Sephar, a mount of the east, which is to be understood as being the Sipar, listed along with Elam and Susa, mentioned in a text found at Susa. This note in Genesis 10 would then mean that the thirteen sons of Joktan settled between these two points, and the location of Ophir would seem to be settled within the peninsula, not at the mouth of the Indus as some have thought." 164]

164] Arthur Custance, The Doorway Papers: A Study in the Names in Genesis 10 [on-line]; accessed 28 March 2009; available from http://www.custance.org/Library/Volume 1/Part_II/Chapter 4.html; Internet, 5.

Genesis 25:13-15, "And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah:"

Genesis 10:26-30Comments- The Sons of Joktan - There were thirteen sons bore by Joktan. Arthur Constance says that all thirteen of these sons appear to have settled in Arabia, chiefly the south. Note these suggested locations from Arthur Custance that still can be found in this region.

"Almodad is perhaps traceable to Al Mudad; Sheleph, in Yemen represented by Es Sulaf, and perhaps being the Aalapeni of Ptolemy; Hazarmaveth, today Hadramaut; Jerah, adjoining the latter, being possibly found in the name of a fortress, Jerakh; Hadoram, represented by the Adramitae in Southern Arabia, mentioned by Pliny and Ptolemy; Uzal, which is probably the old name of the capital of Yemen; Diklah, a place of some importance in Yemen known as Kakalah; Obal, preserved perhaps in several localities in south Arabia, under the name Abil; Abimael is completely unidentified; Sheba might suggest the Sabeans; Ophir perhaps represented by Aphar, the Sabaean capital of which Ptolemy speaks under the name Sapphara (Geog 67) and which is possibly modern Zaphar; Havilah, the district in Arabia Felix known as Khawlan; and Jobab, usually identified with the Jobarites mentioned by Ptolemy among the Arabian tribes of the south, and which it is suggested was misread by him as Iobabtai, instead of an original Iobaritai." 165]

165] Arthur Custance, The Doorway Papers: A Study in the Names in Genesis 10 [on-line]; accessed 28 March 2009; available from http://www.custance.org/Library/Volume 1/Part_II/Chapter 4.html; Internet, 5.

Genesis 10:31 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

Genesis 10:32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

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Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Genesis 10". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghe/genesis-10.html. 2013.