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Bible Commentaries

Alford's Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

2 Corinthians 9

Verse 1

1. ] The μὲν γάρ connects with the last verse, thus, ‘I beseech you to receive the brethren whom I send, courteously; for concerning the duty of ministration to the saints , it is surely superfluous for me to write to you who are so prompt already.’ No new subject begins, as some have supposed; nor is there any break in the sense at all. Some obscurity has been introduced unnecessarily, by taking τῆς διακ . τ . εἰς τ . ἁγ . for merely this collection which is now making : whereas the Apostle chooses such general terms as a mild reproof to the Corinthians, who, well aware as they were of the duty of ministering to the saints, were yet somewhat remiss in this particular example of the duty. There is an emphasis on γράφειν : ‘nam testes habebitis præsentes,’ Bengel. Theophyl. well remarks: τοσαῦτα καὶ πρότερον εἰπὼν καὶ πάλιν μέλλων εἰπεῖν , ὅμως περιττὸν αὐτῷ λέγει τὸ περὶ τούτων γράφειν . σοφῶς δὲ τοῦτο ποιεῖ , ὥστε μᾶλλον αὐτοὺς ἐπισπάσασθαι . αἰσχυνθήσονται γὰρ εἴ γε τοιαύτην ὑπόληψιν περὶ αὐτῶν ἔχοντος τοῦ Παύλου , ὅτι οὐ δέονται συμβουλῆς πρὸς τὸ ἐλεεῖν , εἶτα φανῶσιν ἐλάττους τῆς ὑπολήψεως .

Verses 1-5

1 5. ] He recurs to the collection itself, and prays them that they would make good before the brethren his boasting of them, and prepare it before his own coming .

Verses 1-15


Verse 2

2. ] For (ground of περισσόν ἐστι ) I am aware of your readiness of which (reff.) I am in the habit of boasting concerning you to Macedonians (Bengel remarks on the pres., ‘adhuc erat Paulus in Macedonia’) that Achaia (not ὑμεῖς he relates his own words to the Macedonians) has been ready (viz. to send off the money : καὶ οὐδὲν λείπει εἰ μὴ τὸ ἐλθεῖν τοὺς δεξομένους τὰ χρήματα , Theophyl. The Apostle, judging by their readiness, had made this boast concerning them, supposing it was really so. That this is the sense is shewn by ἀπαρασκευάστους below, 2Co 9:4 ) from last year (reff.): and the zeal which proceeds from you (‘which has its source in you and whose influence goes forth from you:’ so ὁ ἐκ Πελοποννήσου πόλεμος , οἱ ἐκεῖθεν , and the like) stirred up the greater number of them (but not only the example of your zeal: see ch. 2Co 8:1 ).

Verse 3

3. ] But (contrast, not to μέν in 2 Corinthians 9:1 , but to καυχῶμαι above; implying fear lest he should have been making a vain boast concerning them) I sent (epistolary past, as in ch. 2 Corinthians 8:18 ; 2Co 8:22 ) the brethren, in order that our matter of boasting concerning you ( καύχημα , our whole ‘materies gloriandi,’ not = καύχησις ) may not in this particular be proved empty ( ἐν τῷ μέρει τούτῳ , does not belong to καύχημα , but to κενωθῇ ‘that our boast of you, so ample and various ch. 2 Corinthians 7:4 , may not break down in this one department.’ Estius, in marg., well calls it ‘acris cum tacita laude exhortatio apostolica’); that, as I said (when? in 2Co 9:2 ? or, in his boasting to the Macedonians? or, in 1Co 16:1 ?

Most naturally, in 2 Corinthians 9:2 . If he had meant, to the Macedonians , it would probably have been λέγω , as καυχῶμαι above: if in 1 Corinthians 16:0 , it would have been more clearly expressed.

If so, ἔλεγον refers merely to the word παρεσκ .), ye may be prepared , (see above on 2Co 9:2 ),

Verse 4

4. ] lest perchance if Macedonians should come with me (to you: to bring me on my way, or to bear the Macedonian collection.

We may infer from this expression, that neither of the two brethren above mentioned, ch. 2 Corinthians 8:18 ; 2 Corinthians 8:22 , was a Macedonian), and should find you unprepared (with your collection, see 2Co 9:2 ) we (who have boasted), not to say you (who were boasted of), should be put to shame, in the matter of this confidence (respecting you. ὑπόστασις , as elsewhere in N. T. and LXX, see reff., subjective : the attempt to give it here the meaning of ‘ foundation ,’ ‘ matter boasted of ,’ as Chrys., Theophyl., Erasm., Grot., al., Rück., Olsh., is unnecessary, and has probably been induced by the gloss τῆς καυχ inserted from ch. 2 Corinthians 11:17 ; but see there also).

Verse 5

5. ] I therefore (because of 2Co 9:4 ) thought it necessary to exhort the brethren (Titus and the two others) that they would go before (my coming) to you, and previously prepare your long announced beneficence (i.e. long announced by me to the Macedonians, 2 Corinthians 9:2 .

εὐλογία , blessing ; not used only of a blessing in words , but of one expressed by a present , as Genesis 33:11 ; Judges 1:15 . (See Stanley.) But beware of the blunder of connecting it with εὖ and λογία , ‘ a good collection .’ This sense of blessing , combined with the primitive sense, affords the Apostle an opportunity for bringing out the true spirit in which Christian gifts should be given), that this same may be ready (the construction is unusual: ταύτην refers back to εὐλ . and the inf. must have ὥστε supplied. De W. compares Hebrews 5:5 . Perhaps the nearest is Col 4:6 ) in such sort as beneficence, and not as covetousness (i.e. as the fruit of blessing, poured out from a beneficent mind, not of a sparing covetous spirit which gives no more than it need. There is no need to alter the primitive meaning, or to make the word signify ‘tenacity,’ as Calv., De Wette, al.: he who defrauds the poor by stinting them πλεονεκτεῖ , in the literal sense. Still less must we with Chrys., al., refer πλεονεξ . to the Apostle, μὴ νομίσητε , φησίν , ὅτι ὡς πλεονεκτοῦντες αὐτὴν λαμβάνομεν , Hom xix. p. 573, which is inconsistent with the interpretation φειδομένως below, and with εὐλογίαν , the corresponding word, which applies to the spirit of the givers).

Verses 6-7

6, 7. ] He enforces the last words by an assurance grounded in Scripture and partly cited from it, that as we sow, so shall we reap .

τοῦτο ] Some supply φημί , as in ref.: others, as Meyer, would take it as an accus. absol., ‘ as regards this ,’ viz. what has gone before. But I would rather take it as an imperfect construction, in which τοῦτο is used merely to point at the sentiment which is about to follow: But this (is true), or But (notice) this

ἐπ ʼ εὐλογίαις ] with blessings : ἐπί denoting the accompanying state or circumstances, as in ref.: not, ‘ with a view to blessings ,’ which will not suit the second ἐπ ʼ εὐλ .: nor as Theophyl., Œc [14] , and E. V. μετὰ δαψιλείας , bountifully : which gives indeed the sense , but misses the meaning of the expression: see above. It refers to the spirit of the giver, who must be ἱλαρὸς δότης , not giving murmuringly, but with blessings , with a beneficent charitable spirit: such an one shall reap also with blessings, abundant and unspeakable. The only change of meaning in the second use of the expression is that the εὐλογίαι are poured on him , whereas in the first they proceeded from him : in both cases they are the element in which he works. So, we bestow the seed, but receive the harvest. The spirit with which we sow , is of ourselves: that with which we reap , depends on the harvest . So that the change of meaning is not arbitrary, but dependent on the nature of things.

[14] Œcumenius of Tricca in Thrace, Cent y . XI.?

Verse 7

7. ] Not, as Meyer and De W., a limitation of the foregoing, or else it would be expressed by some connecting particle, but a continuation of the thought: φειδομένως and ἐπ ʼ εὐλογίαις referred to the spirit of the giver; so does this verse, ἐκ λύπηςἐξ ἀν . corresponding to φειδομένως , ἱλαρός , to ἐπ ʼ εὐλογίαις .

καθὼς προῄρηται ] as he hath determined in his heart ; supply, ‘so let him give:’ i.e. let the προαίρεσις , the full consent of the free will, go with the gift; let it not be reluctant offering, given ἐκ λύπης , out of an annoyed and troubled mind at having the gift extorted, nor ἐξ ἀνάγκης , out of necessity, because compelled. Such givers, that is implied, God does not love.

δότης is not a classical word. δότηρ , δωτήρ and (Hes. Op. 353) δώτης , are used (Meyer).

Verse 8

8. ] δυνατεῖ has the emphasis. I adopt the reading because after all it is difficult to imagine how so easy a construction as δυνατὸςθεός , should have been altered to δυνατεῖ , as Meyer supposes, or why the transcriber need have written δυνατός ἐστιν if the latter were a correction for δυνατεῖ , seeing that the verb substantive is just as frequently omitted in such clauses as inserted.

πᾶσαν χάριν , ‘etiam in bonis externis,’ Bengel, to which here the reference is: not excluding however the wider meaning of ‘ all grace.’

περισσεῦσαι , to make to abound , reff.

ἵνα κ . τ . λ .] in order that, having at all times in every thing all sufficiency (of worldly substance; αὐτάρκ . is objective; not contentedness , subj.) ye may abound towards (‘have an overplus for;’ which is not inconsistent with αὐτάρκεια , seeing that αὐτ . does not exclude the having more , but only the having less than is sufficient: the idea of a man’s having at all times and in all things a sufficiency, would presuppose that he had somewhat to spare) every good work:

Verses 8-11

8 11. ] He encourages them to a cheerful contribution by the assurance that God both can ( 2Co 9:8-9 ), and will ( 2Co 9:10-11 ) furnish them with the means of performing such deeds of beneficence .

Verse 9

9. ] as it is written (i.e. fulfilling the character described in Scripture), He scattered abroad (metaph. from seed : μετὰ δαψιλείας ἔδωκε , Chrys.), he gave to the poor: his righteousness remaineth for ever . In what sense is δικαιοσύνη used? Clearly in the only one warranted by the context that of ‘ goodness proved by beneficence ,’ ‘a righteous deed, which shall not be forgotten, as a sign of righteousness in character and conduct.’ To build any inference from the text inconsistent with the great truths respecting δικαιοσύνη ever insisted on by Paul (as Chrys., p 574, καὶ γὰρ δικαίους ποιεῖ ( ἡ φιλανθρωπία ), τὰ ἁμαρτήματα καθάπερ πῦρ ἀναλίσκουσα , ὅταν μετὰ δαψιλείας ἐκχέηται ) is a manifest perversion.

Verse 10

10. ] Assurance that God will do this . But (introduces the new assurance) He that ministers seed to the sower and bread for eating (in the physical world: from ref. Isa., LXX. The Vulg., E. V., Luther, Calv., Grot., al., commit the mistake of joining κ . ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν with χορηγήσαι , or - ει . βρῶσις , the act of eating : not = βρῶμα ), shall supply and multiply your seed (i.e. the money for you to bestow, answering to σπέρμα τῷ σπείροντι ), and will increase the fruits of your righteousness (from ref. Hos. the everlasting reward for your bestowals in Christ’s name, as Matthew 10:42 ; answering to ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν , which is the result of the sower’s labours).

Verse 11

11. ] Method in which you will be thus blessed by God . In every thing being enriched (the construction is an anacoluthon, as in ref. and in ch. 2Co 1:7 al.: nothing need be supplied) unto all liberality (i.e. in order that you may shew all liberality. On ἁπλ . see note, Rom 12:8 ), which (of a sort which) brings about by our means (as the distributors of it) thanksgiving (from those who will receive it) to God .

Verse 12

12. ] Explanation of the last clause . Because the ministration (not on our part who distribute, though it might at first sight seem so: the next verse decides διακονία to mean, ‘ your administering by contribution ,’ as in 2Co 9:1 ) of this public service ( λειτ . here seems to approach more nearly to its proper sense, serving the public by furnishing the means of outfit for some necessary purpose) not only serves the end of supplying by its help the wants of the saints, but of abounding ( περισς . may be transitive as in 2 Corinthians 9:8 , not only filling up, but ‘ causing to overflow ,’ what were ὑστερήματα . But the usual intransitive sense is preferable. The emphasis is on προσαναπλ . and περισσεύουσα ) by means of many thanksgivings to God ( τῷ θεῷ with εὐχαρ ., as in 2 Corinthians 9:11 , not with περισσεύουσα , which would not, as Meyer observes, give the sense of abounding towards God , this would be εἰς τ . θεόν , see Romans 5:15 , or εἰς τ . δόξαν τ . θεοῦ , as in ch. 2 Corinthians 4:15 , but the objection able one of περισσεύει μοί τι , as John 6:13 ; Luk 9:17 );

Verse 13

13. ] they (the recipients) glorifying God (the participle as in 2 Corinthians 9:11 , an anacoluthon) by means of (the proof, &c., is the occasion, by means of which ) the proof (i.e. the tried reality the substantial help yielded by) of this (your) ministration, for the subjection of your confession as regards the Gospel of Christ (i.e. that your ὁμολογία , (= ‘you who confess Christ,’) ‘is really and truly subject in holy obedience, as regards the gospel of Christ.’ But εἰς must not be joined with ὑποταγῇ , as ‘ obedience to ,’ or (E. V.) ‘ subjection unto ,’ which is unexampled, and would more naturally have the art., τῇ εἰς : it is towards , ‘ in reference to ,’ as in ref.) and liberality of your contribution as regards them and as regards all men (the same remarks apply to εἰς as above). Meyerwould render ἁπλότητι τῆς κοινωνίας , ‘ the genuineness of your fellowship :’ but see note on Romans 12:8 , and Romans 15:26 . He also makes τῇ ὑποταγῇ τῆς ὁμολ ., ‘your subjection to your confession,’ which perhaps may be , but disturbs the parallel of ἁπλότητι τ . κοιν .

Verse 14

14. ] The construction is very difficult. δεήσει may depend on περισσεύουσα , 2 Corinthians 9:12 (but then we should expect διὰ as there), or on δοξάζοντες (but then it should also depend on ἐπί and they could not be said to glorify God for their own prayers. If on δοξάζοντες as the instrument whereby, it seems strange that αὐτῶν Should be expressed), or αὐτῶν δεήσει ὑπὲρ ὑμ . ἐπιπ . ὑμ . may be (as Meyer) a gen. absol., ‘ while they desire you in prayers for you ’ (but this seems forced, and as De W. observes, would require τῇ either before or after δεήσει ). In the midst of these difficulties I see no way but this: the datives preceding, ὑποταγῇ and ἁπλότητι , have occasioned this also to be expressed in the dative, as though it depended on ἐπί , whereas it is in reality parallel with διὰ πολλῶν εὐχαριστιῶν and dependent on περισσεύουσα . Again, the words in another point of view are parallel with τῇ ὑποταγῇ and ἁπλότητι , inasmuch as these are ὑμῶν , and this δέησις is αὐτῶν . Amidst such complicated antitheses and attracted constructions, it may suffice if we discover the clue to the original formation of the sentence: the meaning is obvious enough, viz. that glory also accrues to God by the prayers of the recipients, who are moved with the desire of Christian love (reff.) to you, on account of the grace of God which abounds eminently towards (over) you ( ἐφ ʼ ὑμ . belonging to ὑπερβ . not to χάριν , which would, but not of absolute necessity, require τήν ).

Verse 15

15. ] Having entered, in the three last verses, deeply into the thankful spirit which would be produced in these recipients of the bounty of the Corinthians, he concludes with an ascription , in the spirit also of a thankful recipient, of unfeigned thanks to Him, who hath enriched us by the gift of His only Son, which brings with it that of all things else ( Rom 8:32 ), and is, in all its wonders of grace and riches of mercy, truly ineffable , ἀνεκδιήγητος . It is impossible to apply such a term, so emphatically placed as here, to any gift short of THAT ONE. And the ascription, as coming from Paul’s fervent spirit, is very natural in this connexion. This interpretation is preferred by Chrys. Hom. xx. p. 579 f. ( δωρεὰν δὲ ἐνταῦθα λέγει καὶ τὰ τοσαῦτα ἀγαθὰ τὰ διὰ τῆς ἐλεημοσύνης γινόμενα καὶ τοῖς λαμβάνουσι καὶ τοῖς παρέχουσιν · ἢ τὰ ἀπόῤῥητα ἀγαθὰ τὰ διὰ τῆς παρουσίας αὐτοῦ τῇ οἰκουμένπάσμετὰ πολλῆς δωρηθέντα τῆς φιλοτιμίας · ὃ καὶ μάλιστὰ ἐστιν ὑποπτεῦσαι . ἵνα γὰρ καὶ καταστείλῃ , καὶ δαψιλεστέρους ἐργάσηται , ὧν ἔτυχον παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ , τούτων αὐτούς ἀναμιμνήσκει . καὶ γὰρ μέγιστον τοῦτο εἰς προτροπὴν ἀρετῆς ἁπάσης · διὸ καὶ ἐνταῦθα τὸν λόγον κατέκλεισεν ), and Thl. who, after beginning as Chrys., proceeds: ἡ καὶ τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀναμιμνήσκει ὧν ἠξιώθημεν διὰ τῆς σαρκώσεως τοῦ χριστοῦ , ὡσανεὶ τοιαῦτα λέγων Μηδὲν μέγα νομίσητε ὑμεῖς ποιεῖν · ἀνεκδιήγητα γάρ εἰσι τὰ ἀγαθὰἐλάβομεν παρὰ θεοῦ · καὶ εἰ ὀλίγα καὶ φθαρτὰ δῶμεν , τί μέγα ;) It is also given by Bengel (“Deus nobis dedit abundantiam bonorum internorum et externorum, quæ et ipsa est inenarrabilis, et fructus habet consimiles”), Meyer, al. The other explanation (see Chrys. above) is that of Calv., Grot., Est., al.

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Bibliographical Information
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on 2 Corinthians 9". Alford's Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. 1863-1878.