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The third time he had made preparations to visit the Corinthians, (see chap. xii. 14.) when every delinquent shall be tried as the law directs. (Deuteronomy xix. 15.; Matthew xviii. 16.; Hebrews x. 28.)
I will not spare. Estius, Menochius, and others explain this of the censures, excommunications, &c. of the Church; whilst some are of opinion that he means temporal punishments. But we must observe, that not unfrequently God punished, even in a sensible manner, those who by their crimes had compelled their pastors to make us of the spiritual sword. (Calmet)
Do you seek a proof? By the Greek it signifies for you, or in your regard. The sense is, that he has left me power enough to chastise those among you who shall deserve it, when I come. (Witham) --- I do not know why you delay your conversion. Can you doubt whether it is God who speaks to you by my mouth, who has great power among you, and who is very capable of punishing you. (Bible de Vence)
He was crucified through weakness. That is, he took upon him our weak and infirm nature, in which he was made capable of suffering, and of laying down willingly his life for us on the cross. But he liveth again by the power of God, of his divine power. --- We also are weak in him, like him liable to sufferings, undergoing sufferings by his example; but we shall live with him by the power of God, of which you have also a share. (Witham)
Try your ownselves if you be in the faith.  He does not mean if they have a right Christian faith or belief, but either whether they had a saving Christian faith working in them by charity, or as St. John Chrysostom says, a faith that shewed itself by the gift of miracles, as at time commonly given to the first Christians. --- Unless perhaps you are disapproved,  rejected, and justly deprived of this gift, which was a proof that they were Christians, and had received the Spirit of Christ. I judged it better to translate here disapproved, that reprobates, which in other places is often taken as opposed to the predestinate and the elect, whereas there it signifies those who were rejected, and deprived of the gifts of the spirit, particularly of that of miracles, and of those spiritual gifts granted to the first Christians, and which were a proof that they had received the grace: and the 7th verse, not that we may appear approved, but that....we may be as reprobates. That is, we wish that we may have no occasion to shew the power and the gifts of the spirit, and that of miracles, but as if we were rejected, disapproved, reproved, and deprived of such proofs. (Witham)
Si estis in fide, Greek: ei este en te pistei. St. John Chrysostom, Greek: om. kth., p. 701, Greek: emoi dokei entautha legein ten ton semeion. Also in Ver. 5., Nisi forte reprobi estis, Greek: adokimoi, improbati, or non probati. The Protestant, as well as the Rhem., hath reprobates; but Dr. Wells, in his amendments, has put destitute of proofs, which here is the true sense.
I trust that we have not fallen from the state in which we were, but that we continue to exercise our ministry and to use the power which he has given us. Though I do not wish to find you guilty of any sins which may oblige me to use this power over you. I rather wish in this respect to have no authority whatever over you, to be as it were an outcast or reprobate, that you may never feel the power that God hath given me for the punishment of the wicked. (St. John Chrysostom) --- Reprobates. That is, without proof, by having no occasion of shewing our power in punishing you. (Challoner)
Non ut nos probati appareamus....nos autem ut reprobi simus, Greek: os (not ina ) adokimoi omen, i.e. sicut or tanquam non probati simus.
We rejoice that we have not made our power appear in punishing the wicked, and afflicting our enemies; we are glad that we appear to them to be weak; but we are particularly glad, when you live is such a manner as to give us no occasion of reprimanding you, or of exercising our power over you. (St. John Chrysostom)
We write this for the edification of Christ's mystical body, and to cause all men to enter; not for its destruction, and to compel many to abandon it.
Rejoice. Greek: Chairete, bene valete. In this sense the Greeks used this term at the conclusion of their writings; and Greek: Loipon, to denote that the writer of speaker was hastening to a conclusion. (Pastorini) --- Be perfect.  Literally, in the Latin be exhorted. (Witham)
Exhortamini, Greek: parakaleisthe, consolemini, consolationem capite.
This was customary with both Jews and Persians, as we learn from Xenophon and Herodotus, and with other oriental nations. And in process of time, from the custom of common life, it was introduced into ecclesiastial assemblies. The ancients were in the habit before they began their meal to embrace each other, to manifest by that sign their mutual cordiality and friendship; then they contributed their alms, that they might give a substantial proof of what was represented by their kiss of charity. (Pastorini)
For my part, I wish you, with all my heart, that the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the charity of God, and the communion of his holy Spirit, may dwell with you all. Amen is wanted in the Greek, but was added by the Church of Corinth, which was accustomed to make this reply as often as this epistle was read. When we recall to our mind the excess of corruption that had reigned in the city of Corinth under paganism, excess attested by profane authors, and which St. Paul brings to their recollection, (1 Corinthians vi. 9.) we are all astonishment that in the short space of four years the gospel had operated amongst the faithful of this church, such a prodigious change in their manners, and that they were become capable of receiving lessons of morality so very pure as is this of the apostle. (Bergier.)
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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Corinthians 13". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28