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Moab. This people broke their covenant with Sedecias, yet were punished for having entered into it, five years after the taking of Jerusalem. (Josephus) (St. Jerome, in chap. xxv. 32.) --- The same war is described by Ezechiel (xxv. 8.) and Sophonias, ii. 8. Many words of Isaias (xv., and xvi., and xxiv.) are adopted, though he speaks of what happened under Ezechias. --- Nabo, a town at the foot of that mountain, where Moses died, Deuteronomy xxxiv. It might have been famous for some pretended "oracle," Isaias xv. 2., and xlvi. 1. This chief city, with the rest, shall be destroyed. (Worthington) --- Cariathaim. This city, and most of the others, were repossessed by Moab after the Israelites were led into captivity. (Calmet) --- City. Hebrew Hammisgab, a fortress. (Vatable)
Hesebon, at the foot of Phasga, and one of the strongest cities. --- Shalt. Hebrew, "shall Medemena hold her peace." (Calmet) --- "Thou shalt be cut down, O madmen." (Haydock) --- It signifies "silence." Thou silent city, thou shalt be reduced to a mournful silence or destruction.
Little ones. Hebrew, "to Segor," ver. 34., and Isaias xv. 5. (Calmet) --- Chaldean, "princes" of the second rank. (Vatable)
Heath, or tamarick, chap. xvii. 6. Hebrew Haroher.
Bulwarks. Hebrew, "works," or possessions of corn, cattle, &c. (Calmet) --- Chamos, the idol of the Moabites. (Challoner) --- He was esteemed the king of the country, as the devil is the ape of God. The prophets often deride the imbecility of these idols, chap. xliii., and xi. The chief idol of Moab shall fall, to shew the vanity of trusting in idols. (Worthington)
Spoiler, or "thief," (prædo) a title which Nabuchodonosor deserved, on account of his unjust conquests. (Calmet)
Flower: an usual ceremony at funerals. (Cornelius a Lapide) (Menochius) --- Manibus date lilia plenis. (Virgil, Æneid vi.) --- Hebrew, "wings." Protestants, "signs." Septuagint, (Haydock) "that they may know how to return." Let Moab flee. (Calmet)
Deceitfully. In the Greek, negligently. The work of God here spoken of, is the punishment of the Moabites. (Challoner) --- Woe to those who spare those whom God orders to be destroyed, as Saul and Achab did, 1 Kings xv. 8, 23., and 3 Kings xx. 32, 42. The zeal of the Levites, Phinees, &c., is rewarded, Exodus xxxii. 27., and Numbers xx. 8.
Fruitful as a vine. --- Lees. The wine has not been disturbed. It was customary to keep it first in pits, (Mark xii. 1., and Isaias v. 1.) and afterwards in large earthen vessels. Vina bibes Tauro diffusa: "Thou shalt drink wine bottled off in the consulship of Taurus." (Horace i. ep. 5.) --- If the wine was weak, the vessels were put under ground. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xiv. 21.) --- The better sort was arranged in order, (ver. 12.) in some clean apartment, Canticle of Canticles ii. 4. (Homer, Odyssey B. 237.) --- Changed. He alludes to the wine. (Haydock) --- Moab has enjoyed a long peace and prosperity. (Calmet)
Of Bethel. That is, of their golden calves, which they worshipped in Bethel. (Challoner) --- Chamos and the golden calves were both taken away, Osee viii. 5. (Calmet) --- The ten tribes had foolishly trusted in the latter, 3 Kings xii. (Worthington)
Swiftly; about twenty-three years from the fourth of Joakim.
His name, as particular friends, Exodus xxxiii. 12, 17. People in the East had a secret name, which they disclosed to very few, to prevent incantations. --- Rod. This nation was exceedingly vain, ver. 29.
Thirst. Dibon was well supplied with water, Isaias xv. 9.
Arnon, on which river Aroer stood.
Drunk with the wine of God’s wrath. --- Dash. Hebrew, "roll in," or "they shall clap hands over Moab, in," &c.
Thieves. Chap. ii. 26. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "was he found among thieves? for since thou speakest of him, thou skippest for joy." (Haydock) --- Chaldean agrees with the Vulgate, which is clearer. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "hath he been found stealing from thee, since thou hast fought against him?" Grabe subjoins, "Thou shalt go into banishment.["] (Haydock) --- As Moab was related to Israel, his derision was the more criminal, and more grievously punished. (Worthington)
Place. Seek for shelter in the caverns and highest mountains. (Haydock)
Able. He hath attempted too much.
Brick wall. Hebrew Kir-cheres, (Isaias xvi. 7.; Calmet) "the city of the sun;" (Grotius) Ar, the capital. The prophet joins in the mournful canticle, as was usual, Luke vii. 32. (Calmet) --- Those who boast of more than they have, are compared to an earthen wall. (Worthington)
Jazer, or "more than for Jazer;" about six leagues to the north of Sebama, which had a rivulet communicating with the sea of Jazer.
Carmel, which here denotes any fruitful vineyard or place. --- The, &c. Protestants, "none shall tread with shouting, their shouting shall be no shouting." Hebrew hedad, "the cry" of the people in the vintage. (Calmet)
As a. Literally, "the heifer;" a title of Oronaim, which was proud and ungovernable. (Haydock) --- Hebrew also, "from Agelah to Salisa; the," &c. --- Bad; abandoned, Isaias xv. 6. (Calmet)
Pipes. Hebrew chalilim, (Haydock) lyre or flutes. Such were used at funerals of children; (Matthew ix. 23.) trumpets sounded for men. (Servius) --- Could; opposing the conqueror of Asia, ver. 30, 31. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "the riches that he hat gotten is perished."
Shaven, or "clipt," (Protestants; Haydock) as in mourning. --- Tied. Hebrew, "cut," chap. xvi. 6. (Calmet) --- Such signs of mourning were usual in those countries. The Romans let their hair grow. (Cicero, pro Sestio.) (Worthington)
Bowed. Septuagint and Chaldean, "turned his back."
Carioth, probably Kir Hares, which the eagle of Babylon seized. Roman Septuagint omits verse 40. (Calmet) --- Grabe supplies, Behold, &c., and here, the heart, &c. (Haydock)
Cease for a time, till he regain his liberty under Cyrus, ver. 47.
Fear. It was customary to hand feathers near a wood, to frighten the prey into pits or nets, Isaias xxiv. 17. (Sanctius)
There....saith, &c., to the end of the chapter is supplied by Grabe. His copy subjoins, "What Jeremias prophesied against all nations. Thus," &c., chap. xxv. 15. (Haydock)
Hesebon, expecting shelter. But internal broils ruined them. --- There, &c., to [verse] 47., is borrowed from Numbers xxi. 27.[28, 29.?] Sehon had taken Hesebon from Moab. --- Part. Moses has "Ar, of Moab, and the inhabitants of the heights of Arnon." [Numbers xxi. 28.] (Calmet) --- Tumult. Hebrew shaon, (Haydock) means also pride, in which sense Balaam uses Seth, Numbers xxiv. 17. (Calmet)
Days. When they, Elam and the other Gentiles, shall be converted to the faith of Christ. We read of no other bringing back, (Worthington) though it might take place. (Haydock)
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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Jeremiah 48". "Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent