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Bible Commentaries

Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Mark 13

Verse 1

[Mark 13:1 . Λίθοι οἰκοδομαὶ , stones buildings ) The very work of building was at that time going forward briskly: therefore many stones were lying scattered apart on this, and on that side. V. g.]

Verse 3

Mark 13:3 . Εἰς , upon ) The mountain. The wall of the temple was rather sunk towards the Mount of Olives: in consequence of which the interior of the temple could be conveniently seen. Πέτρος , κ . τ . λ ., Peter, etc .) James and Peter were about to die sooner than the rest: and yet the subject of inquiry appertains even to them: yet still more to John.

Verse 4

Mark 13:4 . Ταῦτα , these things ) viz. as concerns the temple. πάντα ταῦτα , all these things ) viz. as concerns not only the temple, but also all other things, that is, the whole world.

Verse 5

Mark 13:5 . Ἤρξατο , He began ) Previously He had not spoken much concerning these things.

Verse 6

Mark 13:6 . Ἐγὼ εἰμι , I am ) The Predicate is to be supplied, viz. the Christ ; Matthew 24:5 . Hebrew אני הוא , Isaiah 43:10 .

Verse 8

Mark 13:8 . Ταραχαὶ , troubles ) in the great and lesser world [macrocosmo et microcosmo].

Verse 9

Mark 13:9 . Δὲ , but ) Do not concern yourselves about other matters, Mark 13:11 : only take heed to yourselves . παραδώσουσι , they shall deliver you up ) From this verse to Mark 13:13 , the words are parallel to Matthew 10:17-18 . Therefore Mark is not an epitomizer of Matthew. εἰς ) An abbreviated mode of expression: ye shall be brought into the synagogues, amidst stripes. See Glass. canon 2 de verbo. Or rather εἰς is for ἐν , as in Mark 13:16 . At all events the mention of stripes is consonant with the synagogues. Matthew 10:17 ; Matthew 23:34 . αὐτοῖς , to them [against them]) viz. the Jews.

Verse 10

Mark 13:10 . Καὶ εἰς , and among ) The preaching of the Gospel was helped forward by the very persecutions, Mark 13:9 ; 2 Timothy 4:17 . πρῶτον , previously ) before that the end shall come, Mark 13:7 . [ When Jerusalem was being destroyed, already a church was collected from among the Gentiles . V. g.]

Verse 11

Mark 13:11 . Μηδὲ μελετᾶτε , neither do ye meditate ) Not merely you have need of no anxiety, but not even of premeditation. τοῦτο , this very thing ) the whole of it, and without fear. [ For it is with that aim it is supplied to you . V. g.]

Verse 14

Mark 13:14 . Ὅπου οὐ δεῖ , where it ought not ) Language adapted to His hearers’ modes of thought. The Jews’ mode of thinking was, that it ought not. And indeed it ought not, in so much as the place was the holy place ; so, “speaking things which they ought not ,” 1 Timothy 5:13 . Comp. also Jeremiah 49:12 . [ It was from that place that the Romans invaded the city . V. g.]

Verse 20

Mark 13:20 . Οὓς ἐξελέξατο , whom He hath chosen ) Herein is illustrated the power of prayer. ἐκολοβωσε , He hath shortened ) by His decree.

Verse 22

Mark 13:22 . Ἀποπλανᾶν , to seduce ) by error [ πλάνη , wandering ] from the right path.

Verse 24

Mark 13:24 . Ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις μετὰ τὴν θλίψιν ἐκείνην , in those days after that tribulation) After that tribulation shall come those days. Therefore the ἐκείνην , that , refers to a different thing from ἐκείναις , those. That refers back to the whole preceding discourse; but those , looks forward to the last events of all, as in Mark 13:32 . For the question of the disciples, to which the Lord replies, in Mark also, Mark 13:4 [as in Matthew], had reference by implication, to the end of the world.

Verse 25

Mark 13:25 . Ἔσονται ἐκπίπτοντες , shall be falling ) A metaphor from a flower, James 1:11 . [The flower thereof falleth.]

Verse 26

Mark 13:26 . Μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς καὶ δόξης , with great power and glory ) The adjective in the middle, applying to both nouns. Mark frequently employs a Zeugma of this kind, so as to put some word in the middle, which is intended to be connected with the preceding, and also with the subsequent word or words, See ch. Mark 3:26 , Mark 4:21 , Mark 5:40 ; Mark 5:42 , Mark 6:13 , Mark 7:2 ; Mark 7:21 , Mark 10:7 .

Verse 27

Mark 13:27 . Ἀπʼ ἄκρου ) This is an abbreviated mode of expression, in this sense, from the uttermost part of the heaven (sky) and earth in the east, even to the uttermost part of the heaven and earth in the west. [ O blessed general assembly, of which who would not desire to form a member? V. g.]

Verse 30

[30. Ἡ γενεὰ , generation ) These words were spoken in the 30th year of the Dion. Era, and it was in A.D. 70 that they came to pass. Comp. on Matthew 24:34 .]

Verse 32

Mark 13:32 . Οὐδὲυἱός , neither the Son ) This, which had been omitted in Matthew, has been recorded by Mark, inasmuch as believers being by this time confirmed in the faith, could now more readily bear it [than they could have borne it in Matthew’s early time]. [It is also omitted by Luke, who seems to have softened down several passages of Mark, with which Theophilus, an excellent person, but a νεόφυτος , novice , might have been readily offended. Harm. , p. 481.] Moreover, both in the twelfth year of His age and subsequently, “Jesus increased in wisdom,” [ Luk 2:52 ]: and the accessions of wisdom which He then gained, He had not had before. Since this was not unworthy of Him, it was also not even necessary for Him in teaching to know already at that time the one secret reserved to the Father. Moreover the assertion is not to be taken absolutely (comp. Joh 16:15 ), but in reference to the human nature of Christ, independently of [as separated from] which, however, He is not denominated, even in this passage, where there is a climax, which sets Him even as man above the angels: it is also to be taken with reference to His state of humiliation, whence the language which He employs subsequently, after the resurrection, is different, see notes, Acts 1:7 : in fine, both the human nature and the state of humiliation in respect to the office of the Christ being supposed, His words may be understood to mean, without mental reservation, that He knows not, because He had it not among His instructions, to declare that day; as also in order to deter His disciples from requiring to know it. An apostle was able both to know and not to know one and the same thing, according to the different point of view, see note, Philippians 1:25 : how much more Christ? There is an admirable variety in the motions of the soul of Christ. Sometimes He had an elevated feeling, so as hardly to seem to remember that He was a man walking on the earth: sometimes He had a lowly feeling, so that He might almost have seemed to forget that He was the Lord from heaven. And He was wont always to express Himself according to His mental feeling for the time being: at one time as He who was one with the Father: at another time again in such a manner, as if He were only of that condition, in which are all ordinary and human saints. Often these two are blended together in wonderful variety. He speaks most humbly in this passage, and thereby qualifies [modifies] the feeling of His glory, which His discourse concerning the judgment was carrying with it. You may say, Why is He in this passage called the Son , a denomination which is not taken from His human nature? The answer is: In enunciations concerning the Saviour, He is wont to join a lowly Subject with a glorious Predicate: Matthew 16:28 ; John 1:51 ; John 3:13 ; and vice versa , a glorious Subject (as here) with a lowly Predicate: Matthew 21:3 ; 1 Corinthians 2:8 ; moreover, in this passage, the Son is in antithesis to the Father . εἰ μὴΠατὴρ , but the Father ) Illustrating the great glory of His omniscience. Comp. Acts 1:7 .

Verse 34

[34. Ὡς ἄνθρωπος ) D. Hauber has ably proved that this passage is parallel, not to Matthew 25:14 , but to Matthew 24:45 . Harm. , p. 484]. τὴν ἐξουσίαν , authority ) This He gave to His servants conjointly, as is evident from the antithesis, and to every man ) καὶ ἑκάστῳ . The authority so assigned was a great authority: Matthew 21:33 . καὶ ) also [even]. τῷ θυρωρῷ , to the porter ) [He gave charge], inasmuch as the porter is one who keeps watch even for others, and whose duty it is to rouse them up.

Verse 35

Mark 13:35 . Γρηγορεῖτε , watch) Watchfulness , the foundation of all duties, is enjoined not only on the porter, but on all the servants. μεσονυκτίον , at midnight ) Matthew 25:6 .

Verse 37

Mark 13:37 . Πᾶσι , unto all ) Even to those of after ages. [ ὑμῖν , unto you ) In antithesis to πᾶσι , viz., the Apostles, and their contemporaries. V. g.]

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Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Mark 13". Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. 1897.