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Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus.
Thou therefore - following my example (2 Timothy 1:8; 2 Timothy 1:12), and that of Onesiphorus (2 Timothy 1:16-18), make up by thy stedfastness for the faithlessness of those who forsook me (2 Timothy 1:15).
My son. Children ought to imitate their father.
Be strong, [ endunamou (G1743)] - 'be inwardly strengthened,' 'be invested with power:' an abiding state of power, sure to manifest itself outwardly.
In the grace - the element IN which spiritual strength has place (cf. 2 Timothy 1:7).
That is in Christ Jesus - as its center and source to those in union with Him.
And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also.
Among, [ dia (G1223)] - through the intervention of many witnesses. namely, the presbyters and others present at his ordination or consecration (1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 6:12).
Commit - in trust, as a deposit (2 Timothy 4:14). Faithful - the quality needed by those having a trust committed to them. Faithfulness to the truth is the true apostolic succession (cf. note, 1 Timothy 3:2).
Who, [ hoitines (G3748)] - 'persons such as shall: competent to teach (them to) others also.' Thus the way is prepared for inculcating faithful endurance (2 Timothy 2:3-13). As a motive to endurance, thou hast not only to keep the deposit for thyself, but to transmit it unimpaired to others, who in their turn shall fulfill the same office. So far from supporting oral tradition now, this teaches how precarious a mode of preserving revealed truth it was, depending, as it did, on the trustworthiness of each individual in the chain of succession (2 Peter 2:1). Blessed be God, He Himself has given us, before the death of the inspired apostles, the written Word, which is exempt from such risk!
Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ.
Thou therefore endure hardness. 'Aleph (') A C Delta G, Vulgate, have no "Thou therefore," but 'Endure hardship with' (me): share with me in suffering [ sungkakopatheeson (G4777), for su (G4771) oun (G3767) kakopatheeson (G2553)].
Soldier (1 Corinthians 9:7; 2 Corinthians 10:3). A true soldier both abstains and sustains (2 Timothy 2:3-4; 2 Timothy 2:22).
No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier.
'No one while serving as a soldier' [ strateuomenos (G4754)].
The affairs ... [ tais (G3588) tou (G3588) biou (G979) pragmateiais (G4230)] - mercantile, or other than military. [Zoee is the opposite of death, thanatos (G2288): and as sin caused death, where life, zoee, is, there sin is not, or ceases to be. So zoee is the nobler term in Scripture, expressing holy blessedness and eternal life; bios (G979), the present course of life: zoee, the life by which we live; bios (G979), the life which we live.]
Him who hath chosen him - the general who enlisted him. Paul himself worked at tent-making (Acts 18:3). What is prohibited is, not all secular occupation, but the becoming entangled or over-engrossed with it.
And if a man also strive for masteries, yet is he not crowned, except he strive lawfully.
And, [ De (G1161)] - 'Moreover.'
Strive for masteries - in the great national games of Greece.
Yet is he not crowned, except - even though he conquer.
Strive lawfully - observing the conditions of the contest (keeping within the bounds of the course and stript of his clothes), and also of the preparation for it-namely, as to self-denying diet, anointing, exercise, chastity, etc. (1 Corinthians 9:24-27.) As a soldier, the believer is one of many; as an athlete, he has to wage an individual struggle, and that continually, bearing the discipline of the preparation as well as the conflict.
The husbandman that laboureth must be first partaker of the fruits.
Must be first (before all others) partaker. The right of first partaking of the fruits belongs to him who is not merely a farmer by profession, but one labouring: do not thou relax thy labours, as thou wouldest be foremost in the reward (Matthew 5:12).
Consider what I say; and the Lord give thee understanding in all things.
Consider the scope of the illustrations from the soldier, the athlete, and the farmer.
And the Lord give thee ... 'Aleph (') A C Delta f g, Vulgate, read 'for the Lord will give thee' etc. Thou canst understand my meaning as applying to thyself ministerially; for the Lord will give thee apprehension, when thou seekest it, "in all things." Not intellectual perception, but personal appropriation of the truths metaphorically expressed, was what he needed from the Lord.
Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the dead according to my gospel:
'Remember Jesus Christ, as raised from the dead.' Remember Christ in His character as raised, so as to follow Him. As He was raised after death, so, if thou wouldest share His risen 'life,' thou must share His 'death' (2 Timothy 2:11). [The perfect passive participle, egeegermenon (G1453), implies a permanent character acquired by the risen Saviour, and our permanent interest in Him as such.] Christ's resurrection is made prominent, being the truth now assailed (2 Timothy 2:18), and the one calculated to stimulate Timothy to share Paul's sufferings for the Gospel's sake (note, 2 Timothy 2:3).
Of the seed of David - the one and only genealogy (contrasted with the "endless genealogies," 1 Timothy 1:4) worth thinking of, for it proves Jesus to be Messiah, and also the Heir of the throne of David (Jeremiah 23:5; Matt. 23:42-45; John 7:42). The absence of the Greek article, and this formula, "of the seed of David" (cf. Romans 1:3-4), may imply that the words were part of a short creed. In His death He assured us of His humanity; by His resurrection, of His divinity. That He was not crucified for His own sin appears from His resurrection; that He was crucified, shows that He bore sin on, though not in, Him.
My gospel - that which I always taught.
Wherein I suffer trouble, as an evil doer, even unto bonds; but the word of God is not bound.
Wherein - In proclaiming which Gospel.
I suffer trouble - `evil.' I am a sufferer of evil as though I were a doer of evil.
Bonds (2 Timothy 1:16).
Word of God is not bound. Though my person is bound, my tongue and pen are not (2 Timothy 4:17; Acts 21:13; Acts 28:31). Rather, he includes the freedom of the circulation of the Gospel by others (Philippians 1:12). He also hints that Timothy, being free, ought to be the more earnest in circulating it.
Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sakes, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.
Therefore - in order that the Gospel should be extended; implied in 2 Timothy 2:9.
Endure - not merely passively, but, 'I actively with brave patience endure,' and 'am ready to endure all things' (Romans 12:12; James 1:12).
The elect's - for the sake of all the members of Christ's spiritual body (Colossians 1:24).
They may also - as well as myself: both God's elect not yet converted and those already so.
Salvation ... glory - not only salvation from wrath, but glory in reigning with Him (2 Timothy 2:12). Glory is the full expansion of salvation (Acts 2:47; Romans 8:21-24; Romans 8:30; Hebrews 9:28). So grace and glory (Psalms 84:12).
It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him:
Greek, 'Faithful is the saying;' namely, that 'the elect shall obtain salvation with eternal glory' (2 Timothy 2:10).
For - For the fact is so (2 Timothy 2:10) that, "if we be dead with Him (the aorist [ sunapethanomen (G4880)] implies a state once for all entered into, when we took Christ's discipleship, involving a daily cross, 1 Corinthians 15:31; 2 Corinthians 4:10; Philippians 3:10), we shall also live with Him." The symmetrical form of the "saying" (2 Timothy 2:11-13), and the rhythmical balance of the parallel clauses, make it likely they formed part of a church hymn (note, 1 Timothy 3:16) or accepted formula, perhaps first uttered by Christian 'prophets' in the public assembly (1 Corinthians 14:26). 'Faithful is the saying,' the usual formula (cf. 1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 4:9; Titus 3:8), favours this.
If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:
Suffer. The Greek is the same as 2 Timothy 2:10 'If we endure (with Him),' etc. (Romans 8:17).
Reign with him - the special privilege of the elect now suffering with Christ (note, 1 Corinthians 6:2). Reigning is something more than bare salvation (Romans 5:17; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:4-5).
Deny - with the mouth. Denial by deed or by silence is included. "Believe" with the heart follows, 2 Timothy 2:13. Compare the opposite, "confess with thy month" and "believe in thine heart" (Romans 10:9-10). He also will deny us (Matthew 10:33).
If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself.
Believe not - `if we are unbelieving' [ apistoumen (G569)]; continued unbelief: a further step than 'denying' (2 Timothy 2:12), which might be temporary. He remains faithful (Deuteronomy 7:9-10). 'Aleph (') Delta G (but not C, Vulgate) read 'for.' He cannot possibly deny Himself. He can do all things consistent with His being God, supremely true, good, and wise. He cannot break His word, that He will deny these who deny Him, though we break our profession of faith in Him (Romans 3:3). Three things are impossible to God-to die, to lie, and to be deceived (Augustine, 'Symbolum ad Catechumenos,' 1: 1) (Hebrews 6:18). This impossibility is not infirmity, but infinite majesty. Comfort is suggested to believers, that He is faithful to His promises to them; while apostates are stripped of their self-deceiving fancy, that because they change, Christ will.
Of these things put them in remembrance, charging them before the Lord that they strive not about words to no profit, but to the subverting of the hearers.
Put ... in remembrance (Titus 3:1; 2 Peter 1:12).
Them - over whom thou presidest (Titus 3:1).
Before the Lord (1 Timothy 5:21).
That they strive not about words - `not to have a mere logomachy' (2 Timothy 2:23-24; 1 Timothy 6:4), where vital matters are at stake (2 Timothy 2:17-18; Acts 8:15). [A C f g, Vulgate, put a stop at "charging them before the Lord," and read the imperative, Logomachei, 'Strive not thou about words,' etc. But 'Aleph (') Delta G, Syriac, support logomachein (G3054), as the English version.]
To no profit - not qualifying "words;" but Greek neuter, in apposition with 'strive, about words' '(a thing) profitable for nothing;' the opposite of "meet for the master's use" (2 Timothy 2:21).
To (tending to) the subverting - the opposite of 'edifying' (building up) (2 Corinthians 13:10).
Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.
Study, [ Spoudason (G4704)] - 'Be earnest.'
To show, [ parasteesai (G3936)] - 'present,' as in Romans 12:1.
Thyself - as distinguished from those whom Timothy was to charge (2 Timothy 2:14).
Workman - alluding to Matthew 20:1, etc.: implying the laboriousness of the office (2 Timothy 4:5).
Not to be ashamed - by his work, not being "approved" (Philippians 1:20). Contrast "deceitful workers," 2 Corinthians 11:13.
Rightly dividing, [ orthotomounta (G3718)] - 'rightly handling' (Vulgate). literally, cutting straight,' as a road or furrow (Theodoret). Or, as a steward (1 Corinthians 4:1) cutting and distributing bread among a household (Vitringa) (Luke 12:42). But the "rightly" suits better the former image. Septuagint, Proverbs 3:6; Proverbs 11:5, use it of 'making one's way:' so here, "the word of truth" is a road to be laid out straightly: Timothy must not deviate from this right line to the one side or other (Isaiah 30:21; Isaiah 40:3); 'teaching no other doctrine' (1 Timothy 1:3). The same image appears in "increase" (note, 2 Timothy 2:16). The opposite is 2 Corinthians 2:17, "corrupt the Word of God."
Truth - Greek, 'the truth' (cf. 2 Timothy 2:18).
But shun profane and vain babblings: for they will increase unto more ungodliness.
Shun, [ periistaso (G4026)] - 'stand clear of, and superior to.'
Vain - opposed to 'of the truth' (2 Timothy 2:15).
Babblings - loud: opposed to the temperate "word" (Titus 3:9) Babblings - loud: opposed to the temperate "word" (Titus 3:9).
Increase, [ prokopsousin (G4298)] - 'advance;' literally, 'strike forward:' an image from pioneers cutting away obstacles before an advancing army. They pretend progress; the only progress they will make is to greater impiety: the developed evil was as yet future.
More ungodliness - Greek, 'a greater degree of impiety.'
And their word will eat as doth a canker: of whom is Hymenaeus and Philetus;
Will eat, [ nomeen (G3542) hexei (G2192)] 'will have pasture.' Mortification is the image. They pretend to give rich spiritual pasture to their disciples: the only pasture is that of a spiritual cancer feeding on their vitals.
Canker - a cancer or gangrene.
Hymeneus (note, 1 Timothy 1:20). After his excommunication he probably was re-admitted into the church and again troubled it.
Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some.
Erred, [ eestocheesan (G795)] - 'missed the aim' (note 1 Timothy 6:21).
Is past already - has already taken place. The beginnings of Gnostic heresy already existed. They "wrested" (2 Peter 3:16) Paul's words (Romans 6:4; Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 2:12), "to their own destruction;" as though the resurrection was merely the spiritual raising of souls from the death of sin. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:12, etc., where he shows all our hopes rest on the literal reality of the resurrection. To believe it past (as the Seleucians or Hermians did, according to Augustine, Ep. 119: 55, 'Ad Januarium,' sec. 4) is really, to deny it.
Overthrow - subvert "the foundation" on which alone faith can rest (2 Timothy 2:19: cf. Titus 1:11).
Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.
Nevertheless. Notwithstanding the subversion of their faith, 'the firm foundation of (i:e., laid by) God standeth' fast [ ho (G3588) stereos (G4731) themelios (G2310) tou (G3588) Theou (G2316) hesteeken (G2476): the English version would require ho (G3588) themelios (G2310) stereos (G4731)]. Taking for granted the sureness of the foundation Paul predicates of it that it 'standeth fast.' The "foundation" here is not "the Church," the "ground" or basement support "of the truth" (1 Timothy 3:15; as Alford, Ellicott, etc.), Christ Himself being the ultimate "foundation" (1 Corinthians 3:11). The Church being the "house" (2 Timothy 2:20), can hardly be also "the foundation:" which would make the house to be founded on the house. Rather, "the foundation" is "the word of truth" (2 Timothy 2:15), "the truth" (2 Timothy 2:18); in contrast to Hymeneus and Philetus' "word" which 'eats as a canker' (2 Timothy 2:17) They pretend to build up, but really "overthrow," not indeed the word of truth, but "the faith of some" in it (2 Timothy 2:18). "Nevertheless, notwithstanding the overthrew of their faith the object of faith, "the word of truth," 'the sure foundation of God stands fast.' The "house" (2 Timothy 2:20) is the elect whom "the Lord knoweth" (acknowledgeth as His, Matthew 7:23; John 10:14; 1 Corinthians 8:3), and who persevere to the end, though others 'err concerning the truth' (Matthew 24:24; John 10:28; Romans 8:38-39; 1 John 2:19).
Bengel makes "the foundation" the immoveable faithfulness of God (to His promises to His elect). Though reprobates 'err concerning the truth' (2 Timothy 2:18), and deny the faith, God abates not His faithfulness (cf. 2 Timothy 2:13). 'The word of the truth' inseparably involves God's truthfulness to His Word: the "foundation" is primarily 'the word of the truth,' including, secondarily, God's faithfulness to His promises to His own people. Not the word of truth as a bare theory, but as a surely appropriated foundation of faith and hope standeth fast as the safeguard against error (1 Peter 1:22-25: contrast Psalms 11:3; Psalms 82:5). It is the foundation of God, not the fiction of man: objective, not merely subjective.
Having - seeing it hath (Ellicott).
Seal - inscription: indicating ownership and destination. Inscriptions were often engraven on a "foundation" stone (Revelation 21:14) (Alford). The "seal" is the token of assurance or security attached to His word of truth ("the foundation of God"), with the legend on one side of its round surface.
The Lord knoweth, [once for all: aorist, egnoo (G1097): from eternity knew; not as the Lord knoweth, but not man; for believers do know their being His (1 John 5:19; Romans 8:16); but the Lord knoweth so as to approve of and acknowledge. His knowing them as His involves His making Himself known to them (John 10:14; John 10:27; Revelation 2:17; Luke 13:25-27). Not God the Creator, but "the Lord," the Redeemer. His knowing is elective (Amos 3:2); communicative, as it imparts the consciousness of God's recognition to the soul (Psalms 31:7); distinctive (Psalms 1:6) between the godly and the ungodly: the Septuagint (Numbers 16:5), egnoo (G1097) ho (G3588) Theos (G2316) tous (G3588) ontas (G5607) autou (G846) kai (G2532) tous (G3588) hagious (G40), to which Paul alludes]
Them that are his; on the obverse side,
Let everyone that nameth (as His Lord, Psalms 20:7; Acts 22:16; or preacheth in His name Jeremiah 20:9)
... Christ depart, [ aposteetoo (G848)] - 'stand aloof.' From iniquity (Isaiah 52:11). In both clauses there may be an allusion to Numbers 16:5; Numbers 16:26, Septuagint God's part and man's part: God chooseth and "knoweth" His elect: the inner legend of the seal read by believers-a secret between God and their soul: they in faith, by the Spirit, 'depart from all iniquity:' the outer legend to be read by professors, as a test of sincerity and a warning against self-deception. He cannot be honoured with the name Christian who dishonours, by iniquity, the Author of the name. Blandina's refreshment amidst tortures was, 'I am a Christian, and with us Christians no evil is done' (Eusebius, 'Ecclesiastical History,' 2 Timothy 2:1). Apostasy from the faith is soon followed by iniquity (2 Timothy 3:2-8; 2 Timothy 3:13).
But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour.
But - answering the possible objection that thus "iniquity" is said to have place in the Church.
In a great house - i:e., the professing Church (1 Timothy 3:15). Paul is speaking not of those without but of the family of God (Calvin). So the parable of the sweep net (Matthew 13:47-49) gathering together of every kind, good and bad: as the good and bad cannot be distinguished while under the waves, but only when brought to shore, an believers and unbelievers continue in the same church, until the judgment makes the everlasting distinction. 'As in Noah's ark there were together the leopard and the kid, the wolf and the lamb, so in the Church the righteous and sinners, vessels of gold and silver, with vessels of wood and earth' (Jerome, 'Contra Luciferianos,' 302) (cf. Matthew 20:16).
Vessels of gold and of silver - precious and able to endure fire.
Of wood and of earth - fragile, and soon burnt (1 Corinthians 3:12-15; 1 Corinthians 15:47).
Some ... some - the former ... the latter.
To dishonour (Proverbs 16:4; Romans 9:17-23).
If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the master's use, and prepared unto every good work.
If a man therefore purge himself from these, [ Ean (G1437) tis (G5100) ekkatharee (G1571) heauton (G1438) apo (G575) toutoon (G5130)] - 'If one (ex. gr., thou, Timothy) purify himself (so as to separate) from among these' (vessels unto dishonour). 'No communion with impugners of fundamentals' (Elliott), as the false teachers. Not, from "profane ... babblings" (2 Timothy 2:16).
Sanctified - set apart as consecrated to the Lord.
And meet - `serviceable' (2 Timothy 4:11; Philemon 1:11); subserving God's [ euchreeston (G2173): 'profitable'], glory and their own salvation. 'Aleph (') Delta G f g omit "and." C, Vulgate, have it.
The master's - of "the house:" the Lord. Paul was such a vessel: once among those of earth, afterward he became by grace one of gold.
Prepared (according as opportunities may occur) unto every good work (2 Timothy 3:17; Titus 3:1). Contrast Titus 1:16.
Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart.
Flee. There are many lusts from which our safety is in flight (Genesis 39:12). Avoid occasions of sin. The abstemious character of Timothy (1 Timothy 5:23) shows that not animal indulgences, but the impetuosity, self-confidence, hastiness, and vain-glory of young men (1 John 2:14-16), are what he is warned against: the Spirit probably intended the warning to include both in its application to the Church in general.
Also - Greek, 'but:' in contrast to "every good work" (2 Timothy 2:21).
Youthful. Timothy was a youth (1 Timothy 4:12).
Righteousness - the opposite of "iniquity;" i:e., unrighteousness (2 Timothy 2:19; cf. 1 Timothy 6:11).
Peace, with - rather no comma: "peace with them that call on the Lord," etc. (Hebrews 12:14).
Out of a pure heart (Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22; 1 Timothy 1:5). Love all men: but peace (spiritual concord, not mere absence of strife) can only be with those who call on the Lord (Romans 10:12) sincerely (as contrasted with the false teachers, who had the mere form of godliness, 2 Timothy 3:5; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:15-16; Romans 12:18).
But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they do gender strifes. Unlearned, [ apaideutous (G521)] - 'undisciplined,' 'ignorant' 'senseless:' not tending to the discipline of faith and morals (Proverbs 5:23): in contrast with "instructing" (2 Timothy 2:25), and "wise unto salvation" (2 Timothy 3:15). (See Titus 3:9).
And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient,
Not strive. "The servant of the Lord" must imitate his master in not striving contentiously, though uncompromisingly contending for the faith (Jude 1:3; Matthew 12:19).
Gentle unto all men ... patient, [ anexikakon (G420)] - 'patient of wrongs,' in respect to adversaries: gentle in words and demeanour, so as to occasion no evils; patient, so as to endure evils.
Apt (ready and skilled) to teach - patiently and assiduously, instead of noisily contending.
In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth;
Instructing, [ paideuonta (G3811)] - 'disciplining,' instructing with correction, which those who deal in 'undisciplined questions' need (notes, 2 Timothy 2:23; 1 Timothy 1:20).
Those, that oppose themselves, [ antidiatithemenous (G475)] - 'oppositely affected:' those of a different opinion; not so much definite heretics here (Titus 3:10) as those unsound about curious questions (1 Timothy 6:4).
Repentance - preliminary to the full knowledge [ epignoosin (G1922)] of the truth (1 Timothy 2:4), their minds being corrupted (2 Timothy 3:8) and their lives immoral. The spiritual ignorance which prompts such "questions" is moral-has its seat in the will, not the intellect (John 7:17). Therefore "repentance" is their first need. That God alone can "give" (Acts 5:31).
And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will.
Recover themselves, [ ananeepsoosin (G366)] - 'awake up to soberness;' namely, from the spiritual intoxication whereby they have fallen into "the snare of the devil" (note, 1 Corinthians 15:34).
The snare (Ephesians 6:11; 1 Timothy 3:7; 1 Timothy 6:9).
Taken captive by him at his will - so as to follow the will of 'THAT' [ ekeinou (G1565)] foe. [But autou (G846) and ekeinou (G1565), distinct pronouns (cf. 2 Timothy 3:9) stand for "him" and "his;" and the Greek "taken captive," ezoogreemenoi (G2221), means not 'captivated for destruction,' but 'for being saved alive,' as in Luke 5:10, 'catch men to life,' zoogroon (G2221): also there is no article before the Greek participle, which the English version, "who are taken captive," would require.] Translate, 'that they may awake,' etc., being talked as saved captives by him (the servant of the Lord, 2 Timothy 2:24), so as to follow the will of HIM' ("God" 2 Timothy 2:25). There are two evils - "the snare" and sleep-from which they are delivered: two goods to which they are translated, awaking and deliverance. Instead of Satan's thrall comes the free and willing captivity of obedience to Christ (2 Corinthians 10:5). [ Ezoogremenoi (G2221), perfect participle, marks the continuing state: Zoogrethentes (G2221) would have expressed the act.] God goes before, giving repentance (2 Timothy 2:25); then the work of His servant follows with success, leading the convert henceforth to live "to the will of God" (Acts 22:14; 1 Peter 4:2).
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/
the First Week of Advent