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And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.
Jacob called unto his sons. It is not to the sayings of the dying saint, so much as of the inspired prophet, that attention is called in this chapter. Jacob is prepared, like Isaac in similar circumstances (Genesis 27:1-46), to pronounce, before the collected group of his numerous family, that solemn benediction which, in the case of the first patriarchs, carried with it the force of a testamentary deed in conveying the divine premises committed to them. These communications, however, though commonly called blessings (Genesis 49:28), contained in the present instance, words of severe censure upon some of his sons; while in their prospective import they were made to indicate the future fortunes of his posterity. They were founded on a long and close observation of the character, dispositions, and habits of each of his sons; because such a knowledge undoubtedly lay at the foundation of his judgments. But his words were more than the dictates of mere natural sagacity; and although he was now arrived at that extreme age:
`When sage experience does attain To something like prophetic strain,'
The utterances of Jacob concerned the destiny not so much of his sons individually, as of the tribes which should respectively descend from them, and they were so pregnant with a meaning which a remote future alone would fully evolve, that he must be considered as having spoken them under the immediate inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Indeed, so graphic are the descriptions, and so minutely exact the assignment of the several inheritances in the land of Canaan, that Dr. Davidson ('Introduction,' 1:, p. 198) has pronounced it to have been, while bearing the form of a prediction, a vaticinium post eventum. But this is a groundless assertion; for there is distinct evidence that important integral parts of this prophecy, as, for instance, the separation of Levi to the priesthood (Exodus 32:29; Numbers 1:49; Deuteronomy 10:8-9; Deuteronomy 18:1), and the appointment of Joseph's two oldest sons to be heads of tribes, were accomplished before the settlement in Canaan, and that there was no intermediate period between that and the close of Jacob's life, when the declaration could have been made, but the occasion specified in the beginning of this chapter. The patriarch, when he uttered this highly figurative and obscure prophecy, seems to have had his mind worked up to a high state of poetical fervour under the inspiring influence of the Spirit. His faith placed him as it were on a watchtower, from which, though in Egypt, he could discern, with telescopic clearness, the most prominent events in the future history of his descendants. There was no pronouncing of the patriarchal blessing after Jacob; because the process of distinguishing the heir of the promise had been completed, and that 'ancestor had appeared whose entire posterity was, without any separation from among them, to become the medium for preparing salvation' (Kurtz, 'History of Old Covenant,' 1:, p. 294).
In the last days, [ bª'achªriyt (H319) hayaamiym (H3117), in future times. The Septuagint has, 'in the last days.'] This identical phrase is used by the apostle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 1:2, and in 1 Peter 1:20), in reference to the Gospel age. The phrase is employed, however, by the author of the Pentateuch in a sense indefinitely future (cf. Deuteronomy 4:30).
Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your father.
No JFB commentary on this verse.
Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power:
Reuben, thou art my first-born. In polygamous families there are sometimes several first-borns; and Jacob, had he been at liberty to follow his own predilections, would doubtless have assigned the honour as well as the rights of primogeniture to Joseph, the first-born of his beloved Rachel. [But bªkowr (H1060), when used in regard to human offspring, denotes the oldest son on the father's side, and accordingly it frequently occurs in parallelism with "the beginning of strength" (cf. Deuteronomy 21:15; Deuteronomy 21:17; Psalms 78:51; Psalms 105:36). Hence, the Septuagint renders it in the passage before us as: archee teknoon mou.] Since the first begotten, then, in Jacob's family, Reuben would "excel in dignity and in power" all his brothers. But in consequence of his atrocious crime (see the note at Genesis 35:22) he was deprived of this preeminence, belonging to the birthright, which included, according to Jewish writers, a double portion of the inheritance, the priesthood, and the kingdom, and which were distributed among his brothers-the first being conferred on Joseph, the second on Levi, and the third on Judah.
Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch.
Unstable as water - a boiling up as of water (art thou); i:e., thou didst boil up with lust and passion-referring to his incest (Gesenius).
Thou shalt not excel - i:e., thou shalt not preserve thy natural excellency in thy posterity, nor have the preeminence of rule. The criminal was degraded, but not otherwise punished personally. But he was in his tribe; because his descendants never made any figure:-no judge, prophet, nor ruler sprang up from among them, and the tribe of Reuben, together with the other transjordanic tribes, was the first that was carried into captivity (1 Chronicles 5:26).
Thou wentest up to thy father's bed - the bed being spread upon a divan, which itself is raised somewhat from the floor.
He went up to my couch. The third person is used here as if, instead of addressing Reuben directly, the indignant patriarch were pointing him out with loathing to his other sons. The only instance of this tribe trying to regain its lost primogeniture was the defeated attempt at rebellion narrated in Numbers 16:1-50.
Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.
Simeon and Levi are brethren - i:e., united by similar dispositions as by blood relationship.
Instruments of cruelty are in their habitations. The meaning of this last word [ mªkeeroteeyhem (H4380)] has been much disputed. Without enumerating the various significations which have been attached to it by different writers, according as they derived it from one or another root, the samplest and most direct appears to be that suggested by Gesenius, who, tracing it to kowr (H1060), or kaaraah (H3738), to pierce, renders the clause, 'instruments of violence are their swords.' The Septuagint has, 'they executed in concert their iniquitous plot of destruction.'
O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.
Into their secret, [ cowd (H5475)] - a divan, a conclave of wicked conspirators.
Mine honour, [ kªbodiy (H3519)] - joined with a feminine verb, as being in parallelism with [ napshiy (H5315)] my soul; and both words are in the nominative, 'let not my soul' - i:e., let me not come into their circle (secret). [The Septuagint has: kai epi tee sustasei autoon mee erisai ta eepata mou, as if their Hebrew text had been kaabeed (H3515), liver, the seat of the mind.]
In their self-will they digged down a wall. This translation is not correct; because there is no mention made in the narrative (Genesis 34:1-31) of the demolition of the city wall; and besides, the text is not [ shuwr (H7791)] a wall, but [ showr (H7794)] an ox; whence some commentators render, 'they hamstrung the oxen;' but this interpretation is as inadmissible as the former; because instead of Simeon and Levi destroying the cattle, we read that they took the sheep and the oxen," etc. (Genesis 34:28). The wiser among the commentators, seeing the impropriety of both these rendering, have endeavoured to raise the idea of each word by saying, that the wall here is a metaphor for the prince of the city; or, that the ox, being an emblem of greatness, signifies the governor. But the mistake seems only to be this, that the word here expresses plainly what these interpreters were construed to think was expressed in metaphor; because the words of the history (cf. Genesis 34:25-26) remarkably coincide with, and greatly illustrate, these words of Jacob:
`For in their anger they slew men [taking 'iysh (H376 ) collectively] And in their wanton fury they destroyed the princes.
Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, And their wanton fury, for it was inflexible.'
The second part of this sentence increases in emphasis upon the first. And there is such an accession of spirit and beauty given to the sentence by the double repetition of the parallelism as is sufficient to recommend this translation (Kennicott).
I will divide them in Jacob ... Simeon and Levi having been confederates in crime, the same prophetical enunciation would be equally applicable to both their tribes. Levi had cities allotted to them (Joshua 21:1-45) in every tribe. On account of their zeal against idolatry they were honourably 'divided' in Jacob; whereas the tribe of Simeon, which was guilty of the grossest idolatry, and the vices inseparable from it, were ignominiously 'scattered'-lying on the outskirts of the promised land, and forming an appendage to Judah. But this arrangement was afterward modified, and the Simeonites had detached settlements assigned in the Negeb and Shephela (plain of Philistia) (cf. 1 Chronicles 4:38-43). According to Jewish tradition, they were employed as teachers in the several tribes. Jacob, in saying "I will divide them," did not so forget himself, through his excited feeling, as even apparently to assume the divine prerogative, but by a bold poetical figure introduces God Himself, as prophetically declaring what in the course of His providence He would accomplish.
Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
No JFB commentary on this verse.
Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee.
Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise - literally, 'Judah, thou!' The name was significant of blessings (Gen. 9:35 ); and there is a paranomasia in the clause that follows: "thy brethren shall praise thee." A high pre-eminence was destined to this tribe (Numbers 10:14; Judges 1:2). Besides the honour of giving its designation to the promised land, its history was one progressive course of victory, marked by putting enemies to flight (cf. Psalms 18:42). Chief among the tribes, it grew up from "a lion's whelp" [ guwr (H1481) 'aryeeh (H738), a cub, etymologically is used to indicate the age when it is dependent on the mother for its food, and has not yet become kªpiyr (H3715), a young lion, seeking prey for itself - i:e., a little power, whose energy was undeveloped (cf. Ezekiel 19:3)] until it became "an old lion" [ laabiy' (H3833), used chiefly in poetry-a lioness, Numbers 24:9; Isaiah 30:6; Nahum 2:12 ].
Who shall rouse him up? The full force of this will not be perceived, unless we bear in mind that a lion or a lioness, when lying down after satisfying its hunger, will not attack any person. The image was meant to represent Judah, calm and quiet, yet still formidable, as it was in the reigns of David and Solomon, when, in a temporal point of view, the other tribes ("thy father's children") 'bowed down before Judah.' and this destined preeminence culminated, when spiritually, the Lion of the tribe of Judah appeared, 'conquering and to conquer' (cf. John 16:33; Revelation 5:5). [ shibeT (H7626) sometimes denotes a tribe (Genesis 49:28; 1 Samuel 10:19; 1 Kings 11:13). But that signification being obviously unsuitable here, recourse must be had to its other acceptation-namely, the official staff of a chief or ruler (1 Samuel 24:17; 1 Samuel 24:19; Zechariah 10:4; Amos 1:5; Amos 1:8). Mªchqeeq also signifies a staff or badge of authority (Numbers 21:18; Psalms 60:9); and thus the second line in the parallelism will be an exact echo of the first, with the addition of the words, "between his feet," subjoined, as describing the characteristic attitude in which Oriental monarchs are represented on ancient monuments as sitting with their sceptre between their feet (cf. Homer's 'Iliad,' b. 2:, 50: 100; Niebuhr's 'Trav. Tab.,' 29).] The primary and proper import of the word, however, is 'a lawgiver,' as our translators, following the Septuagint [ heegoumenos (G2233)], render it (cf. Deuteronomy 33:21; Isaiah 30:22; Judges 5:14).
In this sense it introduces not a synonymous, but a synthetic parallelism, in which the idea expressed in the preceding line is expanded; and from the emblem of power a transition is naturally made to the judge or ruler who holds it. The supporters of this view regard the words [ mibeeyn (H996) raglaayw (H7272)] as a euphemism = from his loins; and in considering them as pointing to Judah's posterity, they appeal to Deuteronomy 28:57, to the authority of the Septuagint [which has: ek toon meeroon autou ], to that of the Vulgate [ex femore ejus], and that of the Jewish Targumists. But the phrase in Deuteronomy being applied only to a female, and never to man, this interpretation is rejected by most modern critics, with the exception of Gesenius, Maurer, etc. Hengstenberg has further shown ('Christology,' 1:, p. 59) that the adoption of it is destructive of the parallelism, by necessitating a violent ellipsis, 'he who should proceed' from between his feet. These words he considers as meaning simply 'the territory on which he should dwell:' 'The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from the land in which he shall be settled.'
Until Shiloh come. There is great diversity both in the reading and in the interpretation of this clause. [ Shiyloh (H7886), as it stands in the Hebrew Bible, is the form used in most ancient MSS., and is the Masoretic reading. Thirty-eight MSS., and all the Samaritan codices have the defective form, shiloh (H7887); and the text from which the Septuagint translated their version seems to have read sheloh for shelow = 'ªsher (H834) low (H3807a)] Lee ('Hebrew Lexicon,' quoting from Jahn, 'Enleit,') says that the text followed by the Septuagint was the stereotyped reading until the tenth century. But that circumstance does not decide what the original text was, since the Septuagint possessed so great influence in the early Christian Church; and evidence will immediately appear that their's was not the only reading in existence. These variations in the form of the word have led to corresponding differences of signification being attached to it. [The Septuagint translators, who read sheeloh, or shelow, render the clause before us, heoos an elthee ta apokeimena autoo-`until the things appointed to him be accomplished.' But Aquila (as in Justin's 'Apol.,' sec. 32, and Eusebius, 'Ecclesiastical History,' b. 6:) and Symmachus, who had the same text as the Septuagint, render it as hoo (G3739) apokeitai (G606), to whom it (namely, the sceptre) belongs, or is reserved.]
This interpretation is supported by an appeal to Ezekiel 21:7, "until he come, whose right it is; and to Galatians 3:19 [ hoo (G3739) epeengeltai (G1861)], "to whom the promises were made." [But the objection to this reading, and the interpretation founded upon it, is, that 'ªsher (H834), in the abbreviated form, does not occur in the Pentateuch, and is found only in the later books.] Jerome, whose Latin version, embodied in the Vulgate, was made toward the close of the fourth century, and who followed closely the rabbinical interpretations current in Palestine in his day, seems to have had a different Hebrew text from the Septuagint; because [as if a form of shaalaah (H7951)] he renders the clause under review [qui mittendus est], 'he who is to be sent.' The Masoretic reading in our present Hebrew Bibles is considered preferable to every other; and it remains to consider what is its import. [Calvin, followed by Knapp and others, make shilow (H7887) denote his (Judah's) seed-the term commonly used (Genesis 3:15; Genesis 22:18; Genesis 26:4; Genesis 28:14). But this is a forced and far-fetched meaning, obtained by the violent distortion of shiliyaah, the fetus, the afterbirth (Deuteronomy 28:57), into shilow (H7887), 'his son'-which is unknown in Hebrew. The generally prevalent opinion of modern scholars is, that shiyloh (H7886) is derived from shaalaah (H7951), and signifies quiet, tranquillity, peace.] But here again opinions diverge greatly as to whether Shiloh is to be considered the subject or the object of the Hebrew verb.
Many writers are of opinion that the grammatical construction requires the interpretation to be, 'until he (Judah) come to Shiloh.' This is the favourite view of the modern Jews, of most Rationalists, particularly Bunsen, 'Essays and Reviews,' etc. It accords, indeed, with grammatical rules, because the adverb of motion is sometimes omitted at the end of the name of a place (1 Samuel 4:12, where identically the same phrase occurs as used here: cf. Judges 21:12; 1 Kings 14:4). And the import of the prophecy, as brought out by this interpretation, is, that in the war of invasion Judah should take the lead of the other tribes, and the conquest of Canaan would not be made until the ark was deposited in Shiloh, a town in central Canaan. Delitzsch has recently given his support to this view, by saying that the arrival at Shiloh was a crisis in the early history of Judah, the foundation of the preeminence of that tribe. But the facts of the sacred history do not establish the truth of this interpretation. Shiloh, as a place, being nowhere mentioned in Genesis, probably did not exist in the time of the patriarchs; and though the name does occur in the later books, it was of no historical importance. Besides, not to insist on the leadership being in the hands of Moses the Levite, and of Joshua the Ephraimite, until the time of arrival at Shiloh, all the tribes were there as well as Judah, which did not then acquire either authority over the other tribes or dominion over the nations.
Further, the fixing of any definite locality is altogether inconsistent with the general character of this prophecy; and, finally, the arrival at Shiloh was an event too early in the national history of Israel to form the leading subject of a prophecy which pointed to 'what should befall them in the last days.' Rejecting this interpretation, then, we consider Shiloh, as our translators have done, to be the subject of the verb, and the clause rightly rendered, "until Shiloh come," the original name being retained. Almost all commentators, both Jewish and Christian, agree in regarding this as a Messianic prophecy. But they differ very much as to whether the reference is direct or indirect. Many who think there is no evidence that in the patriarchal age the expectation of a personal Messiah existed, interpret the clause, 'until peace come,'-conceiving that this interpretation yields a sense consistent with the tenor of the previous context, which would thus describe Judah's warfare under the image of a lion, and then the happy peace he should ultimately enjoy. But the most prevalent opinion is, that Shiloh means 'the man of rest,' the 'pacificator,' the 'peace-bringer'-corresponding to that which forms the climax of Messiah's titles, as enumerated in the famous prophecy (Isaiah 9:6).
Until, [ `ad (H5704) kiy (H3588)]. The meaning is, not that the sceptre shall depart from Judah when Shiloh has come, but that it shall continue uninterrupted until then. This view harmonizes with the clause which follows:
And unto him shall the gathering of the people be, [ `amiym (H5971)] - nations. [ `Am (H5971), singular, denotes uniformly, with hardly any exception, the people Israel. The plural describes the nations beyond the limits of Canaan. yiqªhat (H3349) `amiym (H5971)]. These words mean, not "gathering," but obedience-a willing obedience, the fruit of faith, the expression of piety (cf. Proverbs 30:17). Gesenius connects this grammatically with the preceding clause: 'until Shiloh come, and unto him shall be yielded the obedience of nations.' The interpretation of the Septuagint is similar, but erroneous [autos prosdokia ethnoon], 'He is the expectation of nations.' But that clause is generally considered as containing a distinct prophetic declaration by itself-namely, the call and spontaneous submission (Psalms 110:3; Romans 16:26) of all nations to Shiloh; and in Revelation 7:9 the prediction is represented as accomplished.
Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes:
Binding his foal unto the vine ..., [ `ayir (H5895)] - a young but full-grown donkey (Genesis 32:16; Isaiah 30:6; Zechariah 9:9). Gesenius renders it, 'then shall he bind,' etc. The condition of Shiloh's kingdom is described in highly figurative terms as the reign of rural peace and plenty. The donkey is the beast of burden principally employed in the Negeb; and while under the image of the lion the warlike aspects of the tribe of Judah were aptly represented, its domestic economy, the routine of its daily life and labour was as pertinently symbolized by the donkey.
Unto the choice vine, [ lasoreeqaah (H8321)] - to the vine of Sorek, a vine of a superior kind, remarkable for its blue or purple grapes, so called from a valley of that name (Judges 6:4), between Ascalon and Gaza, running far up eastward in the tribe of Judah, and along with Eschol, close to Hebron.
He washed his garments in wine, [ cuwt (H5496) clothing (a hapax legomena). Judah's settlement was allocated in a country well adapted for vineyards. It was for the most part mountainous, and consequently unsuitable for agricultural produce. But it was well suited to the cultivation of vines; and it was in this article that the opulence of this tribe consisted. Vestiges of the ancient terraced vineyards are still to be traced all around Hebron, and among the mountains south of Jerusalem. In this district are still produced the finest vines in Palestine. There are excellent pasturages also comprehended in the portion of this tribe; and even still the description given of it by the patriarch is verified by the scenes that are witnessed in that mountainous region. Bovet ('Voyage en Terre Sainte') states that he saw donkeys feeding on the herbage, with their halters attached to the foot of vines and fig trees, and frequently the cattle are turned into the vineyards, after the vintage, to browse on the vines. Other travelers, who have remarked the extremely white teeth of the peasantry, were reminded of the prediction, "His eyes shall be red (animated) with wine (the grape-juice), and his teeth white with milk." With regard to the colour of the eyes, they are described as [ chakliyliy (H2447)] not red, but dark-dark flashing from wine-the word being connected with kol, the black lead ore with which Eastern ladies paint their eyelids, to give sprightliness and life to their eyes. It is thought to add great beauty to the countenance; and hence, the Septuagint renders this passage as: charopoioi hoi ofthalmoi autou huper oinon, 'His eyes shall be graceful with wine.' Augustine has, 'oculi fulgentes.'
His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.
No JFB commentary on this verse.
Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.
Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea. Although Issachar was older than Zebulun, and they were destined to occupy contiguous settlements, Jacob, foreseeing the political superiority of the latter, mentioned him first. [ Lªchowp (H2348) yamiym (H3220), on the coast of seas - i:e., the Mediterranean and the sea of Galilee, the eastern boundary of this tribe.]
And he shall be for an haven of ships. Shall be, having nothing corresponding to them in the original, should be expunged, and the clause stand thus: 'even he for a haven (shore) of ships.' The occupations would be chiefly maritime, consisting partly in the fisheries on the sea of Galilee, and in merchant vessels on the Mediterranean.
And his border shall be unto Zidon. 'It touched Carmel; and though it did not actually reach to the shore of the Mediterranean, its sides joined the narrow maritime territory of Phoenicia, to which Jacob, according to common Eastern custom, gave the name of its chief city, Zidon' (Genesis 10:15) (Porter). Cf. Josephus, 'Antiquities,' book 5:, chapter 1:, sec. 22.
Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens:
Issachar is a strong ass - literally, a male donkey of bone; i:e., stout, strong-bodied.
Couching down between two burdens, [ robeets (H7257) beeyn (H996) hamishpªtaayim (H4942)] - reclining among the folds or enclosures. The word is in the dual number, because the folds apparently consisted of two divisions, for accommodating different kinds of cattle. The donkey being a strong and sprightly animal in the East, the comparison of a man or a people to that animal is among the Orientals reckoned honourable; and we may be certain that it was not used in a disparaging sense in this valedictory address of the patriarch. The points of resemblance designed to be indicated by this image were all good qualities-patience, docility, a capacity of great labour and endurance, associated with strength and activity; so that the men of Issachar would be stalwart farmers and shepherds, living in quiet security, and attending industriously to their agricultural pursuits.
And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute.
He saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant. The plain of Esdraelon, on which they settled, formed as it were a deep and spacious valley, separating in a very striking manner the two mountainous regions of Palestine-that of Samaria and Judea on the south, and that of Galilee on the north. Esdraelon, with the plain of Acre, belongs geographically to neither of these districts. Its fertility has been proverbial in all ages. 'Every traveler has remarked on the richness of its soil and the exuberance of its crops. The very weeds are a sign of what, in better hands, the vast plain might become' (Stanley, 'Sinai and Palestine,' p. 348). The tribe of Issachar was originally enterprising and independent. They were commended by Deborah (Judges 5:15) for the alacrity and vigour with which they engaged in the defensive war against the confederate Canaanites of the north. But their character was gradually modified by the fertile character of their country. The Septuagint expresses this [to kalon epethumeesen], 'Issachar desired or loved greatly what was good.' The vast plain was so unprotected and open to the incursions of foreign invaders, that Issachar preferred to purchase peace from the dominant power, by the payment of black mail, to living in a state of continual jeopardy both for life and property. [ Wayªhiy (H1961) lªmac (H4522) `obeed (H5647) was subject to tribute; Septuagint, became farmers.] Their productive soil, which liberally rewarded their agricultural labours, enabled them easily to secure the two objects of meeting the exactions of their masters, and at the same time retaining for themselves an abundance of the necessaries and comforts of life. This purchase of material enjoyment, at the sacrifice of independence, by Issachar, is supposed by Keil to be the reason why, of all the sons of Leah, he is mentioned last.
Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.
Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan, though the son of a secondary wife, was to be put on a footing of exact equality with the children of Rachel and Leah. He was to be constituted one of the tribes of Israel, and to be governed by a ruler of his own tribe, notwithstanding the smallness of his possession. Dan, the last of the tribes in having a settlement allocated to it, was placed originally on the western extremities of Judah, and afterward acquired a new portion in the north of Canaan.
Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.
An adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels - [ shªpiypon (H8207)] Coluber cerastes, or horned snake, very common in Egypt and the desert, of from eighteen inches to two feet in length, in colour like the sand or soil, which is accustomed to lurk in the sand, or in the tracks of a road, whence it springs suddenly on the object of its attack, particularly on horses, which it assails by piercing the horses' hoofs with its sharp sting; and as the action of the poison is exceedingly rapid, and soon fatal, the rider falls backward (Pliny's 'Hist. Nat.,' lib. 9:, cap. 32; Bochart's Hieroz.,' lib. 3:, chapter 12; Bruce's 'Travels;' Tristram's 'Israel'). In both places they were exposed to the invasion of foreign enemies, against whom they characteristically carried on warfare more by cunning and stratagem than by physical force, of which a noted example is furnished by the exploits of Samson; and this is figuratively represented by a serpent or adder lying in the ruts of the highway, and biting the heels of the horses-which were not used by Israelite soldiers.
I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.
I have waited for thy salvation, O Lord. The connection of this clause with the preceding context has greatly perplexed critics. Some maintain that it is an interpolation; but its genuineness is attested by the most ancient MSS. and versions. Various hypotheses have been proposed for explaining it, (Sherlock's 'Discourses,' 6:) The best seems to be that of Calvin (in 'Genesin, book 1.'), who thinks that Jacob, foreseeing, with the penetrating eye of a prophet, the many troubles, dangers, and disasters brought on his posterity generally, and on Dan in particular, by their own backslidings or apostasy, felt his mind so distressed, and almost overwhelmed by the prospect, that for his relief and comfort he betakes himself to the divine promises, in the ultimate fulfillment of which he expressed his believing confidence. The Septuagint strangely applies this verse to the rider allusively spoken of, Genesis 49:17 [kai peseitai ho hippeus eis ta opisoo, teen sooteerian perimenoon kuriou].
Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last.
Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last. [ `Aaqeeb (H6119) is here improperly rendered, "at the last:" it signifies "heel;" and by shifting mem (m) from 'Aasheer (H836), at the beginning of the following verse, and adding it to the end of this word, it becomes: 'ªqeebaam, their heel.] The passage literally rendered will then stand thus: 'Gad, a troop (troops) shall press upon him, and he shall press their rear.' The settlement of this tribe, situated in the outskirts of the transjordanic land, would expose them to the frequent incursions of Amorite and Arab marauders from the neighbouring deserts. In point of fact, they were often attacked and wasted by hostile bands on their borders (Judges 10:8; Judges 11:4; 1 Chronicles 5:18-23; Jeremiah 49:1); but being of a warlike character, they fell on the enemy behind, and were generally successful in repelling the invaders.
Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties.
Out of Asher his bread shall be fat. [Considering mem (m), as we have done, as connected with the last word in the previous verse, we render this clause-Asher, fatness shall be his bread - i:e., the rich soil of his settlement shall supply him with plenty of food. But many writers prefer the text as it stands, though they differ among themselves as to the meaning it beats. Kalisch has, 'Of Asher the bread shall be fat.' Ewald, regarding min (H4480) as the sign of the comparative degree, and shªmeenaah (H8082) an adjective, renders, 'His food is too rich (abundant) for Asher,' and therefore he will dispose of his surplus produce to others.]
And he shall yield royal dainties - or delicacies fit for the table of a king. The Septuagint has: kai autos doosei trufeen archousi, he shall furnish luxuries to rulers-namely, wheat from his field, oil and wine from his olive and vine yards, milk and butter from his pastures (cf. Deuteronomy 33:24-25; also 1 Kings 5:11). The bread in this district is the finest and the best in Palestine (Bovet, 'Voyage en Terre Sainte,' p. 436).
Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.
Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words, [ 'ayaalaah (H355) shªluchaah (H7971)] - a hind stretched out; i:e., slender in form: [ hanoteen (H5414) 'imreey (H561) shaaper (H8233)] giving forth words of grace - i:e., pleasant, persuasive; probably to be referred to some poetic or oratorical talent of this tribe, otherwise unknown (Gesenius). [The Sepuagint has: Nefthali stelechos aneimenon, epididous en too genneemati kallos-Naphtali is a spreading terebinth (a stately stalk), producing beautiful branches (exhibiting beauty in its produce.)] The image is preserved in its uniformity by this version, which has obtained the suffrages of Onkelos, Bochart, Houbigant, Dathe, Michaelis. [But it requires the reading of the text to be not 'ayaalaah (H355), hind, but 'eeyl (H352), terebinth, for which there is no authority of ancient MSS. or versions.] It has appeared to others, who accept 'hind' as the proper reading, that in the King James Version there is a confusion of ideas, as it represents the hind not only speaking, but speaking goodly words; and to avoid such an incongruity, Taylor (Calmet's 'Fragments,' vol. 4:, p. 620) proposes the following translation:
`Naphtali is a deer roaming at liberty, He shooteth forth noble branches (majestic antlers).'
That is, as he explains, 'Naphtali shall inhabit a country so rich, so fertile, so quiet, so unmolested, that, after having fed to the full on the most nutritious pasturage, he shall shoot out branches, i:e., antlers, etc., of the most majestic magnitude-for these, according to Buffon, are luxuriant in proportion to the plentiful and quiet character of the country the stag inhabits.
Thus, the patriarch denoted the happy lot of Naphtali, not directly, but indirectly, and by figurative description of its effects.' The King James Version, however, seems preferable to both of these, as it corresponds with the facts of the sacred history. Naphtali was justly compared to a hind, as Barak, an eminent man of this tribe, betrayed the timidity of a hind by refusing to march against the Canaanites, unless accompanied by Deborah, the prophetess; and he afterward appeared "a hind let loose," by imitating the swiftness of a hind in pursuing the enemy (Judges 4:1-24) - quickness in running being a prime qualification of ancient warriors (2 Samuel 2:18; 1 Chronicles 12:8). This talent for "giving goodly words" was evinced by the noble thanksgiving ode composed along with Deborah (see the note at Deuteronomy 33:23).
Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall:
Joseph is a fruitful bough ... - literally, 'the son of a fruitful tree (a vine) is Joseph; the son of a fruitful tree by a fountain, whose branches (daughters) mount upon a wall.' When Jacob arrived, in the course of his addresses, at Joseph, the thought of that favourite son imparted a sudden animation to the soul of the venerable patriarch; because his bosom seems to have heaved with emotion, and he pours out wishes for the personal welfare of Joseph, or foreshadows the future fortunes of his descendants with a flow of sentiment and a redundancy of expression which shows how fully the sympathies of the father went with the utterances of the prophet. The name "Joseph" imports addition, increase; and the image by which his history is represented at the outset conveys the idea of progressive growth and luxuriant productiveness in good fruits. In the East fruit-bearing trees, particularly vines, are frequently made to entwine on trellises around a well or spring; and 'in Persia the vine-dressers,' as Morier says, 'do all in their power to make the vine run up the wall, and curl over on the other side, which they do by tying stones to the extremity of the tendril.' The figure represents the rapid growth, the numerical extent, and political influence of the two tribes that sprang from Joseph (cf. Numbers 1:33-35; Josh. 16:17; Deuteronomy 33:17).
The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him:
The archers have sorely grieved him ... The image is here changed to that of a warrior engaged in a deadly contest. The "archers" denote the adversaries of Joseph-his brothers, as well as Potiphar and his wife; and the arrows shot at him were the envy, revenge, temptation, ingratitude of his various opponents.
But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob; (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:)
But his bow abode in strength. The bow is used metaphorically as the symbol of strength and power (Job 39:20; Jeremiah 49:35; Hosea 1:5); its 'abiding in strength' signified its retaining its elasticity unimpaired, and continuing in its firm position - i:e., the weapon with which he opposed his enemies, here metaphorically described as a bow, was the stedfast virtue of his character, his innocence, patience, temperance, faith in God, and obedience to His law: with these he resisted all opposition, and triumphed over every difficulty and trial. But Jacob, tracing the moral stability of Joseph to its true source, adds, "and the arms of his hands were made strong" - i:e., his hands, young as he was, were rendered pliant and vigorous for wielding the bow - "by the hands of the mighty One of Jacob." The allusion is to Genesis 32:24-30.
From thence is the Shepherd, the stone of Israel - [ mishaam (H8033), as used here, is an expression of doubtful meaning.] Some interpret it, 'from that time forth' (Rosenmuller (hoc loco), Glassii, 'Phil. Sacr.,' p.
370) - i:e., from the period of Jacob's wrestling with God. He was the shepherd (the guardian stone) of Israel; and no doubt God is frequently represented in Scripture under the image of a shepherd, as well as of a stone (rock or fortress). But the word stone in this passage denotes not a stone, but stone, as one of the hardest and least mutable substances in nature, and therefore an appropriate figure for expressing strength combined with durability. A second class of critics take [ mishaam (H8033)] from thence as referring to the bow of Joseph having been 'made strong by the hands of the mighty One of Jacob' - i:e. the divine favour and aid enlisted on the side of Joseph; so that in him Israel had a shepherd to feed him, a stone on which to lay his head-a sustainer and protector in the season of extraordinary privation and distress. A third class, as Calvin, Ewald, etc., render the words, 'Shepherd of the stone of Israel,' meaning by stone, the house or family of Israel. Others, as Gesenius, regard [ mishaam (H8033) as pleonastic] the sentiment, under a profusion of pious epithets, running continuously, thus - "the mighty One of Jacob ... the Shepherd ... the stone of Israel (Genesis 49:25): Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty," etc. [ Shaday (H7706) is here unaccompanied by 'Eel (H410), God; and this is the only place in Genesis where it stands thus alone.]
Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb:
Blessings of heaven above - i:e., copious descents of rain and dew, which are so necessary for promoting the growth of vegetation (Leviticus 26:4; Deuteronomy 28:12; Deuteronomy 33:14).
Blessings of the deep that lieth under - i:e., springs and rivers in the earth, which contribute to moisten and fertilize the soil [ taachat (H8478) is here used adverbially for 'beneath'].
Blessings of the breasts and of the womb - i:e., a numerous and healthy progeny of descendants, as well as of cattle.
The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren.
The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors. [ howray (H2029), from haaraah, pregnant, is put here for both parents-the father being included as well as the mother; and the import of the clause is, that the blessings which Jacob his father pronounced upon Joseph were far greater than those which he himself had received either from Isaac or Abraham, in respect to the extent of the blessing, the definiteness of the promise, and the nearness of the fulfillment. But instead of this, and 'to the utmost bound,' etc.; Gesenius, Maurer, and others, considering that the parallelism is destroyed by this translation, propose the reading of howray 'ad, the everlasting mountains (cf. Deuteronomy 33:15; Habakkuk 3:6), and render thus, 'the blessings of thy father are greater than the everlasting hills (nay, than), the loveliness (glory) of the ancient mountains' - i:e., however long and carefully cultivated. So the Septuagint: huperischusen huper eulogias hureoon monimoon, kai ep' eulogias thinoon aenoon.]
The head of him that was separate from his brethren, [ uwlqaadªqod (H6936) nªziyr (H5139) 'echaayw (H251)] - on the crown of the head of the prince of his brethren. Nazir signifies here not an individual set apart by a religious vow, or separated from others by the severity of his early trials, but a person of rank and honour, distinguished in eminence and dignity. [ Qaadªqod (H6936) denotes that part of the head which extends from the vertex to the neck behind. It is here used in parallelism, as synonymous with ro'sh (H7218).] The Septuagint gives a different turn to this last clause; because after the blessings invoked upon the head of Joseph, it represents the concluding words as additional [kai epi korufees hoon eegeesato], and on the head of those whom he led, i:e., of his tribe. The central district of Palestine-in which the plain of El Muknah, in the valley of Shechem, may be considered as generally representing the portion of Ephraim and Western Manasseh-is distinguished for all the natural advantages comprehended in the benediction pronounced upon Joseph.
The variety of hill and dale, the vestiges of ancient terraces upon the sides of the hills, rising one above another, high as the eye can reach; and even many still covered with these artificial levels, on which are fig-orchards and vineyards, the plains filled with crops of grain; a fertile soil, a moist atmosphere, with numerous streamlets and springs, all combined, present a landscape of exquisite loveliness, and exhibit such signs of agricultural prosperity as are not surpassed even by the richest parts of our own country (cf. Deuteronomy 33:13). 'The practical wisdom of the shepherd-prince who crossed the Jordan with his staff, and came back two great bands, was never more signally displayed than in securing a possession in this the garden of Canaan; and in afterward prospectively bestowing it on his favourite son' (Porter, 'Handbook,' p. 340; see also Drew's 'Scripture Lands,' p. 95; Bonar's 'Land of Promise,' p. 359; Bovet, 'Voyage en Terre Sainte,' p. 359).
Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil.
Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf. This tribe, whose settlement was to lie on the border, should be characterized by impetuosity, fierceness, stealthy measures, and a warlike appetite (cf. Judges 3:15; Judges 5:14; Judges 15:1-20; 1 Samuel 11:1; 1 Samuel 13:1-23; 1 Chronicles 8:40; 2 Chronicles 14:8). 'The words will sum up the strange union of fierceness and gentleness, of sudden resolves for good and evil, which run, as hereditary qualities often do run, through the whole history of that frontier clan' (Stanley's 'Jewish Church,' second series).
All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake unto them, and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them.
All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, [ shibTeey (H7626), stems that spring from a common root] - metaphorically used for the heads of the several subdivisions or tribes which, descending from Jacob, composed the Israelitish nation. The "blessing" addressed to their ancestors was intended specially for them.
Spake unto them, and blessed them. See the introductory remarks to this chapter about the mixed meaning of "blessed".
Everyone according to his blessing he blessed them. 'The natural advantages that were to distinguish the settlement, and to modify the character of each tribe, were no mere natural gifts of God's Providance. Their several blessings were, in a manner, the heraldic mottos of each tribe, and spoke of God's foreordaining love. Still more, those portions of the prophecy which portrayed the character of the tribes. They are the banner of God hanging over them, when faithful to Him. The lion-might of Judah, of Gad, and of Dan, Ephraim's horns of power, the swift energy of Benjamin, could be put forth on each occasion as strength which God had pledged to them' (Pusey).
And he charged them, and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people: bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,
And he charged them ... - most probably on some other occasion. Indeed, the charge had already been given to Joseph, and solemnly undertaken (Genesis 47:31). But in mentioning his wishes now, and rehearsing all the circumstances connected with the purchase of Machpelah, he wished to declare, with his latest breath, before all his family, that he died in the same faith as Abraham. (See the note at Genesis 23:1-20).
I am to be gathered unto my people. This phrase was employed by the speaker, and understood by those he addressed, in a sense totally different from that of being deposited in a tomb (see the note at Genesis 25:8). It is used in distinction from 'being buried.'
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Genesis 49". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26