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Bible Commentaries
Revelation 1

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - UnabridgedCommentary Critical Unabridged

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Verse 1

The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:

Revelation - Apocalypse: unveiling those things which had been veiled. A manifesto of Christ's kingdom. The Church's traveling manual for the Gentile Christian times. Not a detailed history, but a representation of the great epochs and powers in developing the kingdom of God in relation to the world. The Church-historical view goes counter to the great principle, that Scripture interprets itself. Revelation is to teach us to understand the times, not the times to interpret the Apocalypse, although a reflex influence is exerted here, understood by the prudent (Auberlen). The book is in a series of parallel groups, not in chronological succession. Still there is an organic historical development of the kingdom of God. In this book all the other books of the Bible meet: in it is the consummation of all previous prophecy. Daniel foretells as to Christ and the Roman destruction of Jerusalem, and the last Antichrist. But John's Revelation fills up the intermediate period, and describes the millennium and final state beyond Antichrist. Daniel, as a godly statesman, views God's people in relation to the four world-kingdoms. John, as an apostle, views history from the Christian Church aspect. Apocalypse is applied to no Old Testament book. Daniel is the nearest approach to it; but what Daniel was told to seal and shut up until the time of the end (Daniel 12:4), John (John 22:10 ), now that the time is at hand (Revelation 1:3), is directed to reveal.

Of (i:e., from) Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ, not John, is the Author of the Apocalypse. The title ought to be, 'The Revelation of Jesus Christ according to John;' not 'of John.' Compare His promise, John 15:15; John 16:13, end. The gospels record His first advent in the flesh; the Acts, His coming in the Spirit; the letters are the inspired comment on them. The Apocalypse is of His second advent, and the preliminary events.

Which God gave unto him. The Father reveals Himself in and by His Son.

To show. So Revelation 22:6. Revelation comprises, in a perfect compendium, things close at hand, far off, and between; great and little; destroying and saving; prophecies old and new, long and short; mutually involving and evolving one another: so that in no book more than in this would the addition, or taking away, of a single word or clause (Revelation 22:18-19), have the effect of marring the sense (Bengel).

His servants - not merely to "His servant John" (cf. Revelation 22:3).

Shortly - `speedily;' 'in' or 'with speed.' Compare Revelation 1:3; Revelation 22:6-7. Not, according to man's computation, near; but "shortly" corrects our estimate of worldly periods. Though a "thousand years" (Revelation 20:1-15), at least, are included, the time is at hand (Luke 18:8). Israel's praise-worthy, but premature, eagerness for the predicted end, prophecy restrains, (cf. Daniel 9:1-27.) The Gentile church needs to be roused from her tendency to make this transitory world her home, by the nearness of Christ's advent. Revelation saith, "the time is at hand." On the other hand, the succession of seals, etc., shows that many events must first elapse.

He - Jesus Christ, by His angel, joined with "sent." The angel does not 'signify things' until Revelation 17:1; Revelation 19:9-10: cf. Revelation 22:16. Previously John receives information from others. Jesus Christ opens the Revelation, Revelation 1:10-11; Revelation 4:1: in Revelation 6:1, one of the four living creatures acts as his informant; in Revelation 7:13, one of the elders; in Revelation 10:8-9, the Lord and His angel, who stood on the sea and earth. Only at Revelation 17:1 does the one angel stand by him (cf. Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21; Zechariah 1:19).

Verse 2

Who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw.

Bare record of - `testified the Word of God:' this book. John's testimony from God: "the words of this prophecy" (Revelation 1:3). Instead of 'testifies,' the ancients in letters use the past tense.

The testimony of Jesus - `the Spirit of prophecy' (Revelation 19:10).

And of all things that. 'Aleph (') A C, Vulgate, omit "and." 'As many things as he saw,' in apposition with "the Word of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ."

Verse 3

Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand.

He that readeth, and they that hear, [ ho (G3588) anaginooskoon (G314)] - the public reader in church assemblies, and his hearers. Firstly, he by whom John sent the book, from Patmos to the seven churches, read it publicly. A special blessing attends him who reads or hears the apocalyptic "prophecy" with a view to keeping the things (as one article combines 'they that hear and keep:' not two classes, but only one-`they who not only hear, but also keep those things,' Romans 2:13): even though he find not the key, he finds a stimulus to faith, hope, and patient waiting for Christ. "Prophecy" relates to the human medium inspired-here John; "Revelation," to the Divine Being who reveals His will-here Christ. God gave the Revelation to Jesus: He, by His angel, revealed it to John, to make it known to the Church.

Verse 4

John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

John the apostle None but he (supposing the writer honest) would sign himself nakedly without addition John - the apostle. None but he (supposing the writer honest) would sign himself nakedly without addition. As sole surviving representative of the apostles and eye-witnesses of the Lord, he needed no designation except his name to be recognized.

Seven churches - not that there were not more churches in that region, but seven expresses totality. These seven represent the universal Church of all times and places. See Trench's 'Epistles to Seven Churches,' note, Revelation 1:20, on seven. It is the number signifying God's covenant relation to mankind, especially to the Church. Thus, the seventh day, Sabbath, Genesis 2:3; Ezekiel 20:12. Circumcision, sign of the covenant, after seven days, Genesis 17:12. Sacrifices, Numbers 23:1; Numbers 23:14; Numbers 23:29; 2 Chronicles 29:21. Compare God's directions, Joshua 6:4; Joshua 6:15-16; 2 Kings 5:10. The feasts by sevens of time, Deuteronomy 15:1; Deuteronomy 16:9; Deuteronomy 16:13; Deuteronomy 16:15. It is a combination of three-the divine number (the Trinity: the thrice Holy, Isaiah 6:3; the blessing, Numbers 6:24-26) - and four: the organized world in its extension (thus the four elements, four seasons, four winds, four corners or quarters of the earth, four living creatures, emblems of redeemed creaturely life, Ezekiel 1:5-6; Revelation 4:6, with four faces and four wings each; the four beasts, and four metals, representing the four world-empires, Daniel 2:32-33; Daniel 7:3; the four-sided Gospel, designed for all quarters; the sheet tied at four corners, Acts 10:11; the four horns-the world's forces against the Church, Zechariah 1:18). In the Apocalypse, where God's covenant reaches its consummation, appropriately seven recurs more frequently than elsewhere.

Asia - proconsular, governed by a Roman proconsul: Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia: the kingdom which Attalus III bequeathed to Rome.

Grace ... peace - Paul's apostolical greeting. In his pastoral letters, 'mercy' in addition: so John 2:1-25.

Him which is ... was ... is to come - a periphrasis for the incommunicable name Yahweh (H3068), the self-existing, unchangeable. [apo ho oon kai ho een kai ho erchomenos (G2064).] The indeclinability implies His unchangeableness. Perhaps 'He which is to come' is used instead of 'He that shall be,' because Revelation's grand theme is the Lord's coming (Revelation 1:7). Still, THE FATHER (Revelation 1:5) is here meant. But so one are the Father and Son, that the designation, "which is to come," special to Christ, is used here of the Father.

The seven Spirits which are before his throne, ['Aleph (') A read toon (G3588) for ha (G3739) estin (G2076)] - literally, 'in the presence of.' The Holy Spirit in His sevenfold (i:e., perfect and universal) energy. Corresponding to "the seven churches." One in His essence, manifold in His influences. The seven eyes resting on the stone laid by Yahweh (Zechariah 3:9; Revelation 5:6). Four is the number of the creature world (cf. the fourfold cherubim); seven, that of God's revelation.

Verse 5

And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

The faithful Witness - of the truth concerning Himself and His mission as Prophet, Priest, and King Saviour. 'All things that He heard of the Father, he faithfully made known to His disciples. Also, He taught the way of God in truth, and cared not for man, nor regarded the persons of men. Also, the truth which He taught in words He confirmed by miracles. Also, the Father's testimony to Himself He denied not even in death. Lastly, He will give true testimony of the works of good and bad at the judgment day.' (Richard of Victor). The Greek nominative, "the faithful Witness," stands majestically prominent, in apposition to the genitive, "Jesus Christ."

The first-begotten of the dead - (Colossians 1:18.) Lazarus rose, to die again; Christ, to die no more. The image is not that the grave was the womb of His resurrection-birth (Alford), but as Acts 13:33; Romans 1:4, Christ's resurrection is the event which fulfilled Psalms 2:7, "This day (at the resurrection) have I begotten thee." Then His divine Sonship as the God-man was openly attested by the Father. So our resurrection, and our manifested sonship, are connected. Hence, "regeneration" is used of our resurrection-state at the restitution of all things (Matthew 19:28; Luke 20:36; 1 John 3:2; Romans 8:11; Romans 8:19; Romans 8:23).

The Prince, [ Archon (G756)] - ruler. The kingship of the world which the Tempter offered to Jesus on condition of doing homage, and so shunning the Cross, He has obtained by the Cross. "The kings of the earth" conspired against the Lord's Anointed; these He shall break in pieces (Psalms 2:2; Psalms 2:9). Those wise in time, who kiss the Son, shall bring their glory unto Him at His manifestation as King of kings, after having destroyed His foes.

Unto him that loved us. 'Aleph (') A C read [ agapoonti (G25)], 'loveth us.' His ever-continuing character is, He loveth, and ever shall love, us. His love rests evermore on His people.

Washed us. 'Aleph (') A C read [ lusanti (G3089)], 'loosed (as from a bond) us:' so Andreas and Primasius. B, the Vulgate, and Coptic, read "washed," perhaps from Revelation 7:14. 'Loosed us in (virtue of) His blood,' being the harder reading, is less likely to come from the transcribers. The reference is to [ lutron (G3083)] the 'ransom' paid for our release (Matthew 20:28). "Washed" refers to the priests, before putting on the holy garments and ministering, washing themselves: so believers, as 'priests unto God,' must be washed in Christ's blood from every stain before they can serve God now, or minister as dispensers of blessing to the subject nations in the millennial kingdom, or minister before God in heaven.

Verse 6

And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

And hath made, [B, poieesanti (G4160); A C 'Aleph ('), Kai (G2532) epoieesen (G4160)] - 'And (He) made.'

Us kings. 'Aleph (') A C, Vulgate, read, 'a kingdom;' A, 'for us;' B 'Aleph ('), Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic, 'us,' accusative: 'He made us (to be) a kingdom, (namely) priests,' etc. Omit "and" before 'priests,' with all oldest authorities. So Exodus 19:6; 1 Peter 2:9, "a royal priesthood." The saints shall constitute a kingdom of God (Revelation 5:10); sharing His King-Priest throne in the millennial kingdom (Revelation 3:21). The emphasis thus falls on kingdom. This book lays prominent stress on the saints' kingdom. They are kings because they are priests: the priesthood is the continuous ground of their kingship; kings in relation to man, priests in relation to God, serving day and night in His temple (Revelation 5:10; Revelation 7:15). The priest-kings shall rule, not in mechanical externalism, but in virtue of what they are, by the power of attraction and conviction overcoming the heart (Auberlen). Priests - having pre-eminently near access to the king. David's sons were priests [ Kohªniym (H3548)] (2 Samuel 8:18). The distinction of priests and people, nearer and more remote from God, shall cease; all shall have nearest access. All persons and things shall be holy to the Lord.

God and his Father. There is one article to both; 'unto Him who is at once God and His Father.'

Glory and dominion - `the glory and the might' [ to (G3588) kratos (G2904)]. The threefold doxology occurs, Revelation 4:9; Revelation 4:11: fourfold, Jude 1:25; Revelation 5:13: sevenfold, 1 Chronicles 29:11; Revelation 7:12. Doxology occupies the prominent place above; prayer, below. If we thought of God's glory first (as in the Lord's prayer), and the secondary place to our needs, we should please God and gain our petitions better.

Forever and ever, [ eis (G1519) tous (G3588) aioonas (G165) toon (G3588) aioonas (G165); 'Aleph (') C, Vulgate: toon (G3588) aioonon (G165) A omits] - 'unto the ages.'

Verse 7

Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.

With clouds - `the clouds,' namely, of heaven. "A cloud received Him out of their sight" at His ascension (Acts 1:9): which resembles the manner of His coming again (Acts 1:11). Clouds are symbols of wrath to sinners.

Every eye - His coming shall be a visible appearing.

Shall see. Because they do not now see, they will not believe. Contrast John 20:29.

They also - in particular [ hoitines (G3748)]: 'whosoever.' At His premillennial advent the Jews shall "look upon Him whom they pierced," and mourn in repentance, saying, "Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord." Secondarily, and chiefly, at the general judgment all the ungodly who actually, or virtually by their sins, pierced Him, shall tremblingly see [ opsetai (G3700) implies a vision realized inwardly] Him. John is the only evangelist who records Christ's piercing. This allusion identifies the author of the Apocalypse. The reality of Christ's humanity and death is proved by His piercing: the water and blood from His side were the antitype to the Levitical waters of cleansing and blood-offerings.

All kindreds ... shall wail - the unconverted at the general judgment: at His pre-millennial advent, the anti-Christian confederacy (Zechariah 12:3-6; Zechariah 12:9; Zechariah 14:1-4; Matthew 24:30) [ hai (G3588) fulai (G5443) tees (G3588) gees (G1093)]: 'all the tribes of the land,' or 'the earth.' See the limitation to "all," Revelation 13:8. Even the godly, while rejoicing in His love, shall feel penitential sorrow at their sins, which shall all be manifested.

Because of, [ epi (G1909)] - 'at,' or 'in regard to Him.' Even so, Amen - God's seal of His word: to which corresponds the believer's prayer, Revelation 22:20. The [ nai (G3483)] "even so" is Greek; "Amen," Hebrew. To both Gentiles and Jews His promises and threats are unchangeable.

Verse 8

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

'I am the Alpha and the Omega'-the first and last letters of the alphabet. God in Christ comprises all between, as well as first and last.

The beginning and the ending. Omitted in 'Aleph (') A B C, through in the Vulgate and Coptic. Transcribers probably inserted it from Revelation 21:6. In Christ, Genesis, the Alpha of Scripture, and Revelation, the Omega, meet; the last presenting man and God reconciled in Paradise, as the first presented man at the beginning innocent and in God's favour in Paradise. Accomplishing finally what I begin. Always the same: before the dragon, the beast, false prophet, and all foes. Anticipatory consolation under the Church's coming trials.

The Lord. 'Aleph (') A B C read, 'the Lord God.'

Almighty - Hebrew, Shaday (H7706) and Yahweh (H3068) Tsaba'owt (H6635); i:e., of hosts: commanding all the powers in heaven and earth, so able to overcome all our foes. Often in Revelation, but nowhere else in the New Testament, except 2 Corinthians 6:18, quoted from Isaiah.

Verse 9

I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

I John - so 'I Daniel' (Rev. 7:28; Revelation 9:2; Revelation 10:2). One of many resemblances between the Old and the New Testament apocalyptic seers. No other Scripture writer uses the phrase.

Also. 'Aleph (') A B C omit "also." In his gospel and letters he mentions not his name, though describing himself as "the disciple whom Jesus loved." Here, with similar humility, he mentions his name, but not his apostleship.

Companion, [ sungkoinoonos (G4791)] - 'fellow-partaker in the tribulation;' which is preliminary to 'the kingdom.' It must be borne with 'persevering endurance.' 'Aleph (') A B C omit "in the before "kingdom." All three are inseparable: joined by one article: the tribulation, kingdom, and endurance.

Patience, [ hupomonee (G5281)] - 'persevering endurance' (Acts 14:22): 'the queen of graces' (virtues) (Chrysostom).

Of. 'Aleph (') C, Vulgate, read 'IN Jesus;' A, 'in Christ;' B, 'in Christ Jesus.' It is IN Him that believers have the right to the kingdom, and spiritual strength to endure perseveringly for it.

Was, [ egenomeen (G1096)] - 'came to be.'

In ... Patmos - now Patmo, or Palmosa. See 'Introduction' on John's exile to it under Domitian, from which he was released under Nerva. Restricted to a small spot on earth, he is admitted into the wide heaven and its secrets. Thus, John drank of Christ's cup, and was baptized with His baptism (Matthew 20:22).

For, [ dia (G1223)] - 'on account of the Word of God and testimony.' A C h, Vulgate, omit the second "for," thus joining closely "the Word of God" and "testimony of Jesus." But 'Aleph (') B read it. 'Aleph (') A C, Vulgate, omit "Christ." The Apocalypse has been always appreciated most in adversity. Thus the Asiatic church, from the flourishing times of Constantine, estimated it less. The African church being more exposed to the Cross, made much of it (Bengel).

Verse 10

I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,

I was - `I came to be:' 'I became.'

In the Spirit - in a state of ecstasy: the outer world shut out: the inner spirit, being taken possession of by God's Spirit, establishing an immediate connection with the invisible world. While the prophet 'speaks' in the Spirit, the apocalyptic seer is in the Spirit wholly. The spirit alone (which connects us with God) is active, or recipient, in the apocalyptic state. With Christ this being "in the Spirit" was not the exception, but invariable.

On the Lord's day. Though forcibly detained from church communion with the brethren on "the Lord's day," the weekly commemoration of the resurrection, John was enjoying spiritual communion. The earliest mention of the term. But the consecration of the day to worship, almsgiving, and the Lord's supper, is implied, Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2: cf. John 20:19-26. It corresponds to "the Lord's supper," 1 Corinthians 11:20. Ignatius alludes to "the "Lord's day" ('Ad Magnes,' 9:), and Irenaeus, in the 'Quaests. ad Orthod.,' 115: (in Justin Martyr). Justin Martyr, 'Apology,' 2:, 98, etc., 'On Sunday we hold our joint meeting: for the first day is that on which God, having removed darkness, made the world, and Jesus Christ our Saviour rose from the dead. On the day before Saturday they crucified Him; on the day after Saturday, Sunday, having appeared to His apostles, He taught.' To it Pliny refers ('Ep.,' 97:, b. 10:): 'The Christians, on a fixed day, before dawn, meet and sing a hymn to Christ as God,' etc.

(second Tertullian, 'De Coron.,' 3:, 'On the Lord's day we deem it wrong to fast.' Melito, Bishop of Sardis (second century), wrote a book on the Lord's day ('Eusebius,' 4:, 26). Also Dionysius of Corinth (A.D. 170 AD), in Eusebius, 'Ecclesiastical History,' 4:, 23, 8; Clement of Alexandrinus (A.D. 194 AD), 'Stromata,' 5: and 7:, 12; Origen, 'C. Cels.,' 8:, 22. Romans 14:5-6; Romans 14:5-6, refers not to the Sabbath, but to days of Jewish observance: "He that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it," is not in 'Aleph ( a ) A B C Delta G f g, Vulgate. The theory that the day of Christ's second coming is meant, is untenable. 'The day of the Lord' is different from [ hee (G3588) kuriakee (G2960) heemera (G2250)] "the Lord's (an adjective) day," which in the ancient Church always designates Sunday, though possibly the two shall coincide (at least in parts of the earth), whence a tradition is in Jerome, on Matthew 25:1-46, that the Lord's coming was expected on the Paschal Lord's day. The visions of the Apocalypse, seals, trumpets, and vials, etc., are grouped in sevens, and naturally begin on the first day of the seven, the birthday of the Church, whose future they set forth (Wordsworth).

Great voice - summoning solemn attention: Greek order, 'Aleph (') C h, Vulgate, 'I heard behind me a voice great (loud) as (that) of a trumpet.' The trumpet summoned to religious feasts, accompanying God's revelation of Himself.

Verse 11

Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and. B 'Aleph (') A C, Vulgate, omit all this clause.

Write in a book. To this book, having such an origin, and to the other books of Scripture, who gives their due weight, preferring them to the many books of the world? (Bengel.)

Seven churches. As there were many other churches in Proconsular Asia (e.g., Miletus, Magnesia, Tralles) besides, seven is fixed upon because of its mystical signification, totality and universality. "Which are in Asia" is rejected by 'Aleph (') A B C, Cyprian, Vulgate, and Syriac. Coptic has it. These seven are representative churches; as a complex whole, ideally complete, embodying the spiritual characteristics of the Church, whether as faithful or unfaithful, in all ages. Those selected are not taken at random, but have a many-sided completeness.

Thus, we have Smyrna, a church exposed to persecutions unto death; on the other hand, Sardis, having a high name for spiritual life, yet dead. Laodicea, in its own estimate, rich, needing nothing, with ample talents, yet lukewarm; on the other hand, Philadelphia, with but little strength, yet keeping Christ's word: so an open door of usefulness set before it by Christ Himself. Ephesus, intolerant of evil and false apostles, yet having left its first love; on the other hand, Thyatira, abounding in works, love, service, and faith, yet suffering the false prophetess to seduce many.

Again, Ephesus in conflict with false freedom - i:e., fleshly licentiousness (the Nicolaitanes); so Pergamos in conflict with Balaam-like tempters to fornication and idol meats; on the other side, Philadelphia, in conflict with the Jewish synagogue - i:e., legal bondage. Finally, Sardis and Laodicea, without opposition to call forth spiritual energies: a dangerous position, considering man's natural indolence. In the historic interpretation, Ephesus ('the beloved' or 'desired') (Stier) represents the waning of the apostolic age.

Smyrna ('myrrh,' bitter, yet costly perfume), the martyr period of the Decian and Diocletian age. Pergamos (a 'castle'), the church in earthly power and decreasing spirituality, from Constantine's time until the seventh century. Thyatira ('unwearied about sacrifices'), the apostate church in the first half of the middle ages; like "Jezebel," keen about its sacrifice of the mass, and slaying God's witnesses. Sardis, from the twelfth century to the Reformation. Philadelphia. ('brotherly love'), the first century of the Reformation. Laodicea, the Reformed church after its first zeal cooled.

Verse 12

And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;

See the voice - i:e., ascertain from whom the voice proceeded.

That, [ heetis (G3748)] - 'of what kind it was which.' The voice of God the Father, as at Christ's baptism and transfiguration, so here in presenting Christ as our High Priest.

Spake. 'Aleph (') B C, Vulgate, h, Irenaeus, read, 'was speaking.'

Being - `having turned.'

Seven golden candlesticks - `lampstands' (Kelly). The stand holding the lamp. In Exodus 25:31-32, the seven are united in ONE candlestick - i:e., SIX arms and a central shaft: so Zechariah 4:2; Zechariah 4:11. Here the seven are separate, typifying the entire Church, but now no longer as the one Jewish Church (represented by the one sevenfold candlestick), restricted to one outward unity and place. The several churches are mutually independent as to external ceremonies and government (provided all things are done to edification, and 'schisms' or needless separations are avoided), yet one in the unity of the Spirit and the Headship of Christ. The candlestick is not light, but bears light, holding forth light around. The light the Church bears is the Lord's, not her own (Philippians 2:15-16). His glory is the end of her light (Matthew 5:16). The candlestick stood in the Holy Place, type of the Church on earth, as the Holiest was type of the Church in heaven. The Holy Place's only light was from the candlestick, daylight being excluded: so the Lord God is the Church's only light (cf. Revelation 21:23): the light of grace, not nature. "Golden" symbolizes the greatest preciousness and sacredness. In the Zend Avesta, "golden" is synonymous with heavenly or divine (Trench).

Verse 13

And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. His glorified form could be recognized by John, who saw it at the transfiguration.

In the midst - implying Christ's presence and ceaseless activity in the midst of His people on earth. In Revelation 4:1-11, appearing in heaven, His insignia undergo a corresponding change; even there the rainbow reminds us of His everlasting covenant.

Seven. Omitted in A C; so 'Aleph (') B.

Son of man. The form which John had seen enduring the agony of Gethsemane, and the shame of Calvary, he now sees glorified. His glory as Son of man (not merely Son of God) is the fruit of His humiliation.

Down to the foot - marking high rank. The garment and girdle are emblems of His priesthood. Compare Exodus 28:2; Exodus 28:4 [the same word in the Septuagint as here; podeeree (G4158)], Exodus 28:31; Exodus 28:42; Exodus 39:27-29; Septuagint Aaron's robe and girdle were "for glory and beauty," combining the insignia of royalty and priesthood, characteristic of Christ's king priesthood "after the order of Melchisedec." His being in the midst of the candlesticks (only seen in the temple), shows it is as king-priest. He is so attired. This priesthood He has exercised since His ascension; and therefore wears its emblems. As Aaron put on the holy white linen tunic [ kªtonet (H3801)], for making the atonement, then assumed his usual 'golden vestments,' when he came forth from the sanctuary to bless the people (Leviticus 16:4; Leviticus 16:23-24), so when Christ shall come again, He shall appear in similar attire of 'beauty and glory' (margin, Isaiah 4:2). The angels are attired like their Lord (Ezekiel 9:2; Ezekiel 9:11; Daniel 10:5; Revelation 15:6). The ordinary girding for active work was at the loins; but Josephus ('Antiquities,' 3: 7, 2) tells us the Levitical priests were girt higher, about the paps, appropriate to calm, majestic movement. The girdle bracing the frame symbolizes collected powers. Righteousness and faithfulness are Christ's girdle (Isaiah 11:5). The high priest's girdle was only interwoven with gold, but Christ's all of gold: the antitype exceeds the type.

Verse 14

His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;

Greek, 'But.'

Like wool - Greek, 'like white wool.' The colour is the point of comparison: signifying lovely purity. So in Isaiah 1:18. Not age; for hoary hairs indicate decay. Still, He is "the ancient of days" (Daniel 7:9).

Eyes were as a flame - all-searching, penetrating like fire; also, consuming indignation against sin, especially at His coming "in flaming fire, taking vengeance" on all the ungodly. Confirmed by Revelation 19:11-12.

Verse 15

And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

Fine brass, [ chalkolibanoo (G5474), derived by some from the Greek, brass and frankincense: by Bochart, from brass, and Hebrew, libben, to whiten brass] - having in the furnace reached a white heat: so "burnished (glowing) brass" (Ezekiel 1:7; Revelation 10:1). Translate, 'glowing brass, as if they had been made redhot in a furnace.' The feet of the priests were bare in ministering in the sanctuary. So our great High Priest.

Voice as ... many waters - (Ezekiel 43:2; in Daniel 10:6, "like the voice of a multitude"). As the bridegroom's voice, so the bride's, Revelation 14:2; Revelation 19:6; Ezekiel 1:24, the cherubim, or redeemed creation. His voice here refers to its terribleness to His foes. Contrast Song of Solomon 2:8; Song of Solomon 5:2: cf. Revelation 3:20.

Verse 16

And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.

He had - `having.' John takes up the description, irrespective of the construction, with separate strokes of the pencil (Alford).

In his right hand seven stars - (Revelation 1:20; Revelation 2:1; Revelation 3:1.) He holds them as a star-studded "crown of glory," or "royal diadem," in His hand: so Isaiah 62:3, as their Possessor and Upholder.

Out of his mouth went - `going forth;' not wielded in the hand. His WORD, the sword of His Spirit, is omnipotent in executing His will against sinners. Its reproving, punishing, rather than its converting power, is here prominent. Still, as He encourages the churches, as well as threatens, its saving power is not excluded. Its two edges (back and front) imply its double efficacy, condemning some, converting others. Tertullian ('Adv. Jud.') explains them the Old and the New Testament. Richard of Victor, 'the Old Testament cutting externally our carnal, the New Testament internally our spiritual, sins.'

Sword, [ Romfaia (G4501), the Thracian long, heavy broad-sword] - six times in Revelation, once elsewhere in the New Testament, namely, Luke 2:35.

Sun shineth in his strength - in unclouded power. So shall the righteous shine, reflecting the image of the Sun of righteousness. Trench remarks, This description, sublime as a purely mental conception, would be intolerable if we gave it outward embodiment. With the Greeks, aesthetical taste was the first consideration, to which all others must give way. With the Hebrews, the full representation ideally of the religious reality was paramount, that representation being designed to remain a purely mental conception. This exalting of the essence above the form marks their deeper religious earnestness.

Verse 17

And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:

So fallen is man, that God's manifestation of His presence overwhelms him.

Laid his right hand upon me - so Jesus at the transfiguration to the three prostrate disciples, of whom John was one, saying, "Be not afraid." The 'touch' of His hand imparted strength (Daniel 8:18; Daniel 10:10; Matthew 8:3; Matthew 8:15; Matthew 9:29).

Unto me. Omitted in 'Aleph (') A C h, Vulgate.

The first and the last - (Isaiah 41:4; Isaiah 44:6; Isaiah 48:12.) From eternity, and to eternity: 'First by creation, the Last by retribution: First, because before me there was no God; Last, because after me there shall be no other: First, because from me are all things; Last, because to me all things return' (Richard of Victor).

Verse 18

I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

Greek, 'And THE LIVING ONE:' connected with Revelation 1:17.

And was, [ egenomeen (G1096)] - 'and (yet) I became dead.'

Alive for evermore - `living unto the ages of ages:' not merely 'I live,' but I have, and am the Source of, life to my people. 'To Him belongs absolute being, contrasted with the creature's relative being: others may share, He only hath immortality; being in essence, not by participation, immortal' (Theodoret). B reads "Amen;" 'Aleph (') A C, Vulgate, Coptic, omit it. His having passed through death as one of us, and now living in the infinite plenitude of life, reassures us, since through Him death is the gate of resurrection to eternal life.

Have the keys of hell - `Hades;' Hebrew, 'Sheol.' "Hell," in the sense of the place of torment, answers to Gehenna. I can release from the unseen world of spirits and from DEATH whom I will. 'Aleph (') A B C transpose thus, 'Death and Hades.' Death (which came by sin, robbing man of his immortal birthright, Romans 5:12) peoples Hades; therefore should stand first. Keys are emblems of authority, opening and shutting at will 'the gates of Hades' (Psalms 9:13-14; Isaiah 38:10; Matthew 16:18).

Verse 19

Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;

A B C 'Aleph (') read, 'Write therefore' (since I, "the First and the Last," have the keys of death, and vouchsafe this vision for the comfort and warning of the Church).

Things which are. "The things which thou hast seen" are those in this chapter (cf. Revelation 1:11); "the things which are," the present state of the churches when John was writing (Revelation 2:1-29 and Revelation 3:1-22); "the things which shall be hereafter," the things symbolically represented concerning the future, (Revelation 22:1-21.) Alford, 'What things they signify;' but the antithesis, next clause, forbids this, 'the things which are about to come to pass hereafter.' The plural [ eisin (G1526)] "are," instead of the usual Greek singular, is owing to churches and persons being meant by "the things which are."

Verse 20

The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.

In, [ epi (G1909), 'Aleph (') B C] - 'upon my right hand;' but A [ en (G1722)], 'in.'

The mystery ... candlesticks - in apposition to, and explaining, "the things which thou hast seen," governed by "Write." Mystery, the hidden truth veiled under this symbol, now revealed: its correlative is revelation. Stars symbolize lordship (Numbers 24:17: cf. Daniel 12:3, of faithful teachers; Revelation 8:10; Revelation 12:4; Jude 1:13).

Angels. Not as Origen, 'Homily 13 on Luke 20:1-47 on Numbers,' the guardian angels of the churches, as individuals have their guardian angels. For how could heavenly angels be charged with the delinquencies charged against these angels? If a man be meant (as the Old Testament analogy favours, Haggai 1:13, "the Lord's Messenger (angel) in the Lord's message;" Malachi 2:7; Malachi 3:1), the bishop, or superintendent pastor, must be 'the angel.' For whereas there were many presbyters in the larger churches (as, e.g., Ephesus, Smyrna, etc.), there was but one angel, whom the Chief Shepherd and Bishop of souls holds responsible for the church under him. Angel, designating an office, may be in accordance with Revelation's enigmatic symbolism, transferred from the heavenly to the earthly ministers of Yahweh: reminding them that, like the angels above, they below should fulfill God's mission zealously and efficiently. "Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven!" The term is more probably from the synagogue. Note 2 Corinthians 8:23. The 'legate of the church' [sheliach tsibbur, corresponding ing to an angel or an apostle (special messenger)] recited the prayers in the name of the congregation. The president of the synagogue was legate ex officio.

Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jfu/revelation-1.html. 1871-8.
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