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Saturday, May 25th, 2024
the Week of Proper 2 / Ordinary 7
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Bible Commentaries
Acts 18

Gray's Concise Bible CommentaryGray's Concise Commentary

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Verses 1-22


Though the text of this lesson is long, it will be interesting to read it through at a single sitting, and get the whole journey at one view. The events are clear cut, easily remembered and apparent in their spiritual teaching.


It begins with the contention between Paul and Barnabas men “of like passions” with ourselves, which was providentially overruled so that two missionary journeys grew out of it instead of one (Acts 15:36-41 ). Note that there were churches in Syria and Cilicia though no account is given of their origin beyond that of Antioch. It is a hint of the activity of the preachers of the Gospel, and the extent to which the gospel may have spread in that early time far beyond the record.

The story of the second visit to Lystra (Acts 16:1-3 ), gains interest from the subsequent prominence of Timothy, of whom further data are found in the epistles Paul afterward addressed to him. His circumcision is no evidence of inconsistency on Paul’s part, since no question of principle was involved, but only expediency (Acts 16:3 ). As Timothy’s father was a Greek, it would be known that he was uncircumcised which would prevent this ministry among the Jews (compare here 1 Corinthians 9:20 ).

The outstanding feature of this journey is in Acts 16:6-10 of this chapter. “Asia” (Acts 16:6 ) was a name given to a large part of the coast of Asia Minor especially on the southeast. Why the Holy Spirit forbade the missionaries to preach there at this time, or the manner in which the prohibition was communicated, is not stated; but we know that later a great work was wrought there especially in Ephesus. The story is repeated with reference to the North (Bithynia), and as the only point of the compass left is the West, they make for the seaport of Troas. The student is urged to identify these localities on the map. At Troas special direction is required, for the sea is to be crossed, and God meets the need in the vision vouchsafed to Paul. At this point interest is added by the pronoun “we” in Acts 16:10 , indicating that the author, Luke, has now joined the party.


Their stay at Philippi is full of movement (Acts 16:12-40 ). It was an important city found by Philip of Macedon, inhabited chiefly by Roman citizens, but lacking in a Jewish population as is shown in the fact that it contained no synagogue (Acts 16:13 ). It is unusual to read of a woman (Lydia) as engaged in commercial pursuits on her own account in that early time, but she seems to have been an exporter of Thyatira, noted for its purple dyes (Acts 16:14-15 ).

The case following is that of demon possession, with phenomena not very different from modern clairvoyance or the spiritualistic seance (Acts 16:16-18 ). Of course the resultant proceedings were all illegal (Acts 16:19-24 ), but how greatly was God glorified thereby (Acts 16:25-34 )! Acts 16:35-38 illustrate that a Christian may with dignity insist upon his legal rights. Immunity from corporal punishment was one of the most valued privileges of Roman citizenship, and to impose it was a crime in the eye of the law. No wonder the magistrates were afraid. But learn the lesson of these verses concerning the way of Satan with the gospel. He first applauds and seems to help it along by flattery and with advertisement (Acts 16:17 ), but when his testimony is rejected, he shows his true character (Acts 16:19 ). Paul’s preaching aimed at the idol worship of Rome which gave the excuse of Acts 16:20-21 . Let us also be impressed with the simplicity of the gospel in Acts 16:31 . To believe on the Lord Jesus Christ is simply to commit one’s self to Him to be saved. Nothing else is to be done, for God has put away our guilt in His atonement, and offers reconciliation for our acceptance. Note the reference to the jailer’s “house.” No one can be saved except by the exercise of a personal faith in the Savior, but there is great encouragement here for the Christian parent to bring his offspring to the Lord in full assurance.


Thessalonica now claims our attention (Acts 17:1-9 ), a most influential city then and now, located on the Aegean Sea, and on the direct route to Rome.

Paul’s method with the Jews is further presented here in Acts 17:2-3 . He employed the Old Testament scriptures. He reasoned with them, doubtless in the form of questions and answers. They were expecting the Messiah, the Christ, and he showed them that when He came it was necessary according to their own scriptures that he should suffer, die and rise again from the dead. Establishing these points he was then ready to show that “this Jesus Whom I preach unto you is the Christ,” because He has fulfilled these things. The customary results follow, faith in some, envy and opposition in others, persecution, and removal to another place. The experience is repeated in Berea (Acts 17:10-14 ), and then we find Paul at Athens (Acts 17:16-34 ), still at this time “the intellectual and artistic capital of the world.” It was also a religious capital, the strongest in Greek mythology, as illustrated in the text. The “Areopagus” (Acts 17:19 ) was a court somewhat like the roman Senate; and here Paul addressed the philosophers and leading citizens in terms familiar to them. Their “unknown God” he introduces to them as the Creator of all things and the “Lord of heaven and earth,” and the future judge of men through His Son Jesus Christ, Whom He hath “raised from the death” (Acts 17:23-31 ). The poets he quotes (Acts 17:28 ) were Cleanthus and Aratus, whom he tactfully employs against their countrymen, whose boasted philosophy was “ignorance” (Acts 17:30 ). The times of this ignorance God had “winked at” thus far, in other words, overlooked. Not in the sense that they would not be held to account or judged for it, but that He had sent them no special revelation of Himself until now. There is no distinctive application of the gospel here, and possibly because Paul’s hearers were not prepared for it, but still his testimony was not in vain (Acts 17:34 ).


Corinth was the capital of Achaia, the lower peninsula of Greece; and in comparison with Athens, a great commercial center, cosmopolitan in its population, and as immoral as could well be conceived. The record of Paul’s experiences here is varied by several details, for example his association with Aquila and Priscilla; the reference to his trade, for all Jewish lads, no matter what their circumstances, were taught trades; the encouraging vision he received; the length of time he remained in the city; the turning of the tables on his enemies; the Jewish vow he assumed, etc. (Acts 18:1-18 ). To speak of the vision, judging by Acts 18:5 , and also by certain allusions in Paul’s two epistles to this church, there was special need of it at this time. He seems to have been much depressed, and the Lord graciously desired him to be without anxiety. This explains why he remained there so long. The event before Gallio brings to mind one of the incidental evidences of the historical accuracy of this narrative. He is called the “deputy” of Achaia, and as a matter of fact that is what he was only, and not a proconsul, for at this time Achaia was united to Macedonia. Somewhat later it was constituted a province on its own account, and then came to have its own proconsul. The vow which Paul took may have been one of those concessions to the Jews he thought needful for expediency’s sake.

Ephesus next reached (Acts 18:19-21 ). Was just across the Aegean Sea from Corinth, and was the capital of the Roman province of Asia, noted for its commerce, but particularly for its temple of Diane (Artemis). There was a large Jewish population there, and they were accorded special privileges by the local government. We shall learn more of Paul’s work there in our next lesson.


1. What hint does this lesson give of the development of Christianity at this time?

2. Have you read 1 Corinthians 9:20 ?

3. Have you traced this journey on the map?

4. Name the four missionaries in the journey.

5. How were the rights of Paul and Silas infringed upon in Philippi?

6. What is it to believe on the Lord Jesus Christ?

7. What encouragement for Christian parents is found here?

8. What is the meaning of Acts 17:30 ?

9. Tell the story of Paul’s stay in Corinth in your own words.

10. What was the geographical relation of Corinth and Ephesus?

Verses 23-28


As in the last lesson, it is recommended that the text of the present one be read through at a single sitting, and two or three times if possible, before considering the comments, which then will be more valuable.

Some time had been spent again in Antioch, after which the whole territory of Phrygia and Galatia, in Asia minor, was once more traversed for the purpose indicated in 18:23. Ephesus was duly reached (Acts 19:1 ), where Paul found a condition of things explained by the closing verses of chapter 18. Apollos does not seem to have been a Christian till Aquila and Priscilla met him, but he had been awakened by the ministry of John the Baptist, and was learned in the Old Testament Scriptures. The “disciples” Paul met (Acts 19:2 ), were possibly those of Apollos’ ministry, whom he (Paul) brought out into the full fellowship of the gospel (Acts 19:2-7 ). “Since ye believed” of Acts 19:2 , should be rendered “when ye believed.” There was something lacking in these disciples which Paul observed, and which led him to put this question, because the reception of the Holy Spirit is the test of true discipleship (Romans 8:9 ). (See comment on 2:5-13.) Acts 19:8-20 show an unusual work of grace in and around Ephesus at this time. “The school of Tyrannus” (Acts 19:9 ) was the convenient meeting place. The special miracles by Paul (Acts 19:11 ) were an offset to the unusual power of the evil one there. This power showed itself in the “vagabond Jews” of Acts 19:13 who suffered justly for their wickedness (Acts 19:16 ), and whose defeat wrought gloriously for the Gospel (Acts 19:17 ). There was much of this occultism in Ephesus, the overthrow of which is portrayed in the bonfire of the books of the black art, the cost of which was about $10,000.

But the spread of the Gospel was exhibited in the undermining of the controlling trade of the city, with the consequences following (Acts 19:23-41 ).

Chapter 20 is a diary of an extended journey from Ephesus to Macedonia (Acts 20:1-2 ), when again Paul must have visited Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, etc. Then he came down into Greece, possibly Athens, certainly Corinth saw his labors again. Here his purpose to cross by sea to Syria was interfered with by plots against his life, so that he retraced his steps into Macedonia, and crossed again to Troas (Acts 20:3-6 ). A week in Troas was made memorable by his discourse till midnight, and the miraculous recovery of the young man Eutychus (Acts 20:7-21 ). Note that this gathering of the saints to “break bread,” i.e., observe the Lord’s supper, was on the first day of the week, strengthening the conviction that the Lord’s day had taken the place of the Jewish Sabbath as the time for Christian assemblies.

Twenty miles on foot, and apparently alone, brought Paul to Assos, and thence by ship to Mitylene, and finally Miletus (Acts 20:13-16 ).

A tender episode meets us here in his farewell discourse to the beloved elders (bishops or presbyters) of the church at Ephesus (Acts 20:17-38 ). Three of his discourses have been reported hitherto somewhat at length, but this is especially interesting as the first spoken to the church. The others were missionary discourses. He first testifies to his own integrity as a minister (Acts 20:18-21 ); he then alludes to the bonds and afflictions that await him (Acts 20:22-27 ); a charge to the elders follows (Acts 20:28-31 ); a further testimony to his faithfulness (Acts 20:32-35 ); the prayer of farewell (Acts 20:36-38 ). Space will not permit elaboration, but Acts 20:28 should not be passed over in its clear testimony to the oneness of God in Christ. “The church of God which he purchased with His own Blood.” The Deity of our Lord is here asserted, and the priceless cost of our redemption. There is no suggestion of an “apostolic succession” in Acts 20:29 , but just the opposite; a prophecy by- the-way, finding fulfillment in all the centuries, and never more positively than now. The beatitude of Acts 20:37 was evidently current in the early church in addition to those recorded in the gospels, and this reference to it gives it inspired authority.

The journey continues until Jerusalem is reached (Acts 21:1-17 ), the most important features of which are the warnings of the apostle not to go to Jerusalem at all (Acts 4:10-14 ). The second says that these warnings were not merely from man but from the Holy Spirit. How then can we explain his neglect of them? Shall we say that they were not in the nature of a command, but a testing? Acts 21:11-13 suggest this. There is one other difficulty in this chapter, where the prophesying of women is referred to (v. 9), and which seems to contradict Paul later on in 1 Timothy 2:0; 1 Timothy 2:0 . We cannot explain it, except to suggest that possibly this prophesying was private rather than in the public assembly.


1. Have you read the text of this lesson as requested?

2. Why did Paul take this journey through Asia Minor?

3. What is suggested in this lesson as the test of true discipleship?

4. State in your own words the story of Paul’s ministry in Ephesus at this time.

5. What makes memorable his stay at Troas on this journey?

6. Analyze his discourse to the elders of Ephesus.

7. What two great doctrinal truths are emphasized in Acts 20:28 ?

8. Quote the new beatitude of Acts 20:37 .

9. What do Acts 21:11-13 suggest concerning Paul’s warnings?

Bibliographical Information
Gray, James. "Commentary on Acts 18". Gray's Concise Bible Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jgc/acts-18.html. 1897-1910.
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