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Dan 9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;
Ver. 1. In the first year of Darius, ] i.e., Of Darius Priseus, who, together with Cyrus the Persian, took Babylon, and with it the kingdom or monarchy of the Chaldeans, Dan 5:31 by the consent of Cyrus, who married his daughter, and had the kingdom of Media with her for a dowry, after Darius’ death, as Xenophon a testifieth.
The son of Ahasuerus. ] Called Cyaxares by the Greek historians. Both these names signify a great prince, an emperor; like as now we say the Great Turk, the Great Cham of Cacaia, &c.
a Cyrop., lib. viii.
Dan 9:2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.
Ver. 2. I Daniel understood by books. ] Consideravi in libris. Daniel was a great student in the Scriptures, and well knew that there was no readier way to speed in heaven than by putting the promises in suit. The like also was done by Jacob; Genesis 32:9 ; Gen 32:12 See Trapp on " Gen 32:9 " See Trapp on " Gen 32:12 " 2 Samuel 7:19 ; 2Sa 7:25 by Eliah, 1Ki 18:42-44 and others. If we speak in our prayers no otherwise than the Lord doth in his promises, there shall be a sweet concert of voice, begun by the Spirit in the promises, seconded in the spirit of faith by the saints’ prayers, and answered by God in his gracious providences. Daniel here took this course; and had not only what he begged, but a revelation concerning the Lord Christ beyond expectation.
Dan 9:3 And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:
Ver. 3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, ] i.e., Toward the habitation of his holiness at Jerusalem, but especially in heaven. I looked up unto the hills from whence I looked for help. This Daniel did daily, Dan 6:10 but now with more than ordinary intention and devotion he presenteth δεησις ενεργουμενη , an inwrought prayer (as St James calleth it, Jam 5:16 ), edged with fasting and downright humiliation. He doubteth not thereby to set God to work, as David did Psa 119:126 He knew that a long look toward God speedeth, Psa 34:4-5 Jon 2:4-7 how much more an extraordinary prayer!
Dan 9:4 And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made my confession, and said, O Lord, the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments;
Ver. 4. And I prayed unto the Lord my God, and made my confession. ] The saints themselves, when they sin against God, are suspended from the covenant; hence it is their custom when they seek the Lord for any special mercy, to begin with humble confessions, as doth David, Ezra, Daniel.
O Lord, the great and dreadful God. ] It is good in the beginnings of our prayers to propound God to ourselves under such attributes and spiritual notions as wherein we may see the very thing we pray for. Haec est ars orandi et mendicandi.
Dan 9:5 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments:
Ver. 5. We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled. ] Mark how full in the mouth the good prophet is, and how he exaggerateth, confessing against himself and his people, laying on load. Good men extenuate not their offences; every sin swelleth as a toad in their eyes.
Dan 9:6 Neither have we hearkened unto thy servants the prophets, which spake in thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land.
Ver. 6. Neither have we hearkened. ] Sins of omission are in a special manner to be lamented in prayer; Jeremiah 9:1 ; Jeremiah 9:10 ; Jer 9:13 for as omission of diet breedeth diseases, so of duties.
Dan 9:7 O Lord, righteousness [belongeth] unto thee, but unto us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, [that are] near, and [that are] far off, through all the countries whither thou hast driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee.
Ver. 7. O Lord, righteousness belongeth unto thee. ] Let God be justified in all his judgments; say of him as in Deuteronomy 32:4 ; - "A God of truth, and without iniquity; just and right is he."
But unto us confusion of faces ] a While we look upon flagitia aeque ac flagella nostra, our sins and miseries, we cannot but blush and bleed before thee.
a Deo da claritatem, tibi humilitatem. - Aug.
Dan 9:8 O Lord, to us [belongeth] confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against thee.
Ver. 8. O Lord, to us belongeth confusion of face. ] The same again is acknowledged, not without a special emphasis, q.d., We are extremely abashed and abased to the utmost.
Dan 9:9 To the Lord our God [belong] mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against him;
Ver. 9. To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgivenesses. ] Matchless mercies, pardons ready prepared for poor penitents, not for proud Pharisees, such as Bellarmine was, if at least it be true that is reported of him, that when the priest came to absolve him, he could not remember any particular sin to confess, till he went back in his thoughts as far as his youth. Vae hominum vitae quantumvis laudabili, saith an ancient: Woe to the best, unless they may find mercy with the Lord. And Fuligat telleth us that Bellarmine, when he came to die indeed, begged of God to reckon him among his saints, non aestimator meriti, sed veniae largitor, not weighing his merits, but pardoning his offences.
Dan 9:10 Neither have we obeyed the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets.
Ver. 10. Neither have we obeyed. ] See on Daniel 9:6 .
The voice of the Lord our God ] It is the Lord who speaketh in and by his ministers. This because men either know not or weigh not, they run another way when God calleth to them, as young Samuel did. 1Sa 3:5
Dan 9:11 Yea, all Israel have transgressed thy law, even by departing, that they might not obey thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that [is] written in the law of Moses the servant of God, because we have sinned against him.
Ver. 11. Yea, all Israel. ] There is a general defection; the whole body of Israel hath deeply revolted, a rabble of rebels have taken up arms against heaven, even a giant-like generation.
Therefore the curse. ] Confirmed by oath, by adjuration, and execration.
Is poured upon us. ] As by whole pailfuls. The Vulgate hath it, Stillavit super nos maledictio, The curse hath dropped upon us. There may be much poison in little drops howsoever.
Because we have sinned against him. ] This he hath never done with, but still holdeth his finger on this sore, as his greatest grievance.
Dan 9:12 And he hath confirmed his words, which he spake against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem.
Ver. 12. And he hath confirmed his words. ] What he had spoken with his mouth he hath fulfilled with his hand. There is an infallibility, as in God’s promises, so in his menaces.
And against our judges. ] By whose remissness all was out of order; hence they smarted before and above others.
For under the whole heaven. ] This verse is an abridgment of Jeremiah’s Lamentations.
Dan 9:13 As [it is] written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us: yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and understand thy truth.
Ver. 13. All this evil is come upon us. ] But unless God set in and sanctify, his hammers (afflictions) do but beat upon cold iron. Jer 2:30
Yet made we not our prayer. ] Little or no right prayer was made by the captives all those seventy years (and yet they had their set yearly fasts, Zec 7:1-5 ), because they failed therein both quoad fontem et quoad finem. See Trapp on " Zec 7:5 "
That we might turn from our iniquities. ] This they had no mind to, therefore they lost those prayers they made; they fasted to themselves and not to God (Zechariah 7:5 . See on Joh 3:10 ).
And understand thy truth. ] Those that turn from their iniquities shall know more of God’s truth. The pure in heart shall see God. Mat 5:8
Dan 9:14 Therefore hath the LORD watched upon the evil, and brought it upon us: for the LORD our God [is] righteous in all his works which he doeth: for we obeyed not his voice.
Ver. 14. Therefore hath the Lord watched upon the evil. ] To bring it at the just time, and when it might do us most mischief, but all in a way of justice, Isa 31:2 as Daniel acknowledgeth in the next words.
For the Lord our God is righteous. ] See Daniel 9:7 .
For we obeyed not his voice. ] Neither that of his word nor that of his rod. Jer 31:19 Mic 6:9 Isa 9:13-14
Dan 9:15 And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought thy people forth out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast gotten thee renown, as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly.
Ver. 15. And now, O Lord God, that hast brought thy people. ] Thanksgiving is an artificial begging; and every former mercy is a pledge of a future. 2 Chronicles 20:10 ; 2Ch 7:12
And hast gotten thee renown. ] Heb., Made thee a name, and yet a greater name hast promised to make thee by bringing us back from Babylon. Jer 16:15
We have sinned, we have done wickedly. ] Such as desire mercies, must first deny their worthiness of them, 2Sa 5:18 confessing their sins with utmost aggravation.
Dan 9:16 O Lord, according to all thy righteousness, I beseech thee, let thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain: because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and thy people [are become] a reproach to all [that are] about us.
Ver. 16. O Lord, according to all thy righteousness. ] Not that of equity, but the other of fidelity. 1Jn 1:9
Thy holy mountain. ] So Jerusalem is called, because dedicated to the Holy One; who also chose it for the seat of his royal resiance, the place of his holy oracle.
Thy people are a reproach. ] And this reflecteth upon thee, as needs it must, since they do quarter arms with thee.
Dan 9:17 Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of thy servant, and his supplications, and cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake.
Ver. 17. Now therefore, O our God. ] Since thou hast shown us our sins, and seen our reproach, whereof we are sure thou art very sensible. Psa 79:4
Hear the prayer of thy servant. ] Who assumeth the boldness to plead his interest in thee, and his relation to thee.
And his supplications. ] Which are nothing else but prayers redoubled and reinforced, as Gen 32:11 Isa 63:16
And cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary. ] Do it, oh do it now; for "the time to favour Zion, yea, the set time is come." And this I can tell, because "thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and favour the dust thereof." Psalms 102:13-14 ; see the notes there That whole psalm, being "A prayer for the afflicted," may seem ta have been made by this prophet Daniel.
For the Lord’s sake,] i.e., For thine own sake, or for thy Son Christ’s sake, the mediator and advocate of his people: for so he was in the Old Testament also, Heb 9:15 like as still he is the high priest of the New. And while the people were praying outside, the priest was offering incense within the temple, Luk 1:9-10 so is Christ interceding for us while we are praying. "Whatsoever therefore ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him." Col 3:17
Dan 9:18 O my God, incline thine ear, and hear; open thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by thy name: for we do not present our supplications before thee for our righteousnesses, but for thy great mercies.
Ver. 18. O my God, incline thine ear and hear; open thine eyes, and behold, &c. ] Thus growing to a conclusion of his prayer he prays more earnestly: he stretcheth out his petitions, as it were, εκτενης , upon the tenters, with those good souls in Acts 12:5 ; he stirreth up himself and taketh better hold, as resolved not to let him go without the blessing. The like, before him, did good Hezekiah, with whom he concurreth in the very letter of his request. Isa 37:17 See Trapp on " Isa 37:17 "
For our own righteousnesses. ] Which are nothing better than a rotten rag, a menstruous clout, such as a man would not deign to take up or touch.
But for thy great mercies. ] Through the merits of the promised Messiah.
Dan 9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called by thy name.
Ver. 19. O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive. ] This was to pray, yea, this was to strive in prayer; Luk 13:12 to strive, as those of old did, in the Grecian exercises, some whereof were with fists and bats; to strive and struggle, even to an agony, as the Greek word signifieth, and as the Lord Christ did, who, "being in an agony, prayed yet the more earnestly"; εκτενεστερον , Luk 22:44 he sweat and sweltered out, as it were, his soul, through his body in prayer. Be we now "followers herein of Christ as dear children," and of Daniel here, who is a worthy pattern to pray by. Cold suitors, who want the aspiration of the spirit to pronounce Shibboleth, do but beg a denial.
O Lord, hearken and do; defer not. ] This is coelum tundere, preces fundere, misericordiam extorquere, a as those primitive Christians did; to bounce at heaven gates, to tug hard with God, to wring the blessing out of his hands, who looks to be importuned, and counts it for a kindness to be asked forgiveness, as Ambrose b saith of Theodosius the emperor.
b Beneficium se putabit accepisse, cum rogaretur ignoscere. - Ambr., Orat. de Exit. Theod.
Dan 9:20 And whiles I [was] speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;
Ver. 20. And whilst I was speaking and praying. ] When, haply, I had now new done; and yet not so done but that my heart was yet lifting and lifting, as a bell rope is oft hoising up after men have done ringing the bell.
And confessing my sins. ] So precious a saint was not without his sins. These therefore he confesseth, that he might be the fitter to beg mercy for the Church; having first made his own peace with God, and so in case to lift up "pure hands" in prayer. The like doth David. Psalms 26:6 ; Psa 51:7
For the holy mountain of my God. ] This was his main request, and to God marvellously acceptable. Surely if the Lord saw us, Daniel-like studying his share more than our own, we might have what we would, and God even think himself beholden to us, as one phraseth it.
Dan 9:21 Yea, whiles I [was] speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation.
Ver. 21. Yea; whilst I was speaking in prayer. ] This he recogniseth and celebrateth as a sweet and singular mercy. God sometimes heareth his people before they pray; Isa 65:24 Psa 21:3 David was sure up early when he anticipated the Lord with his prayer; Psalms 88:13 ; Psa 119:147 sometimes while they are praying, as he did those in Acts 4:31 ; Acts 12:5 ; Acts 12:17 , and Luther, who came leaping oat of his study, where he had been praying, with Vicimus, Vicimus, in his mouth that is, we have gained the day, got the conquest; but if not so, yet certainly when they have now prayed. Isa 30:12 Jon 2:1 Jer 33:3 Mat 6:7 Luther a affirmeth that he often got more spiritual light by some one ardent prayer than ever he could do by the reading of many books, or by most accurate meditation thereupon.
Even the man Gabriel, ] i.e., The angel Gabriel in man’s shape.
Whom I had seen in the vision. ] And whom I had good cause to remember the longest day of my life for the good offices he had done me formerly.
Being caused to fly swiftly. ] Heb., With weariness of flight. Not that the angels flee as fowls - though a certain friar, a liar certainly, undertook to show to the people a feather of the angel Gabriel’s wings - or that they are ever wearied with speeding God’s commissions and commands for the Church’s good; Sed datur hoc assumptae speciei, but these things are spoken to our apprehension. According to the account of astronomers, it must be above a hundred and sixty millions of miles from heaven to earth. All this space the angel came flying to Daniel in a little time.
Touched me. ] With a familiar touch, in token of encouragement; prensando mimirum, ut solent qui contactu familiari promptam benevolamque mentem indicant.
About the time of the evening oblation. ] When the joint prayers of God’s people were wont to come up before him, quasi manu facta; and Daniel hopeth they may do so again. Qui nihil sperat, nihil orat. He who hopes for nothing, asks for nothing.
a Ipse ego in una aliqua ardenti oratione mea plura saepe didici quam ex multorum librorum lectione aut accuratissima meditatione consequi potuissem. - Tom. i.
Dan 9:22 And he informed [me], and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding.
Ver. 22. And he informed me, and talked with me. ] Rather than the saints shall want information and comfort, God will spare one out of his own train to do them any good office; Luk 1:19 Gal 3:19 neither will the greatest angel in heaven grudge to serve them.
I am now come forth to give thee skill. ] Not by infusion, for so the Holy Ghost only, but by instruction, as was before noted. It is well observed by one, that this following oration of the angel containeth an abridgment of the New Testament, and a light to the Old; for confirming Daniel, as touching the ensuing deliverance out of Babylon’s captivity, he further advertiseth and assureth him of the spiritual deliverance which Christ shall effect by his gospel at his coming; and therefore, describing the times most accurately, he plainly setteth forth the salvation of the Church Christian, and the destruction of the stubborn and rebellious Jews, who judge themselves unworthy of eternal life.
Dan 9:23 At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew [thee]; for thou [art] greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.
Ver. 23. At the beginning of thy supplications. ] Thy prayer was scarce in thy mouth ere it was in God’s ear. The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open unto their cry. Psa 34:15 See Trapp on " Psa 34:15 " He heard at the very first, but answered not till Daniel had tugged with him. See James 5:16-17 .
For thou art greatly beloved. ] a Kimchi readeth it, A man of measures, a man every inch of thee. But the word is not Hamiddoth, but Chamudoth, ‘a man of desires,’ a favourite in heaven, because desirous of things truly desirable. b Christ is said to be totus totas desiderabilis, lovely all over. Son 5:16 The saints are also so in their measure, as on the contrary the wicked are not desired, Zep 2:1 but loathed and abhorred. Pro 13:5
Therefore understand the matter. ] Good men shall know God’s secrets. Genesis 18:17 ; Gen 18:19 Psa 25:14
a Desideratissimus es. - Trem.
b Rerum expetendarum cupidus. - Vatab.
Dan 9:24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
Ver. 24. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, ] i.e., Seventy weeks of years; ten jubilees, which make up four hundred and ninety years. Thus the very time is here particularly foretold when the Messiah should be revealed and put to death. The like hereunto is not to be found in any other of the prophets, as Jerome well observeth. This, therefore, is a noble prophecy, and many great wits have been exercised about it. Cornelius a Lapide speaketh of one learned gentleman who ran out of his wits, after many years’ study upon it. The doctors are much divided about the beginning and ending of these seventy weeks. "From the outgoing of the word," Dan 9:25 seemeth to me to fix the beginning of these weeks on Cyrus’s decree concerning the holy city and the temple to be rebuilding. The end and period of them must he at the death of Christ, though some will have it at the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. I choose rather thus to compute than to dispute. It is well observed by the learned that the Jews, after their seventy years’ captivity, have seven seventies of years granted for the enjoying of their own country (God’s mercies bear the same proportion to his punishments which seven - a complete number - have to n unit), besides the mercy of mercies, the grace of the Messiah.
Upon thy people. ] Of whose welfare thou art so solicitous and inquisitive.
To finish the transgression. ] Transgressionem illam; that great transgression of our first parents in paradise; that whereby sin entered into the world, and death by sin. Rom 5:12 Now Christ, by his death, took away the power, and destroyed the dominion of all sin. Rom 6:11-12
And to make an end of sins. ] Heb., To seal up sins, that they come not into God’s sight against us, ever to be charged upon us. A metaphor, say some, from the Jews’ manner of writing in rolls, which, being wrapped up, and sealed on the backside, all the writing was covered.
And to make reconciliation for iniqulty, ] viz., By the expiatory and propitiatory sacrifice of himself for his elect, whereby the divine justice is fully satisfied.
And to bring in everlasting righteousness. ] Those "righteousnesses of the saints," Rev 19:8 both imputed and imparted righteousness, called here "everlasting," as that which shall make the saints accepted of God for ever, never can be lost as Adam’s was.
And to seal up the vision and prophecy, ] i.e., To fulfil all the prophetic predictions concerning the life and death of the Lord Christ.
And to anoint the most holy. ] This was done when Christ was baptized, say some; but others better, when he ascended into heaven, consecrating it to the service of God therein to be performed by the elect throughout all eternity; like as Moses once consecrated the most holy place to the ceremonial service there to be performed by the high priest.
Dan 9:25 Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
Ver. 25. Know, therefore, and understand. ] See on Daniel 9:24 . Here the angel brancheth the whole seventy sevens into three heads, or into three distinct periods of time.
Shall be seven weeks. ] Which make forty-nine years. These the angel purposely speaketh of apart, because they chiefly concerned the reparation of the city made under the Persian monarchy. Within this first seven weeks, or forty-nine years, the street of Jerusalem was rebuilt, and the wall with trench, though the times proved troublous, and full of straits.
And threescore and two weeks. ] Which make four hundred thirty-four years, the events of which are mentioned Dan 9:26 as those of the seven years following, Dan 9:27 out of which it might easily be supplied, and is therefore here omitted by the angel.
Dan 9:26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof [shall be] with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
Ver. 26. And after threescore and two weeks. ] See on Daniel 9:25 . Within these threescore and two weeks befell the Jews many memorable things, as may be seen in Dan 8:1-27 Daniel 11:1-45 .
Shall Messiah be cut off. ] Excindetur, not abscindetur, cut off - that is, by wicked hands crucified and slain; Act 2:23 not only cast out of the synagogue, and excommunicated, as that malicious Rabbi read and sensed this text. Others of the Jewish doctors, by the evidence of these words, have been compelled to confess that Messiah is already come, and that he was that Jesus whom their forefathers crucified. See for this R. Samuel’s Epistle to R. Isaak, set down at large by Dionys. Carthus. in his commentary on this text. See also R. Osea’s lamentation for this inexpiable guilt of the Jewish nation, recorded by Galatinus, lib. iv. cap. 18. Polanus reporteth that he, living some time in Moravia, where he used the help of some Rabbis for the understanding of the Hebrew tongue, heard them say, that for this ninth chapter’s sake, they acknowledged not Daniel to be authentic, and therefore read it not among the people, lest hereby they should be turned to Christ, finding out how they had been by them deceived.
But not for himself, ] i.e., Not for any fault of his, nor yet for any good to himself, but to mankind; whence some render these words, Et non sibi vel nihil ei, There being nothing therein for him: others, When he shall have nothing, i.e., nothing more to do at Jerusalem, but shall utterly relinquish it, and call his people out of it to Pella, &c.
And the people of the prince that shall come, ] i.e., Titus’s soldiers, whose rage he himself could not repress, but they would needs burn down the temple, which he would fain have preserved, as one of the world’s wonders. a Messiah the prince had a hand in it doubtless, whence also those Roman forces are called his armies. Mat 22:7
Shall destroy the city. ] That slaughter house of the saints.
And the sanctuary. ] That den of thieves.
And the end thereof shall be with a flood, ] i.e., Their extirpation shall be sudden, universal, irresistible, as was Noah’s flood. How this was fulfilled, see Josephus, Hegesippus, Eusebius, &c.
And unto the end of the war, &c. ] The Romans shall have somewhat to do; but after tedious wars, they shall effect it.
Dan 9:27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
Ver. 27. And he (Messiah) shall confirm the covenant see Dan 9:24 with many.] Heb., With his Rabbis, that is, with his elect. Compare Isa 53:11 Job 32:9 Jeremiah 41:2 .
For one week, ] i.e., In the last seven years of the seventy.
And in the midst of the week, ] i.e., In three years and a half he shall, by his passion, disannul the Jewish sacrifices and services.
And for the overspreading (or wing) of abominations,] i.e., For the abominable outrages committed by the seditious Jews, those zealots, as they called themselves, who filled the temple with dead bodies. Others, from Mat 24:15-16 cf. Luke 20:20-21 , think the Romans to be meant, who set up their eagles (their ensigns) in the temple, together with the images, first of Caligula, and then of Titus, their emperors.
Even until the consummation. ] Until the end, and to the utmost. The Jews have often attempted, but could never yet recover their country, nor are like to do. Perpetua et consummatissima consumptione urgentur.
Shall be poured. ] As if the windows of heaven were opened, as once they were at the flood. See Daniel 9:26 .
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 12 / Ordinary 17