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Exo 16:1 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which [is] between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.
Ver. 1. Unto the wilderness of Sin. ] So called because it bordered upon the city of Sin, whereof see Ezekiel 30:15-16 ; Ezekiel 20:35-36 . Or, of the many brambles that grew therein.
Exo 16:2 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness:
Ver. 2. And the whole congregation. ] The most part of the people. Diaconos paucitas honorabiles fecit, saith Jerome: sic et veros Israelitas.
Exo 16:3 And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, [and] when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.
Ver. 3. To kill this whole assembly. ] Thus discontent will say anything: neither careth it how true the charge be, but how stinging and stabbing.
Exo 16:4 Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.
Ver. 4. I will rain bread from heaven. ] Not hell from heaven, as once he did upon Sodom. "If thine enemy hunger, feed him," as God here doth.
Exo 16:5 And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare [that] which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.
Ver. 5. On the sixth dug they shall prepare. ] The Jews’ preparation for the Sabbath began at three o’clock in the afternoon. The best and wealthiest of them, even those that had many servants, did with their own hands further the preparation. So that sometimes the masters themselves would chop herbs, sweep the house, cleave wood, kindle the fire, &c. a
a Buxtorf., Synagog.
Exo 16:6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt:
Ver. 6. That the Lord. ] And not we without his authority: so that in murmuring against us, ye have set your mouths against heaven. Caveant μεμψιυοιροι : "Grudge not: behold, the Judge standeth before the door." Jam 5:9
Exo 16:7 And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what [are] we, that ye murmur against us?
Ver. 7. Ye shall see the glory of the Lord. ] Shining in that wonderful work of his, the bread from heaven. Compare Num 14:21 Joh 11:40 .
Exo 16:8 And Moses said, [This shall be], when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what [are] we? your murmurings [are] not against us, but against the LORD.
Ver. 8. In the evening flesh to eat, &c. ] Never was prince so served in his greatest pomp, as these rebellious Israelites. How good shall we find him then to those that please him!
Exo 16:9 And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard your murmurings.
Ver. 9. For he hath heard your murmurings. ] Now then "what will you do, since God riseth up and since he visiteth, what will ye answer?" Job 31:14
Exo 16:10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
Ver. 10. Toward the wilderness. ] Where the cloud was in the forefront of their armies.
Exo 16:11 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Ver. 11. And the Lord spake, ] i.e., He had before spoken.
Exo 16:12 I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I [am] the LORD your God.
Ver. 12. And in the morning. ] Theyhave their flesh at even, and bread in the morning. God will be waited on, and give the consummation of his blessings at his leisure. The cloud empties not itself at a sudden burst, but dissolves upon the earth drop after drop.
Exo 16:13 And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.
Ver. 13. The dew lay round, ] i.e., The manna that came down in the dew; as Christ the bread of life doth in the ministry of the word. See Deuteronomy 32:2 . Josephus writeth, that as Moses was lifting up his hands in prayer, there fell upon them a dew from heaven, and crusted. This when he had tasted, it proved very sweet; and the nature of this manna, saith he, was such, that he who had it would desire no other meat.
Exo 16:14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness [there lay] a small round thing, [as] small as the hoar frost on the ground.
Ver. 14. The dew that lay. ] And covered the manna: whence that promise of hidden manna in Revelation 2:17 .
Exo 16:15 And when the children of Israel saw [it], they said one to another, It [is] manna: for they wist not what it [was]. And Moses said unto them, This [is] the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.
Ver. 15. It is manna, ] i.e., What shall I call? Herba Anonymus non inveniendo nomen, invenit, saith Pliny; a so manna. Others interpret manna, a portion, an admirable gift, or meat prepared.
a Lib. xxvi. cap. 14.
Exo 16:16 This [is] the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, [according to] the number of your persons; take ye every man for [them] which [are] in his tents.
Ver. 16. Every man according to his eating. ] Thus they were inured in diem vivere, as Quintilian saith the birds do, to depend upon God for their daily bread.
Exo 16:17 And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less.
Ver. 17. Some more, some less. ] Secundum proportionem arithmeticam, sed non secundum propertionem geometricam. As a man had more or less mouths in his family to feed.
Exo 16:18 And when they did mete [it] with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating.
Ver. 18. He that gathered much. ] See Trapp on " 2Co 8:15 "
Exo 16:19 And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning.
Ver. 19. Let no man leave of it, &c. ] It was to be gathered in the morning, and not kept till the morrow. "I made haste and delayed not," saith David. Psa 119:60
Exo 16:20 Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them.
Ver. 20. Left of it until, &c. ] Either through distrust or curiosity.
Exo 16:21 And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted.
Ver. 21. It melted. ] Or, Putrified, faded, dissolved. Some Papists derive their Mass from this root: and well it may; nam per eam omnis pietas linquefacta est et dissoluta, saith Rivet: for it is the utter bane of all good, as being a mass or heap of abominations.
Exo 16:22 And it came to pass, [that] on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one [man]: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.
Ver. 22. And told Moses. ] As fearing that the people had not done so well, as indeed they did: or, as desirous of further direction.
Exo 16:23 And he said unto them, This [is that] which the LORD hath said, To morrow [is] the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake [that] which ye will bake [to day], and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.
Ver. 23. Lay up for you, &c. ] This is no plea for the Popish keeping of their breaden god in a pyx; for here was a command so to do, lest the Sabbath should be profaned: but for the other there is none.
Exo 16:24 And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein.
Ver. 24. Till the morning. ] The Sabbath morning, wherein it putrified not, but continued sound and savoury by the special hand of God; that they might keep the Sabbath, as it appears here they did before the law given at Sinai. Papists press the sanctification of the Sabbath as a mere human institution in religious worship. Our anti-Sabbatarians took this text for an anticipation only, and made little account of the fourth commandment, which Spalato had taught them was done away, &c.
Exo 16:25 And Moses said, Eat that to day; for to day [is] a sabbath unto the LORD: to day ye shall not find it in the field.
Ver. 25. Eat that to day. ] So shall those that labour in the Lord rest and feast in heaven. Thus the Rabbis moralise it.
Exo 16:26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, [which is] the sabbath, in it there shall be none.
Ver. 26. See Trapp on " Exo 16:30 "
Exo 16:27 And it came to pass, [that] there went out [some] of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none.
Ver. 27. And it came to pass. ] See Trapp on " Exo 16:20 " Some unruly beasts, masterless monsters, will be breaking over the hedge: but the law will hamper them.
Exo 16:28 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?
Ver. 28. How long refuse ye. ] The rulers are disgraced for the people’s unruliness.
To keep my commandments? ] For in breaking that one of the Sabbath they had broken all: the whole law is but one copulative. See James 2:10 .
Exo 16:29 See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.
Ver. 29. Hath given you the Sabbath. ] And a great gift is was. Neh 9:14 Were it not for the weekly Sabbath we should all run wild.
Abide ye every man in his place. ] Sabbath, coming from Shabath, to cease or rest, hath some affinity with Jashabh, to sit still, and with Shabach, to worship and give praise; to show that this rest must be sanctified: for else it is but asinorum sabbatum, as one saith, the Sabbath of the ox and ass; for these also must rest.
Exo 16:30 So the people rested on the seventh day.
Ver. 30. So the people rested. ] According to their custom, though probably intermitted for a season in Egypt, during their hard servitude. Sed rationem reddat qui potest, aith a learned doctor; a are, ante legem promulgatam, in die septimo cessavit manna, nisi quia, ad exemplum Domini, ab ipsius mundi primordi invaluisset sabbati obserratio. This ceasing of manna on the seventh day shows that the Sabbath was kept from the beginning.
a Dr Prideaux.
Exo 16:31 And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it [was] like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it [was] like wafers [made] with honey.
Ver. 31. And the taste of it. ] It had not all manner of good tastes, according to every man’s appetite, Num 11:8 else why should the people lust and murmur as there they did? Exo 16:4-5
Exo 16:32 And Moses said, This [is] the thing which the LORD commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt.
Ver. 32. Fill an omer. ] Monuments and memorials of God’s great mercies are to be set up, lest, as it fares with children, eaten bread be soon forgotten.
Exo 16:33 And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before the LORD, to be kept for your generations.
Ver. 33. Take a pot. ] A golden pot. Heb 9:4 Strabo a writeth, that the Metapontini, after a plentiful harvest which had much enriched them, dedicated to Apollo at Delphi χρυσουν θερος , a harvest of gold.
Exo 16:34 As the LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept.
Ver. 34. To be kept. ] For the use of succeeding ages in the most holy places. So Christ, glorified in his humanity, abides for ever. Heb 7:24
Exo 16:35 And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan.
Ver. 35. Until they came. ] So, till we come to heaven shall we have need of ordinances.
Exo 16:36 Now an omer [is] the tenth [part] of an ephah.
Ver. 36. Of an ephah. ] Or, Of a bushel: a plentiful allowance. See Trapp on " Joh 2:7 "
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Exodus 16". Trapp's Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 8 / Ordinary 13