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1 Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.
Ver. 1. That he should depart, &c. ] This definition of death, saith Calvin, pertains to the whole body of the Church. It is to the saints no more than a passage to the Father, an inlet to eternal life. Whether a Christian’s death be a burnt offering (of martyrdom), or a peace offering (of a natural death), whether it be by a sudden change, as Elijah’s, or a lingering sickness, as Elisha’s, it is a sweet sacrifice ascending to God, as Manoah’s angel ascending in the smoke. This made Basil, when the emperor’s lieutenant threatened to kill him, cry out, ειθε γενοιτο μοι , I would he would; for so should he soon send me to my heavenly Father, to whom I now live, and to whom I desire to hasten, προς ον επειγομαι πορρωθεν . (Basil.) This made Veleurio, a Dutch divine, when he lay upon his death bed, break out into these sweet words (Joh. Manli. loc. com.), Pater est Amator, Filius Redemptor, Spiritus Sanctus Consolator; quomodo itaque tristitia affici possim? The Father loves me, the Son redeemed me, the Holy Ghost comforts me; how then can I be cast down at the approach of death? And the like triumphant words were uttered to me by my late reverend good friend and father, Mr John Jackson, pastor of Binton, in Warwickshire, when he lay dying, and laid his last charge upon me, to preach Christ, who had swallowed up death in victory.
To the end he loved them ] Such fast friends are hard to find. φιλος ευμεταβλητον ζωον , A friend is a very changeable creature, saith Plato; as soon on and as soon off again; as soon in and as soon out, as Joab’s dagger was; clear at the top and muddy at the bottom, as ponds are; white at the waxing of the moon, and black at the waning of it, as the fish scolopidus in the river Araxis is said to be. Andronicus, the Greek emperor, whom but yesterday he had used most kindly, and enrolled among his best friends, upon them today he frowned and tyrannized most cruelly; so that you might have seen, saith the historian, the same man the same day (as is reported of Xerxes’s admiral) to be crowned and beheaded, to be graced and disgraced. So of Tiberius and Mahomet, the first emperor of the Turks, it is said, that in their love there was no assurance; but their least displeasure was death. Christ, whom he loves once he loves ever, and though we break often with him, yet he abides faithful,2 Timothy 2:13; 2 Timothy 2:13 , and his foundation standeth steady, having this seal, "The Lord knoweth them that are his," 2 Timothy 2:19 .
2 And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son , to betray him;
Ver. 2. The devil having now put ] He is likely at one end of every temptation to sin; as the hand of Joab was in the tale of the woman of Tekoah. He rubs the firebrand of evil concupiscence, and makes it send out sparkles.
3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God;
Ver. 3. Jesus knowing, &c. ] This is prefaced to the washing of his disciples’ feet, to show that he did it not rashly, or out of baseness of spirit, as forgetting the dignity of his person and place, as Ahaz did, 2 Kings 16:7 , and those,Isaiah 57:9; Isaiah 57:9 , and David also in the court of Achish. There is a το πρεπον , a comeliness to be kept in every condition.
4 He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself.
Ver. 4. He riseth from supper ] So the rite of the Paschal supper required; as Beza showeth in his annotations uponMatthew 26:20; Matthew 26:20 .
5 After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples’ feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded.
Ver. 5. After that he poureth water, &c. ] So doth the pope once a year in an apish imitation of our Saviour. As likewise, when he is new elected, in his solemn Lateran procession, he takes copper out of his chamberlain’s lap, and scatters it among the people, and (lie and all) saith, "Silver and gold have I none." (Dr Hall on Mat 5:20 )
6 Then cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet?
Ver. 6. Then cometh he to Peter ] He came first to him (for the former verse sets forth his intent rather than his act of washing). And yet St Chrysostom tells of some that would needs have it, that he began with Judas. Like as the Papists say that our Saviour appeared first, after his resurrection, to the Virgin Mary; though the text be plain that he first showed himself to Mary Magdalene. These are like him in Aristotle, that thought that everywhere he saw his own shape and picture going before him.
7 Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter.
Ver. 7. But thou shalt know hereafter ] Different degrees of knowledge are bestowed at several times. Our hearts are like narrow mouthed vessels; but then shall we know if we follow on to know the Lord, Hosea 6:3 , and take heed that we leak not,Hebrews 2:1; Hebrews 2:1 .
8 Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me.
Ver. 8. Thou shalt never wash my feet ] This was an immoderate modesty, a proud humility; so is it in them that refuse gospel comforts, because they are unworthy, Domine, non sum dignus, at sum indigens, said Pomeran. Tibi adest ninia humilitas, Thou hast too much humility, said Luther to Staupicius. So the Baptist was as much to blame in refusing to baptize Christ Mat 3:14 as Peter here to be washed by him. Luther said of Melancthon’s self-denying humility, Soli Deo omnia deberi tam obstinate asserit, ut mihi plane videatur in hoc saltem errare, quod Christum ipse fingat longius abesse cordi sue quam sit revera: Certe nimis nullus in hoc est Philippus. Philip is worse conceited of himself than is fit.
9 Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.
Ver. 9. Lord, not my feet only ] Here he seems to be as far out on the other side. How hard is it to hold a mean. Medio tutissimus ibis. (Ovid.) Virtue is placed between two extremes, as the planet Jupiter between cold Saturn and fiery Mars.
10 Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all.
Ver. 10. Needeth not, save to wash his feet ] For though bathed in that blessed fountain, Zechariah 13:1 , and fully justified, yea, and freed from the stain and reign of sin, yet not from the relics, to keep us humble; that when we look upon our feathers, we may withal look upon the feet still defiled, and so be still cleansing ourselves "from all filthiness of flesh and spirit,"2 Corinthians 7:1; 2 Corinthians 7:1 . The inwards and the feet in a sacrifice were to be washed above the rest; because the entrails contain the excrements; and the legs, because they tread in the dirt. Answerable whereunto, we are called upon to wash our hearts,Jeremiah 4:14; Jeremiah 4:14 , and our feet, here. The comparison seems to be taken from those that are washed in baths; for though their whole bodies besides are washed; yet going forth, they touch the earth with their feet, and so are fain to wash again.
11 For he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.
Ver. 11. He knew who should betray him ] And yet he vouchsafed to wash his feet. This was stupenda dignatio, a wonderful condescension, an unparalleled patience.
12 So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?
Ver. 12. Know ye what I have done to you? ] This was our Saviour’s usual order, to catechise his disciples after he had said or done anything for their instruction. So did the apostles, Galatians 6:6 , 1 Corinthians 14:19 , and the primitive pastors; they had their Credis? credo: Abrenuncias? abrenuncio, as it were by an echo, as the word importeth. ( Κατηχεω , Sicut in echo una vex his audiri debet, tam ex catechumeno, quam ex ipso catechista, Pasor.)
13 Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am.
Ver. 13. Ye call me Master and Lord ] A little before our Saviour came in the flesh, the Jewish doctors had taken up divers titles in this order; Rabbi, Rabban, Rub, Rabba, Gaon, Moreh, Morenu, and Morehtsedeck. These they did arrogantly appropriate to themselves; but Christ was the true owner of them all.
14 If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another’s feet.
Ver. 14. Ye ought also to wash one another’s feet ] What so great matter is it then to salute others, to seek reconciliation with them, &c. Angels think not themselves too good to serve the saints; kings and queens shall bow down to them with their faces toward the earth, and lick up the dust of their feet,Isaiah 49:23; Isaiah 49:23 .
15 For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.
Ver. 15. For I have given you an example ] υποδειγμα . This St Peter calls υπογραμμον , a copy for us to write after, 1 Peter 2:21 . And in the same chapter saith that we should preach forth Christ’s virtues, εξαγγειλητε , John 13:9 ; our lives should be as so many sermons upon Christ’s life, while we strive to express him to the world in all his imitable graces. This is to walk in Christ,Colossians 2:6; Colossians 2:6 , to walk as Christ walked,1 John 2:6; 1 John 2:6 . The meditation of Christ’s meekness converted the eunuch, Acts 8:32-33 , &c. And we read of an earl, called Eleazarus, that being given to immoderate anger, was cured of that disordered affection by studying of Christ, and of his patience. This meditation he never suffered to pass from him, before he found his heart transformed into the similitude of Jesus Christ. Crux pendentis, cathedra docentis. (In Vita eius apud Surentius). The cross of hanging, the seat of learning.
16 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.
Ver. 16. The servant is not greater, &c. ] This answers all our exceptions against brotherly offices: I am his elder, better, greater than he, &c. But which of us can say, I am a god? Christ washed his disciples’ feet, though he knew that the Father had given all things into his hands, &c., as is expressly and for this very purpose noted here by the evangelist, John 13:3 .
17 If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.
Ver. 17. If ye know these things, &c. ] Knowledge without practice is but as rain in the middle region; or as a horn in the unicorn’s head, which if it were in a wise man’s head, would be very useful and medicinabie, but as now is hurtful.
18 I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.
Ver. 18. I know whom I have chosen ] Judas he had not chosen, but to the apostleship only. All this Judas hears, and is not moved at it; such a stupefying sin is hypocrisy. The Germans have a proverb, Quem Deus excaecaturus est, huic primum oculos claudit. (Bucholcer.) Whom God intends to destroy, of these he first blinds their eyes. And the Latins say, Deus quem destruit, dementat, God besots the man whom he means to destroy.
19 Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am he .
Ver. 19. Ye may believe that I am he ] And that ye may not stumble or stagger, though ye see Judas play the traitor, 2 Timothy 2:18-19 . The apostasy of Hymenaeus and Philetus, a pair of eminent professors, was like to have shaken many; insomuch as the apostle was fain to make apology: "Nevertheless the foundation of God remaineth sure," &c.
20 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.
Ver. 20. Verily, verily I say, &c. ] Here our Saviour seems to go on where he left, John 13:17 , that between being a digression. Digressions, saith one, are not always and absolutely unlawful. (Bifield on the Colos.) God’s Spirit sometimes draws aside the doctrine to satisfy some soul, which the preacher knows not; and sparingly used, it quickeneth the attention. But God may force it, yet man may not frame it; and it is a most happy ability to speak punctually, directly to the point.
21 When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.
Ver. 21. He was troubled in spirit ] The Stoics then were out, in holding that passions befall not a wise man; and Jesuited Gonzaga was not so much to be magnified, who would not permit any man to love him; a and when his father died, all the grief he took was no more than this; Now, said he, there is nothing hindereth me to say, "Our Father, which art in heaven." Christ was thoroughly troubled here, that any one so highly advanced by him (as in the former verse, "he that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth me," &c.) should be so ill-minded towards him as to betray him. Ideo deteriores sumus, quia meliores esse debemus, saith Salvian. We are therefore the worse, because we should be better. It was no small aggravation to Solomon’s sin that he forsook that God that had appeared unto him twice, 1 Kings 11:9 . Our offences are increased by our obligations.
a Caeterum στωιχοτερος videtur vester Gonzaga, &c. Dr Prideaux contra Eudemon.
22 Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom he spake.
Ver. 22. Looked one upon another doubting, &c. ] Our Saviour sifted them; and hereby put them upon the duty of self-examination; ever seasonable, but especially before the sacrament, as here, Let a man examine himself (and do it exactly, as the word signifies, δοκιμαζετω , 2Co 11:28 ), though the heart hang off never so much. Men are as loth to review their actions and read the blurred writing of their hearts, as schoolboys are to parse their lessons and false Latins they have made. But this must be done, or they are undone for ever. And sparing a little pains at first, doubles it in the end; as he who will not cast up his books, his books will cast him up at length.
23 Now there was leaning on Jesus’ bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.
Ver. 23. Now there was leaning on Jesus’ bosom ] So must we do at the sacrament, by the actuation of our faith, ascending up into heaven, and fetching down Christ into the heart, that we may have intimate and entire communion with him. a By the force of our faith at the Lord’s table, cruci haeremus, sanguinem fugimus, et intra ipsa redemptoris nostri vulnera figimus linguam, saith St Cyprian (de Coena Dom.). We adhere to the cross, we flee to the blood.
a Calceis exuti, et pulvinis innixi, in lectulis semisupini iacebant. Calvin. in loc.
24 Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake.
Ver. 24. Simon Peter therefore beckoned ] Peter, that heretofore could not think his heart so unsound as to deny his Master, now feareth the ugly monster of fearless betraying. In man’s heart, as in the sea, there is that Leviathan, therefore also creeping things innumerable, Psalms 104:26 .
25 He then lying on Jesus’ breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it?
Ver. 25. He then lying on Jesus’ breast ] Ad pectus allapsus, as laying his ear to our Saviour’s mouth, that he might whisper him who it was; a for things were as yet secretly carried, and the traitor not discovered, save to John only, who knew Christ’s soul secrets, and afterward received his revelation.
a In accubitu mos ille ut accumberent uxores in sinu virorum. Lips. ad Tacit. xi.
26 Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it . And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.
Ver. 26. He it is to whom I shall, &c. ] Here our Saviour not only feeds his hungry enemy, but shows him like courtesy as we do to one we drink to at table; yea, though he knew the traitor would make an ill use of it. Thus should a Christian punish his persecutors. No vengeance but this is heroic, and fit for Christ’s followers. Thus Bradford saved Bourn, that helped to burn him. Saunders, sent to prison by Stephen Gardiner, gave God thanks that had given him at last a place of rest and quietness where he might pray for the bishop’s conversion. It was grown to a proverb concerning Cranmer, Do my Lord of Canterbury a shrewd turn, and then you may be sure to have him your friend while he liveth. Henry VII, emperor of Germany, feeling himself poisoned in the sacramental bread by a monk, called him, and said unto him, Domine, recedatis, &c., Begone, sir, for if my followers find you, you will die for it. a
a Domine, recedatis; nam si percipiunt Teutonici, et nostri devoti, morte moriemini. Func.
27 And after the sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly.
Ver. 27. Satan entered into him ] Had gotten more full possession of him. Let them that depart the public assemblies ere all be done, as Judas did, take heed they meet not the devil at the door. The fourth Council of Carthage excommunicated such, and so delivered them up to Satan, which is a grievous punishment; for then they lie open to all wickedness, as Ananias, whose heart Satan had filled from corner to corner. Luther when he had read certain letters sent to him from Vitus Theodorus, fetched a deep sigh, and said, Heu quam furit Satan, et impellit securos homines ad horrenda flagitia, quae corpus et animum perdunt! Oh how the devil rageth and driveth on secure persons to horrible and damnable wickedness! That which moved Luther to say so, was a sad relation made in that letter, of a certain widow, who being with child by a young scholar, could not have her child baptized unless she would tell the priest who was the child’s father; whereat she being grievously vexed, first killed her child and then hanged herself. Which when the scholar heard of, he likewise stabbed himself to death. The priest understanding what tragedies had followed upon his refusing to baptize the child, hanged himself also. Now, who can doubt but all this was done by the instigation of the devil? Men usually defy him and spit at his name; but they spit not low enough, they spit him out of their mouths, but not out of their hearts; there he plays Rex, and so long cares no more for their cursing of him than he doth for holy water.
That thou doest, do quickly ] This is no command, but a prediction by way of detestation; like as when God said to Balaam, Go, for I know thou wilt go after the wages of wickedness. Some note here that, even to Judas, Christ saith, "That thou doest, do quickly," so odious is dulness unto him. (Ward’s Serm.)
28 Now no man at the table knew for what intent he spake this unto him.
Ver. 28. Now no man at the table knew, &c. ] For John had not told Peter the secret committed to him by Christ, though he were very desirous to have known it;
" Si sapis, arcano vina reconde cado. "
A friend that can both keep counsel and give counsel, is worth his weight in gold. When one desired to see Alexander’s treasure, he bade one of his servants show him, not his talents of silver, but his trusty friends, ουκ αργυριου ταλαντα, αλλα τους φιλους.
29 For some of them thought, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give something to the poor.
Ver. 29. For some of them thought ] An example of Christian simplicity. As bad men muse as they use, so good men measure others by themselves and so are often deceived, as here. "Charity thinketh no evil,"1 Corinthians 13:5; 1 Corinthians 13:5 .
Or that he should give something to the poor ] Christ had not much, yet had somewhat for the poor; so must the poor day labourer, Ephesians 4:28 , the necessitous widow, Mark 12:42 .
30 He then having received the sop went immediately out: and it was night.
Ver. 30. He then having received the sop ] So many having received the Supper of the Lord, eat their bane and drink their poison; what they eat is sauced, and what they drink is spiced, with the bitter wrath of God, their hearts are woefully hardened, and their dispositions to sin seven times more inflamed than ever before.
31 Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him.
Ver. 31. Therefore when he was gone out ] The room being rid of the traitor, Christ deals more freely and familiarly with the rest, and arming them against the scandal of the cross, he calls his death his glory, esteems his crown of thorns more precious than Solomon’s diadem; looks upon his welts as spangles, his blows on the face as ingots, his wounds as gems, his spittings on as sweet ointment, his cross as his throne. This is a paradox to flesh and blood; Jews and Gentiles jeer at it; as Lucian the atheist, who rails upon Christ blasphemously, calling him the crucified impostor; ανασκολοπισμενον σοφιστην . (Luc. in Vita Peregr.) And as for Christians, they foolishly believe, saith he, that they shall enjoy immortality and live in bliss for ever; therefore they set light by life, yea, many of them offer themselves voluntarily to be slain for their superstition. Persuaserunt sibi infaelices se immortalitate fruituros. Thus he. And another heathen proconsul, Actius Antoninus, in Asia cum persequeretur Christianos (Tertul.), when he had tired himself with killing Christians, and saw no end of it, but that they came thicker upon him, crying out "We are Christians," &c., he cursed them and cried out, O miseri, si libet perire, num vobis rupes aut restes desunt? O wretches, can you find no other way to die, but I must be troubled with you?
32 If God be glorified in him, God shall also glorify him in himself, and shall straightway glorify him.
Ver. 32. And shall straightway ] Thus for the "joy that was set before him, he endured the cross, despising, the shame, as being shortly to sit down at the right hand of the throne of God,"Hebrews 12:2; Hebrews 12:2 . Look we on him, and do likewise. There were in Greece certain fields called Palaestrae, where young men exercised themselves in wrestling. In these were set up statues of some valiant champions, that the young wrestlers might fix their eyes upon them, and so be encouraged. Can we choose a better champion than Christ to eye and imitate, should we be called to resist unto blood, striving against sin? He did not only sanguinem suffundere, sed effundere, to pour in the blood but poured it out. And how did he support himself under the cross, but by the forethought of the crown?
33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you.
Ver. 33. Little children, yet a little while ] Here our Saviour useth the self-same words to his apostles, which before he had used to the Jews, with whom he was angry; so to cut off all hope from them of his corporeal presence. The fiction of the ubiquity began about the time of Berengarius; was fostered and furthered by Gerson, Chancellor of Paris, who first taught the real communication of properties, by means whereof the human nature of Christ received this prerogative, said he, that at his supper (and then only) it might be in many places at once, wheresoever the supper was celebrated. But in the year of Christ 1524 Jacobus Faber Staupulensis taught at Paris, that by the same reason Christ might be as well corporally present in all places at once, as he was at the supper. For which doctrine of the ubiquity he was opposed the year following by one Natalis Beda, and by the Sorbonists banished out of France. This is the nativity of that famous ubiquity, which being cast out of France, Luther brought back into the Churches of Germany; Brentius furbished it over, and Smidelinus obtruded it upon many places and persons, whether they would or not; whence he is surnamed, Ubiquitatis Apostolus, Omnipresent Apostle. How much better that good woman in the Book of Martyrs, that being asked by the bishops, "Dost thou believe that the body of Christ is in the sacrament really and substantially?" "I believe," said she, "that that is a real lie, and a substantial lie." Domitius Calderinus, the Italian, who flourished in the year 1442, when he was called by his friends to go to mass, was wont to say (as Vives tells us), Eamus ad communem errorem, Let us go to the common error.
34 A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.
Ver. 34. A new commandment, &c. ] New, ratione claritatis et facilatis; for now there is abundance of spirit given by Christ, who writes this affection in our hearts, as of old the law was written in stone. Besides that, he is become a new pattern and example of the rule; and so it is become a new commandment, not in respect of the matter of the duty, but of the form of observing it. For the old rule was, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." But now that form ("as I have loved you") hath something in it that is more expressed; and, for the incomparable sufficiency of the precedent, is matchless, and more full of incitation to fire affection; there being far more incentives and motives to love, since Christ came and gave himself for us. And this is appointed here, for the disciples’ and our solace in the want of Christ’s bodily presence, as loving fellow members to strive by all means to delight in the loving society one of another.
35 By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.
Ver. 35. By this shall all men know ] Other men’s disciples are known by their titles, habits, ceremonies, &c., as the pope’s shavelings (which yet is grown so bald a business, that now they begin to be ashamed of it); but love is Christ’s cognizance, acknowledged by very heathens, who could say that no people in the world did love one another so as Christians did. Vide ut invicem se ament Christiani! dixerunt Pagani, referente. (Tertulliano in Apologet.) As the curtains of the tabernacle were joined by loops, so are true Christians by love. Philadelphia is blamed for nothing, Revelation 3:18 .
36 Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards.
Ver. 36. Whither goest thou? ] That deep conceit he had drunk in of an earthly kingdom, so hung in his light, that he could not see whither Christ was ascending. A little saucer held close to the eyes hinders the sight of a huge hill.
But thou shalt follow me ] Perhaps in the same kind of death; but to heaven, most certainly.
37 Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot I follow thee now? I will lay down my life for thy sake.
Ver. 37. I will lay down, &c. ] Peter was melius semper animatus quam armatus, better affected than appointed. His heart deceived him, as did David’s, Psalms 39:1-2 . He said he would look to his ways, bridle his tongue, &c. But soon after he broke his word, "My heart was hot within me." Petrus se Christo opposuit, se caeteris praeposuit, sibi totum imposuit. Chrysost.
38 Jesus answered him, Wilt thou lay down thy life for my sake? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me thrice.
Ver. 38. The cock shall not crow ] Christ mentioneth the cock, quia tam strenuum pugnatorem decebat tale praeconium. So, Revelation 6:13 , pastors revolt, as green figs fall off, with no ado. In the Palatinate they fell to Popery as fast as leaves fall in autumn.
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 13". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30