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Bible Commentaries
Proverbs 27

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Verses 1-2

To Boast Wrongly

He who boasts “about tomorrow” (Proverbs 27:1), overestimates himself enormously. ‘Boasting’ about tomorrow means having the capacity to control the future. But nobody knows “what a day may bring forth”, which means what can happen in a day. That goes for both what still can happen today and for the day of tomorrow. The future is God’s territory. Nobody can decide about that. If we acknowledge it, it will humble us. It will cause us to submit all our future projects to Him, the sovereign God, Who guides all things.

Making plans is not wrong, as long as it happens in humility. Making plans as if we ourselves can decide about our destiny and have control over the future, is inappropriate (James 4:13-Nehemiah :). The Lord Jesus makes that clear in a parable of a rich fool who had planned to live for many years to come, but who dies the next night because God demanded his soul (Luke 12:16-Ecclesiastes :).

The proverb contains yet other teaching. We could learn from this proverb that we do not have to worry about tomorrow (Matthew 6:34). We do not know whether the worries will be over by tomorrow. And if they are still there tomorrow, then God will still be there to help us. Another application is that we should not postpone until tomorrow what we can do today. That is all the more relevant when it comes to the repentance of a man. Then the appeal is: “Today if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts” (Hebrews 3:15). When the repentance is postponed until ‘tomorrow’, it has become a day from the calendar of satan, that can be prolonged to the infinite (Acts 24:24-Daniel :).

Proverbs 27:2 connects to Proverbs 27:1. Proverbs 27:1 says that a man should not boast in what he will do tomorrow, or in the future. Proverbs 27:2 says that a man should not boast – the same Hebrew word which is now translated with ‘praise’ – himself for what he has done or what he is today or was yesterday, or in the past. It is good to do things that are worthy to be praised (Philippians 4:8), but not for one to praise himself for it. Praise is like a jacket that fits well. You may wear it if it is put on to you by someone else and not by yourself, for otherwise it will no longer fit well.

If other people praise you, it is good. If you praise yourself, it is a form of pride. The Dutch saying ‘self-praise stinks’, displays it well. It is a general saying which makes clear that also worldly people generally do not appreciate someone who talks a lot about his own performance.

We can be grateful about something that we have achieved and find joy in it. God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. However, there is a difference between us and God. God finds all satisfaction in Himself; we find it only in Him. He gives us the ability to do a certain work. If we have achieved something, we should say that we are unworthy slaves and that we have done only that which we ought to have done (Luke 17:10).

The appreciation comes from the Lord. He says to everyone who has served Him faithfully: “Well done, good and faithful slave” (Matthew 25:23). The praise about ourselves is in no way objective. If we praise ourselves, we overestimate ourselves enormously. If the Lord evaluates us, it is an absolutely objective evaluation. In that sense His evaluation agrees with that of some stranger and unfamiliar person. Hypocritical elements do not play a role. It is a praise without any hidden intention.

Verses 3-4

Burdens That Are Too Heavy to Bear

“A stone” and “the sand” are heavy (Proverbs 27:3). He who has to bear them, experiences that they are weighty and that the work is exhausting and painful. “But the provocation of a fools is heavier than both of them”. The provocation of a fool is unbearable. It remains like a stone and sand on one’s heart who is dealing with a fool. The spiritual hardship which is involved in dealing with a fool, is much bigger than exhausting physical work. Job used the same illustration to describe the gravity of his suffering (Job 6:2-Leviticus :).

In the sphere of the emotion, incontrollable feelings can be present which can cause a devastating effect (Proverbs 27:4). One can get so angry because of certain events and have a flood of wrath that he becomes cruel (Genesis 34:25-Obadiah :; Genesis 49:5-Judges :). These outbursts of anger are inexcusable and the cruelties that one commits even less excusable, but after the discharge, a certain rest can arise.

Still worse, that those outbursts of anger are “jealousy” or envy. Jealousy is more unbearable than anger. It remains like a consuming fire. It consumes everything around itself and also the one in whom it is present. A jealous man is worse than an angry and furious man. Jealousy is never satisfied (Proverbs 6:32-Habakkuk :). No one can stand against it (cf. James 3:14; James 3:16). Abel fell prey to the jealousy of Cain as well as Joseph to that of his brothers.

Verses 5-6

Rebuke As an Expression of Love

“Open rebuke” is a candid, direct word from honest criticism or disapproval by a friend (Proverbs 27:5). This is “better than love that is concealed” or a love that is too timid, too frightened, or not enough confiding to acknowledge that punishment is a part of real love. Love that does not manifest admonition is morally worthless. It is even a question whether such love is sincere. Anyway, love that withdraws itself from responsibility, is not complete.

Paul had to rebuke Peter once openly (Galatians 2:11). But that did not aggravate Peter. Later in his second letter, he speaks about “our beloved brother Paul” (2 Peter 3:15). It is false love and in reality hatred, when we do not rebuke one of our children or a brother or sister in case it is needed (Leviticus 19:17). Love “does not rejoice in unrighteousness, but rejoices with truth” (1 Corinthians 13:6).

The proverb in Proverbs 27:6 says in other words the same as Proverbs 27:5. We all need somebody who loves us enough to tell us the truth about ourselves. He does not only say things that we would love to hear, but also things that we should hear. Sometimes it can be painful and cause wounds. But they will always be wounds without scars. With ‘wounds’ especially the wounding of the soul is meant.

We may have to point out something to someone because we see that something is going wrong. The addressed person has to make some correction concerning his or her behavior. That can be hard to swallow sometimes and may even cause a distance for a while. It may be considered an undesirable comment. But when the first emotions have been overcome and there has been a good consideration about what has been said, he or she will, upon reflection, profit from it and even consider what has happened to be a benefit (Psalms 141:5; cf. Revelation 3:19).

In that way, grandparents for instance, may sometimes see things with their grandchildren, which have escaped their children, the parents of their grandchildren. It requires wisdom to mention it to the children in the right way and at the right time. But real love points out the error and does not wait until it is too late, and then go on to say that they had expected it to happen.

Contrary to the expressions of true love are the false expressions of love of the enemy. The enemy is not scanty with his “kisses”. They are “deceitful” in order to conceal his true intentions. Those are deceptive, hypocritical expressions. The most horrible example is the deceitful kiss with which Judas betrayed His Master (Mark 14:43-Romans :).

Verse 7

Satiation and Hunger Do Change the Taste

This verse sets “a sated man” and “a famished man” opposite to one another. The first one loathes or hates honey, while the latter finds even “any bitter thing” sweet. Too much of the good does not make the good bad but spoils the user. The more we have of something, the less we value it.

However, to a famished man it is the other way around. Hunger makes the bitter to taste sweet or as the saying goes, ‘hunger is the best sauce’, which means that when you’re starving, anything tastes good. Therefore, hunger is also called ‘the best cook’.

When it comes to eating and drinking for our bodies, the first part of the verse is increasingly true for the part of the world wherein we live: Europe. We are less familiar with the second part of the verse. In a spiritual sense both lines of the verse are applicable. Christians can have the feeling to be exalted above others because of the spiritual riches they have, while they despicably look down on others who – in their sight – know less than them (cf. 1 Corinthians 4:8). They therefore do not accept anything from the ‘poor’ believers when they tell them something from God’s Word, but ‘trample’ it.

But those who are hungry and thirsty of God receive all things that they can learn from God’s Word with great gratitude. That very same hunger of God makes bitter trials to be sweet experiences (Exodus 15:23-Lamentations :). In that way the bitterness of the judgment also becomes sweet when it is acknowledged as justified, because then the faith sees the effect of it (Revelation 10:8-2 Samuel :). The suffering gives a bitter taste, but the awareness that afterwards the blessing follows, makes the bitterness become sweet (cf. Revelation 10:9).

Verse 8

Do Not Wander From Your Home

The parallel compares “a bird that wanders from her nest” and “a man who wanders from his home”. In both cases it is about a place of safety and security that is being abandoned. The reason for wandering is not given. It seems to indicate that it is about an irresponsible act, where no thought is given to what kind of value is being given up.

The word “wanders” gives the impression that someone cannot cope with the circumstances anymore and wants to try his or her luck somewhere else. The dissatisfaction of someone with his or her present living conditions, is often a motive to wander from that place. The lesson is to encourage people to protect their home and be grateful for it, also in less favorable times.

For those who are not satisfied with their circumstances, the grass is always greener on the other side. Elimelech left Bethlehem for a while because of economic reasons, in order to dwell in Moab as a foreigner for as long as the economic depression would last (Ruth 1:1-Exodus :). Things didn’t go well there. In the parable of the prodigal we see that the youngest son wandered from his father’s home because of selfish reasons. He left his father’s place where everything was very good and things went bad with him (Luke 15:11-1 Chronicles :). Also, a believer can ‘wander from his or her nest’ as Demas did (2 Timothy 4:10). A straying foot follows a straying heart.

Verses 9-10

The Affection and Help of a Friend

“Oil and perfume” are pleasant for the body (Proverbs 27:9). When someone has used them for his body so that he looks nice and smells nice, it has a joyful effect on the heart. Cosmetics surely do something to someone. “A man’s counsel” has the same beneficial effect which he gives to his friend because of the affection he has for him.

The sweet counsel of a friend is pleasant when it is a friend who puts God first and enjoys the same fellowship with the Savior, which you also enjoy. A beautiful example is to be found in the counsel that Jonathan gave to his friend David (1 Samuel 20:10-Esther :). The Lord Jesus always gives sweet counsel. In that way He makes hearts glad of those whom He calls His friends. One of His Names is “Counselor” (Isaiah 9:6).

In connection to Proverbs 27:9, Solomon speaks about the value of a friend in Proverbs 27:10, particularly about the value of a ‘family friend’. Solomon himself also nurtured a friendship with Hiram who was already the friend of his father David (1 Kings 5:1-2 Samuel :). It is a friend who has already proven his trustworthiness for a generation. He warns his son not to forsake or abandon that friend, but to cherish that friendship as something special.

A house friend is always close, both in literal and in spiritual distance. He knows the family. When the son would face a calamity some day and needs help, he doesn’t have to go to a brother who lives far away or with whom he has no spiritual contact, but he can ask the house friend for help. He lives nearby and knows the son from his childhood.

Real friendship doesn’t change. A real friend is a fellowman to whom you can also turn for help. For real friends there is no barrier because of a difference in generation. This especially goes for the Lord Jesus Who in all generations is the reliable Friend of all who know Him.

Verse 11

A Wise Son Is an Answer to Reproach

A wise son first and foremost makes the heart of the father glad. An additional effect is that he gives his father the possibility to reply to his critics. Parents who educate their children in accordance with clear rules, sometimes are blamed for doing it wrong. They oblige their children to keep certain rules. They also keep them from certain liberties that other young ones do have or take. That goes together with the threat that their children will enter into the world later on, because they have found the yoke of their education too strict.

But an education out of the relationship with the Lord, with the wisdom of God and plain rules in love, will generally have a good outcome with the children. Children that are wise, justify their parents. Children are not called to behave well so that their fathers can reply to those who reproach them. That would be force and manipulation. Spiritual truths are no legacies. The wisdom that a son reveals in his life has not been inherited but acquired.

Children that go their way in accordance with what they have learnt from their parents, are the best recommendation of the value of the education that their parents have given. This also goes for God as our Father. We make His heart glad if we are wise, which we only possibly can when we listen to his teaching by His Word. His teaching that becomes visible in us, makes our adversaries to be silent. We can also apply this to all who teach God’s Word to fellow believers, for instance in Bible lessons and Bible lectures. We see that also with Paul in what he says to and about the believers in Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 2:19-Proverbs :).

Verse 12

A Prudent Man Hides From Evil

The contrast is between “a prudent man” and “the naive” (Proverbs 22:3). The first is the mature man who has developed alertness. The latter are the inexperienced and unskilled young ones who are easily being deceived because they are stubborn. The test that makes clear who the prudent is and who the naive are, is their response to the evil of the judgment that presents itself.

In order to escape from the announced evil, we must see the evil, we must acknowledge the evil. This is what the prudent man does, while the naive may also see the evil, but does not acknowledge it and even possibly ignores it or think that it is not that serious. The response makes clear whether one takes the coming evil seriously or that he is not worried at all. A prudent man actually seeks a place where he can hide himself from evil, while the naive will pay the penalty.

David escaped from Saul several times, because he foresaw what Saul intended to do. He hid himself and in that way, he kept himself out of Saul’s hands. Noah is also a prudent man. He hid himself in the ark, while all of the naive did not allow themselves to be warned and kept on living with their lives and therefore had to pay the penalty (cf. Jeremiah 6:17).

Threatening evil should not make us nervous and cause us to make hasty decisions or actions, but it must make us to consider calmly what we should do to escape from it, for it will surely happen. A prudent man will hide himself in the right place, a place that really provides protection. He will not protect himself from the wrath of God’s judgment by hiding himself in a wrong place or in a wrong way, by for example clothing himself with the works of law.

After Adam and Eve had sinned, they covered themselves with the self-made aprons of fig leaves, which is a picture of self-righteousness (Genesis 3:7-Ruth :). But this covering or hiding did not work. They remained naked before God (Genesis 3:10-1 Kings :). God took care of the right covering, from an animal skin, which means that an animal had been killed in their place (Genesis 3:21). That points to the only place of hiding against the judgment of God, which is the sacrifice of Jesus Christ (Isaiah 32:2). Whoever accepts Him in faith, is fully protected against evil. Those who reject this hiding place and go on with their lives, will have to pay the penalty themselves.

Verse 13

Obligations Have to Be Fulfilled

Connected to Proverbs 27:12, becoming surety for a stranger (Proverbs 27:13) is a matter that is announced as an evil. A prudent man sees the evil which is concealed in becoming surety for a stranger. He hides himself from evil by not taking part in it and in that way, he is kept from the loss of the pledge.

He who as a naive becomes surety for a stranger, runs the risk of losing his garment. His garment is the only thing that is left for him. If he loses it, he loses everything so that he is delivered to the cold of the night. He can never get it back, for it has fallen into the hands of “an adulterous woman”.

An application is, that we will lose the warmth of the Christian fellowship if we assume obligation which we cannot fulfill. We can recommend someone for a certain job and say that we will assist if the person that we have recommended does not comply. When the person does not comply, then we are to keep our promise. We cannot do more than what we were actually assigned for, but we have to do something which was not our assignment. In that way we lose a lot of warmth, for fulfilling our duties because of our own fault is much different than doing something out of love.

The lesson is that when we allow ourselves to be misguided to entering into obligation, we have to bear the consequences of it when it turns out that this stranger is unreliable. People must be held responsible to their obligations, no matter how foolish it was to assume them.

Verses 14-16

Improper Behavior

Real friendship is not shown in an exaggerated, improper manner (Proverbs 27:14). Anyone who wishes his friend all kinds of good things with a loud voice and at an inappropriate moment, does not seek his friend, but his own self. He wants his voice to be heard by telling how good his friend is, in order to boast in having such a friend. It is an exaggerated expression of praise of how good a person is.

The friend in this verse is clearly not amused by it. He doesn’t necessarily have to have such attention. The action of his friend is a curse to him. The neighborhood continually hears his name in association with all kinds of nice religious wishes. This does not arouse respect, but annoyance. Anyone who does this, probably wants to give the impression of being godly and being a friend, but he is considered a curse. Whenever someone is praised too much, aversion will arise instead of admiration. The friend knows that and therefore he is not glad at all with all of those eulogies.

It is a good thing to bless someone, which means wishing him well, but it should be in a good way and at the right time and with the right motives. A good deed done at the wrong time is regarded as a curse. It is better to speak with God early in the morning and to listen to Him by reading His Word than by spoiling a friend’s day with such a beginning.

The comparison of “a constant dripping” and “a contentious woman” has already been presented to us (Proverbs 27:15; Proverbs 19:13). Now “on a day of steady rain” is added, which is a day for one to stay at home, for the weather doesn’t allow him to leave his home. But also, inside the home he is not safe from the rain, because there is a leakage. He cannot find a hiding place anywhere.

This man is continually exposed to the contentiousness of his wife, without any possibility to escape from her. She quarrels all the time. It goes on and on with the consistency of the dripping of water, due to the leakage somewhere in the roof, which the man cannot find. There is rain outside and also inside the house, so that it is wet all over the place which causes one to feel the coldness right to the bone.

The woman is uncontrollable and unruly as the wind (Proverbs 27:16). The wind is intangible and unpredictable; a gust of wind can come any time. Also, oil is not to be grasped or to be held on to, not even with the right hand, which is the hand of power. It slips away through the fingers. It describes the hopelessness of a situation which cannot be changed by human resources.

Verses 17-18

To Sharp and to Guard

Man is not made to be alone, but to be with others. He is a social creature and needs others to be able to show himself as man. One of the aspects of being together is the sharpening of each other’s insights and thoughts by talking with one another. It is about the identity or character of the person (Proverbs 27:17). The comparison with the sharpening of iron with iron shows that it is about two equivalent materials. When two people talk with one another about a subject and also listen to one another, it sharpens the understanding of both person on that subject. It is win-win situation.

It is about the sharpening of character and understanding. A character is mainly shaped by contacts with others. Friends do not always have to agree with one another, but by talking with one another about something, both will gain insight. It sharpens them in their convictions and at the same time it takes the sharp edges away.

The fact that contact has a formative influence, applies in a special way to our dealings with our brothers and sisters with whom we share our thoughts about God’s Word. When we share what we have learnt about God’s truth, it is a sharpening of the faith of everyone. It gives a sharper insight in God’s thought, which enables us to serve one another with more insight.

In Proverbs 27:18 it is about the care of working on our relationships, so that people not only develop a better insight and character (Proverbs 27:17), but in correspondence to that, also fruitfulness and servitude. It is not about sharpening or edging, but about nursing and faithfully serving. The care of a fig tree is a matter that demands attention. Sufficient and appropriate care have the result that the care-giver will eat of its fruit. That is his reward.

This comparison is drawn with someone who cares for his master. He who does that faithfully, will not worry about whether his efforts will be recognized or rewarded (cf. Proverbs 22:29). Paul was a diligent and faithful servant who cared for all things that his Master had entrusted to him concerning truths. He did not abandon any of them. He knew that the Lord will honor him for that with a crown (2 Timothy 4:7-Ruth :). So, the Lord shall reward each person in a suitable way for the faithfulness with which he or she has served Him (1 Samuel 2:30; Matthew 25:21; Matthew 25:23; John 12:26).

Verses 19-20

The Heart and the Eyes of Man

As clear water is like a mirror that fully reflects a face when looking into it, so does “the heart of man” reflect his true nature (Proverbs 27:19; Matthew 12:34). God’s Word, which is compared with water (Ephesians 5:26), is also compared with a mirror (James 1:23-Jeremiah :). It shows any man that looks into it, his own heart. What’s in his heart, is what he is. When a man becomes aware of it, he will be shocked and he will acknowledge his wickedness and beg God for mercy.

The same applies to the believer. By looking at the attitude of our heart, we come to a true self-awareness. What are we seeking with our heart? For example, when somebody retires, it often becomes clear where his priorities are. Is he going to spend his time in traveling, fishing, etc. or does he see new possibilities to serve the Lord? We often see in the way one spends his leisure time what he is seeking with his heart, whether it is about his own fun and pleasure or that Christ is in the center.

After the heart of man (Proverbs 27:19), our attention is drawn to “the eyes of man” (Proverbs 27:20). The eyes of man are just as insatiable as “Sheol and Abaddon”. The eye represents here the lust of man that never gets satisfaction (cf. Ecclesiastes 1:8). John the apostle speaks of “the lust of the eyes” (1 John 2:16).

There is an enormous offer before us. We no longer see only the things that happen around us, but through television and internet there is a limitless offer of things which we can watch. A lot of these things influences our lusts. Also, the advertising leaflets, that enter our homes in an unstoppable flow through our letterbox, are trying very hard to draw our eyes and to awaken our lusts to what they are offering. Eyes devour everything they see as Sheol and Abaddon devour all people. The lust of the eyes never stops.

When it comes down to the lust for the things of this life, we must learn not to give in to them, but to be content with what we have (1 Timothy 6:8; Hebrews 13:5; Philippians 4:11). When it comes down to the lust for the spiritual things, the believers will “see the King in His beauty” (Isaiah 33:17), which will make them to be satisfied with His picture (Psalms 17:15).

Verse 21

A Good Name as a Test

Silver is melted in the crucible to test it for its purity. An oven does the same with gold. The testing methods show whether something has been added in the silver or gold, which makes these precious metals impure. Solomon compares “the praise” which is accorded to someone with silver and gold and he also connects the conduct of a test to it. Someone who has a good name, should be tested whether he is really worthy of that name.

That test is honor. Honor is attached to one’s good name. His attitude toward that, makes clear how he really is. He can accept the honor that he gets as something he accords to his own performance, or he can be grateful to God for it, for he owes everything to Him. This is applicable when we have ‘made a name’ for ourselves in any area.

As the crucible brings all impurities to the surface, so will a praising audience bring all evilness of man to the surface. If that is not the case, he is worthy of his good name. This will only be the case with someone who realizes that he has nothing that he did not receive but owes all things to God (1 Corinthians 4:7).

Anyone who calls himself a Christian according to the ‘good name’ of Christ, will be tested for his confession. God can use all kinds of ways or circumstances for that. When people honor us because of our being Christians, it is a test. Do we take that honor or do we accord it to Him?

Verse 22

The Fool Is and Will Remain a Fool

Foolishness cannot be removed with an iron fist, because foolishness is the nature of a fool. Even the most drastic discipline cannot bring a change in the fool. This is represented in the picture of the crushing of grain in a mortar by a pestle (a mortar is a vessel with a pestle in which something can be crushed of ground). No matter how he would be crushed, he is and remains foolish (cf. Jeremiah 13:23).

Only judgment will not change a man. Pharaoh was crushed again and again as it were with a pestle in a mortar by the plagues that God brought over him and his people and his country, but he did not change (Exodus 7-11). The mercy of God must also be used if a man really wants to be redeemed from his foolishness. Through repentance he will receive a new nature and becomes a new creation.

Verses 23-27

The Work of Man and the Care of God

The Proverbs 27:23-Daniel : are as it were a brief poem about the responsibility of a man to take care of earnings in order to provide his family and those who belong to his house, whatever they need. From these verses it appears how important it is to be diligent in work. They speak also of the satisfaction that working diligently gives and of God’s providing care.

It is about working in the calling for which God has called us in everyday life, with the intention that livelihood is taken care of for all who have been entrusted to the worker (1 Corinthians 7:20). God wants man to work and that man also does it diligently. If he does not, then he and those who belong to his house will suffer hunger. In order to help him, God delivers resources which man need and which He alone can give. That should make man realize that he is dependent of God in all of his activities.

We must know very well what we are doing, what our work consists of, and also how we should do our work. Solomon says to his son that he should master his ‘skill’ well. He advises him to make sure that he knows his sheep very well (Proverbs 27:23). That is only possible by giving personal attention to each sheep, caring about him and nursing him, so that they all have everything they need concerning food and protection. He can only bring this into practice when he pays attention to his flock, he must love them. One should pay attention to his business, otherwise, within a short time he will have no business anymore to which he can pay attention to.

We can apply this verse to our family if we have a family, to our children and to our work. The same goes for the care in the church of God. The church of God is compared with a flock (Acts 20:28). The care of that has been given to the elders by God. Peter had to take care of the lambs and sheep of the Lord Jesus (John 21:15-Esther :; 1 Peter 5:1-Numbers :).

“For” (Proverbs 27:24) indicates the reason for the exhortation of the previous verse. In case of negligence and laziness, the riches or prosperity will disappear. There is no guarantee that prosperity (riches) and kingdom (crown) are forever, that you will never cease to enjoy them. You cannot count on it automatically. In order to have permanent benefit of it, we should always be working diligently for it.

The believer has been given many spiritual riches and a royal position. Those are forever, but not transmittable. God also expects us to work with those gifts and serve others with them. Thereby we should realize that the time that we have to work for the Lord, is limited. We can only work now, as long as we are on earth, for Him. He also exhorts us to do so: “Do business [with this] until I come back” (Luke 19:13).

Proverbs 27:25 combines the hard working by man with God’s work. God makes the “first grass” to grow, without any human intervention (Mark 4:28). He does it according to His wise policy, in stages. When the first (blades of) grass have been produced, man can mow it and harvest it as hay from the field. Then it is removed from the field. But the work of God goes on, “the new growth is seen”. God continually gives new growth (cf. Amos 7:1). Man does not have to sow for new growth. God gives it and man can mow it.

He also made “the herbs of the mountains” to grow and man can also gather them. Mountains are among other a picture of difficulties. Collecting herbs on mountains requires extra efforts. Mountains have to be climbed, but that will surely deliver something valuable. Extra money will be earned. Herbs make food tasteful and are also used for the production of medicines. In this way every effort in the work of the Lord is being rewarded at a higher rate (1 Corinthians 15:58).

The lambs deliver wool (Proverbs 27:26). Out of that, clothing can be made with which the shepherd can keep himself warm (Job 31:20). He can sell his goats (cf. Ezekiel 27:21). That gives him the opportunity to make new investments, for example for buying a new field.

Besides clothing, he also has “enough goats’ milk … for food” (Proverbs 27:27). That food is for both himself and his household and the maidens. From his care for his business, everyone in his environment will profit. That is also the case in spiritual sense. He who is faithful in the things of the Lord, is a blessing for others.

Bibliographical Information
de Koning, Ger. Commentaar op Proverbs 27". "Kingcomments on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/kng/proverbs-27.html. 'Stichting Titus' / 'Stichting Uitgeverij Daniël', Zwolle, Nederland. 2021.
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