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THE PEACE OFFERING
TAKEN FROM THE HERD (vv. 1-5)
The peace offering was also a voluntary sacrifice. However, it could either be a male or female, but only an unblemished animal. Of course it speaks also of the one sacrifice of Christ, but since a female was allowed, this involves the part that believers have with Christ in the value of His sacrifice. The burnt offering speaks altogether of the value of that sacrifice to God , but the peace offering involves also the blessing that comes to the believer by means of Christ's sacrifice.
Christ as the peace offering has established peace between God and men by means of His sacrifice, and this is seen especially in Luke's Gospel, so that grace, concord and fellowship are outstanding features of this offering.
As with the burnt offering, the offerer was to lay his hand on the head of the animal and kill it at the door of the tabernacle. Then the priests sprinkled the blood around the altar. However, all was not to be burned, as with the burnt offering, but only the fat that covered the inwards and the fat attached to the inwards, the two kidneys with the fat attached to them and the fatty lobe attached to the liver. These were to be burned as a sweet aroma to the Lord. This animal was from the herd. The fat always belonged to the Lord: it was not to be eaten, for it speaks of the energy of the devotion of the Lord Jesus to His God and Father. The two kidneys, purifying the blood by innumerable filters, picture the inner motives of the Lord Jesus, which are for God. At this time nothing is said of the parts that were to be given to the priest and the offerer: this subject is left for the law of the offering (Leviticus 7:11-3.7.21).
CHOSEN FROM THE FLOCK (vv. 6-17)
A peace offering could also be of the flock, whether a lamb (v. 7) or a goat (v. 12). In each case also the offerer laid his hand on the head of the animal and killed it, and the priest sprinkled the blood around the altar (vv. 8-11 and 13-16). The parts removed from the animal are similar to those in verses 3 and 4, and these were burned, spoken of as “food, an offering made by fire to the Lord.” Thus, this offering of the Lord Jesus is for God Himself. Again this is “a sweet aroma” offering.
In Israel God insisted that it was a perpetual statute that they eat neither fat nor blood (v. 17). Today believers are warned definitely not to eat blood (Acts 15:20). This restriction was introduced when God first allowed men to eat animals (Genesis 9:3-1.9.4), long before the law was given to Israel. Neither at that time, nor under grace today is there any restriction as to eating fat, however. Most of us may find that our health is better if we refrain from eating fat, in spite of our liberty to do so.
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Grant, L. M. "Commentary on Leviticus 3". Grant's Commentary on the Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent