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Bible Commentaries
Psalms 68

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Verses 1-3

Psa 68:1-3




Many scholars have commented on the difficulty of this psalm; many of the passages have apparently been damaged in transition; and practically all versions rely somewhat heavily on emendations in order to provide a readable translation in English. A number of passages may be understood in several different ways.

Despite these difficulties, however, the psalm is often extolled in superlative terms:

"This is one of the most magnificent songs of triumph in the entire Old Testament. Its dramatic comment upon a memorable event, its wide perspective of thought and speech, its spirit of invincible faith in God, and its presentation of the historic past and the envisaged future, combine to make it an outstanding portion of the Psalter.”

"This is one of the grandest of the Psalms.”

"This rushing cataract of a psalm is one of the most boisterous and exhilarating in the Psalter.”

"This psalm is one of triumphant praise and jubilation, the crown and gem of the Second Book.”

"The Psalm is worthy of David, `the sweet singer of Israel.’ The language, the impressive descriptions, the fresh powerful tone of the poetry, the lyric emotion that pervades the ode, are all worthy of David, and of him alone among known Hebrew composers of hymns.”

Some question the Davidic authorship; but in the absence of any authoritative word to the contrary, we are content with the assignment in the superscription.

Regarding the occasion, although this is considered uncertain by some, the comment of Kidner makes sense to us.

David’s procession with the ark, "from the house of Obed-Edom to the city of David with rejoicing" (2 Samuel 6:12), may have been the occasion for which this psalm was composed. It opens with an echo of the words with which the ark set out on all its journeys (Numbers 10:35), and finds its climax in God’s ascent of the "high mount" which he has chosen for his dwelling.

In addition to the facts Kidner cited, we shall observe other portions of the psalm which also fit into the idea of a procession to Jerusalem. However, far more is intended by this "procession" than the bringing of the ark into the city of David. In this psalm it seems to have epitomized in some significant manner the procession of God through history; and, for this reason, we have entitled the psalm "God’s Triumphal Procession," as did Baigent.

Several different proposals for divisions of this psalm have been made, but we like the one by Anthony Ash, which paragraphs only a few verses at a time, giving us eleven divisions in all.

Psalms 68:1-3


"Let God arise; let his enemies be scattered;

Let them also that hate him flee before him.

As smoke is driven away, so drive them away:

As wax melteth before the fire,

So let the wicked perish at the presence of God.

But let the righteous be glad; let them exult before God:

Yea, let them rejoice with gladness."

"As smoke ... as wax ..." (Psalms 68:2). The implication here is that the enemies of God are of no more significance than a column of smoke driven away by the wind, or a little wax, melted and destroyed by the fire.

There is also in these verses the inherent principle that the ultimate happiness of the righteous depends upon God’s triumph over his enemies.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:1. Military victory over his enemies was a thing for which David often prayed. The Jewish nation was secular as well as religious. It is proper for temporal governments to fight for their defense (John 18:36), hence it was right for David to express himself as he did in this verse and in many other passages.

Psalms 68:2. The brevity of smoke and wax was used to compare the fate that David wished for his enemies; they were to disappear without delay.

Psalms 68:3. The righteous people have reason to rejoice when wicked persons are overthrown. If their complete destruction is necessary for the good of others, then it would be right to wish for it to be accomplished through the power of the Lord.

Verses 4-6

Psa 68:4-6

Psalms 68:4-6


"Sing unto God, sing praises to his name:

Cast up a highway for him that rideth through the deserts;

His name is Jehovah; and exult ye before him.

A father of the fatherless, and a judge of the widows,

Is God in his holy habitation.

God setteth the solitary in families:

He bringeth out the prisoners into prosperity;

But the rebellious dwell in a parched land."

"For him that rideth though the deserts" (Psalms 68:4). This mighty one who rides through the deserts is God. "The Canaanite pagans called their deity Baal, `the rider of the clouds’; and the psalmist here may have borrowed the term and purged it to show that Yahweh and not Baal rules.”

"His name is Jehovah" (Psalms 68:4). As the marginal reading indicates, the word here is an abbreviated form of the name Jehovah, [~Yah]. It is repeated here in Psalms 68:18 and also occurs in Exodus 15:2 and Isaiah 26:4.

"In his holy habitation" (Psalms 68:5). This expression is a reference to Jerusalem toward which dwelling place of God the procession bearing the ark from Obed-Edom was moving. In route, this song extolling the help of God for prisoners, widows and orphans emphasizes that Jerusalem is to be the center from which this marvelous benefit will radiate.

"He setteth the solitary in families" (Psalms 68:6). The current translations make this remarkable assertion declare that God "puts the lonely single people in houses"; but we strongly prefer the text before us.

None of the scholars whose works we have had the privilege of consulting seems to have caught on to the magnificent proportions of what is declared here.

When a great diamond is found, it is always surrounded by a number of other large diamonds somewhat smaller; and this phenomenal fact in nature also recurs in God’s creation of great men. Shakespeare was surrounded by men like John Milton, Christopher Marlow and others; George Washington was surrounded by Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and others. Jesus Christ was surrounded by Peter, James and John, John the Baptist, and the Apostle Paul. It is one of the most remarkable facts that, "God setteth the solitary in families"!

Other examples of this same principle is seen in Mount Everest and its surrounding peaks, and in the mighty family of the giant Redwoods of northern California.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:4. Rideth upon the heavens indicates that God is above all things in the universe. Jah is a short form of Jehovah and means the "self-Existent or Eternal." Having never had a beginning he is logically the ruler of everything in creation.

Psalms 68:5. God’s care for all unfortunate persons is as good as that of a father or a husband. The Lord executes his watchful care for the needy from his holy habitation beyond the skies.

Psalms 68:6. Solitary is from YACHYD and "lonely" is a leading word in Strong’s definition. In the King James version it has been translated by darling 2 times, desolate 1, only 6, only child 1, only Song of Solomon 1, solitary 1. The word primarily has reference to what is commonly called an orphan. Families is from BAYITH and Strong’s definition is, "a house (in the greatest variety of applications, especially family)." In the King James version it has been translated by family 5 times, home 25, house 1790, household 52. The idea is that God intended the family home as the proper place in which to care for orphans. The same thought is indicated in 1 Timothy 5:10. The rest of the verse of this paragraph has to do with the subject of liberty. There are no harder chains than those of sin. God will deliver all from them who will obey him.

Verses 7-10

Psa 68:7-10

Psalms 68:7-10


"O God, when thou wentest forth before thy people,

When thou didst march through the wilderness; (Selah)

The earth trembled,

The heavens also dropped rain at the presence of God:

Yet Sinai trembled at the presence of God, the God of Israel.

Thou, O God, didst send a plentiful rain,

Thou didst confirm thine inheritance when it was weary.

Thy congregation dwelt therein:

Thou, O God didst prepare of thy goodness for the poor."

There seems to be an intention here of comparing this journey of "bringing to Jerusalem the ark of God," with the procession of God leading his people out of Egypt, through the wilderness to Sinai, and onward through history. Thus quite early we have the singers of Israel shouting the praises of God for his mighty triumph in the Exodus.

"Thou didst march through the wilderness" (Psalms 68:7). This refers to the period of forty years in the wilderness prior to the entry into Canaan.

"Rain ... plentiful rain" (Psalms 68:8-9). This may be a reference to the manna that literally `rained’ out of heaven to feed Israel during that forty years. Such an understanding makes the `rain’ a metaphor of the blessings that sustained Israel in the wilderness.

"The earth trembled ... Sinai trembled" (Psalms 68:8). This refers to the dreadful natural phenomena that attended the giving of the Law through Moses at Sinai.

"The psalmist here gives a brief resume of the exodus and its inerasable memories which was then, at that very moment being relived by the people.”

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:7-8. In this paragraph we have an interesting use of the word Selah. The comments at Psalms 3:2 show the word to mean a pause for reflection. It is very fitting to pause in the midst of this passage and meditate on the mighty power of God. It was manifested at Sinai and at many other places.

Verse 9. By sending rain God did confirm the promise made in Genesis 8:22.

Verse 10. Dwelt therein means the congregation lived within the blessings which God provided by rain for the country of his people.

Verses 11-14

Psa 68:11-14

Psalms 68:11-14


"The Lord giveth the word:

The women that publish the tidings are a great host.

Kings of armies flee, they flee;

And she that tarrieth at home divideth the spoil.

When ye lie among the sheepfolds,

It is as the wings of a dove covered with silver,

And her pinions with yellow gold.

When the Almighty scattered kings therein,

It was as when it snoweth in Zalmon."

"The last two verses here are unintelligible as they stand; we do know that Zalmon was a town near Shechem.” The presence of many italicized words in the various versions show how the scholars have "emended" and added words to arrive at what they consider to be the meaning. This is perhaps the most difficult part of the psalm.

The comment which to us best explains this passage is that of McCaw.

"A great host of women shouted God’s praises as they accompanied the ark to Jerusalem (Psalms 68:11). Their chants consisted of disjointed sentences; some cried one thing, some another, snatches of old war songs (Psalms 68:2; Psalms 68:13), fragments of unpreserved psalms (Psalms 68:18), and festive folk songs (Psalms 68:13). All of these are woven together so as to create a sense of pageantry enriched by memory, just as modern radio and TV documentaries are able to evoke a certain frame of mind by a series of impressions swiftly and successively faded in and out.”

This is as good an explanation as we have encountered regarding the apparently jumbled nature of these remarkable verses.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:11. This verse states a fact that occurred in more than one instance. God could have inspired all men by his word at the same time had he so desired. Instead, he has always committed his law to certain men and then expected great numbers of others to repeat it among the people of the earth.

Psalms 68:12. Persons of contrasting power are mentioned in order to show God’s working is not always according to logical rule. A king might not be able to escape being chased, while the female citizens at home would reap the benefit from his defeat.

Psalms 68:13. Pots and dove wings are used figuratively to compare the conditions of God’s faithful servants while in their afflictions and after they have been rescued.

Psalms 68:14. The antecedent of the first it is inheritance in Psalms 68:9. White is not in the original and has no meaning as used here. Salmon was a hill near Shechem. Snow falling on the hill would be scattered about. That was used to compare the commotion of kings who had opposed God’s people.

Verses 15-16

Psa 68:15-16

Psalms 68:15-16


"A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan;

A high mountain is the mountain of Bashan.

Why look ye askance, ye high mountains,

At the mountain which God hath desired for his abode"

Yea, Jehovah will dwell in it forever."

The thought here is that the very mountains of the earth are jealous because God has chosen the relatively small mountain of Zion as his dwelling place, in spite of the fact that many other mountains of the earth might have appeared more suitable in the eyes of men.

"A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan" (Psalms 68:15). This means merely that "the mountain of Bashan" ("Probably Mount Hermon, which borders Bashan on the north") was indeed a very high, snow-covered, impressive mountain; but God chose to dwell on Zion. Bashan’s mountain is called "a mountain of God," not because God ever dwelt upon it, but because he created it.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:15. The hill of God meant the spiritual prominence of God’s institution. It was compared to a literal hill in the land of Bashan.

Psalms 68:16. High hills was a figurative reference to the high esteem the foes of David had of themselves. He indirectly criticized them for their self-exaltation and warned them in view of the spiritual hill of God in which they should be interested.

Verses 17-18

Psa 68:17-18

Psalms 68:17-18


"The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands upon thousands;

The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the sanctuary.

Thou has ascended on high, thou hast led away captives;

Thou hast received gifts among men,

Yea, among the rebellious also, that Jehovah God might dwell with them."

"The chariots of God are twenty thousand, and thousand of thousands" (Psalms 68:17). Taylor’s comment here is that, "After the manner of a victorious earthly king, the Lord enters his capital at the head of his troops with the captives and the spoils of battle in his train.”

This comment fully agrees with our understanding that here the psalm conceives of God Himself, whose presence is manifested in the ark of the covenant, marching triumphantly into Jerusalem his capital and dwelling place.

That such an understanding indeed seems to be correct is further supported by the apostle Paul’s use of some of the terminology here in one of his favorite comparisons, that of the conquering Christ leading the type of triumphal procession affected by Roman emperors following some great victory (Ephesians 4:8).

Paul wrote, "Wherefore he saith, When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men." We disagree with the so-called scholars who write that Paul here "garbled, altered, or misquoted" this psalm. He did no such thing but merely used this terminology to write new Scripture, not quote old Scripture. This is proved by the New Testament terminology, which does not say that it (the Scripture) saith, but that He (the Lord) saith. (See the full comments on this in Vol. 8 of my New Testament Series, pp. 186,187.)

"Thou hast led away captives" (Psalms 68:18). In our view, this rendition is far inferior to the magnificent words of the KJV which translates this, "He led captivity captive." That the inspired Paul quoted the words as they are in the KJV confirms the supremacy of the King James Version in this verse. The Septuagint (LXX) also agrees with the KJV here; and we believe it is obvious that the translators of the American Standard Version and later versions have weakened the passage by changing it.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:17. Chariots were instruments of war and when used figuratively refer to the power of God over his enemies. They would be handled by the angels who are the servants of Heaven. The vast number mentioned is for the purpose of emphasis. Sinai is named because it was the place where God’s law was given after Moses, the first lawgiver, had ascended to its peak.

Psalms 68:18. After such a reference to Sinai and the important things that issued from it, it was logical to pass from that to the second Moses and tell of the things he did. The Psalmist may not have personally understood why he was inspired to write this verse (1 Peter 1:10-12). However, it is a prophecy of the ascension of Christ, after which he too caused an outpouring of power from God. It is quoted in Ephesians 4:8 and spoken of as being a saying of old time.

Verses 19-20

Psa 68:19-20

Psalms 68:19-20


"Blessed be the Lord who daily beareth our burden,

Even the God who is our salvation. (Selah)

God is unto us a God of deliverances;

And unto Jehovah the Lord belongeth escape from death."

"Salvation" (Psalms 68:19). That the God of Israel, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, is indeed the God of salvation for mankind is the great theme of the Holy Bible in both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

"Escape from death" (Psalms 68:20). With the exception of Enoch and Elijah, all men who were ever born died; none escaped death, except in the very limited sense of being saved from impending death in a given situation for a period of time. It seems to us that here again, the older versions have the better rendition, "For unto God the Lord belong the issues of death." (KJV). Why is this better? Because what it says is true, whereas, the American Standard Version and later versions are true only in a limited sense. "The keys of the grave and of death have been put into the hands of the Lord Jesus (Revelation 1:18).”

Note in Psalms 68:20 that dual names for God are used, Jehovah and Elohim, rendered "God our God," or "Jehovah our Lord," or "God our Lord."

E.M. Zerr:

Verse 19. The Lord is the giver of all blessings and in acknowledging the fact we bless the Lord. God not only supplies us with the things needful for the body, but he is the means of our salvation.

Verse 20. Our God is an expression occurring often in the Bible. There were so many false gods advocated by the heathen nations that it was significant for the servants of the true one to designate him by the possessive pronoun. God is the one who has power to give life to the dead.

Verses 21-23

Psa 68:21-23

Psalms 68:21-23


"But God will smite through the head of his enemies,

The hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on in his guiltiness.

The Lord said, I will bring again from Bashan,

I will bring again from the depths of the sea;

That thou mayest crush them, dipping thy foot in blood."

The terminology here, as in the imprecatory psalms, seems very harsh and offensive to Christians, but this is due to a general blindness to the Biblical revelation that God’s anger against wickedness is no light thing at all, but that the most terrible penalties that the mind of man can visualize shall at last be executed against all mortals who make themselves enemies of God.

Therefore, the proper reaction to terminology of this kind is not, "How awful that punishment is," but "What an unspeakably awful thing is enmity against God"!

"The hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on in his guiltiness" (Psalms 68:21). Some find a hint of the bushy hair of Absalom in this passage. It will be remembered that he lost his life when the animal he was riding went under a tree in which Absalom’s hair was caught, giving Joab the opportunity to kill him.

"From Bashan ... from the depths of the sea" (Psalms 68:22). The thought here is that there is nowhere to hide from God. Neither the rocky fortress of Bashan nor the caves at the bottom of the sea can afford a hiding place for the wicked when the judgment of God falls upon them. See Revelation 6:14 f.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:21. The head and hairy scalp indicate the most vital part of a man. The reference to it is to show the complete defeat of the enemies of God.

Psalms 68:22. Bashan was one of the heathen districts and was occupied by strong people. To rescue his people from such a hold would show God’s great power. Likewise would it be shone were he to save them from the sea. Psalms 68:23. Thy foot means the foot of God’s people. Victory over the enemy is the subject of the verse. That was indicated by the dipping of the foot in the blood of the enemy. The humiliating degree of the defeat to be imposed on the enemy was indicated by the prediction that the dogs of the Israelites would lick the blood of the enemy slain. This kind of comparison was made in the case of Ahab. (1 Kings 21:19.)

Verses 24-27

Psa 68:24-27

Psalms 68:24-27


"They have seen thy goings, O God,

Even the goings of my God, my King, into the sanctuary.

The singers went before, the minstrels followed after,

In the midst of the damsels playing with timbrels,

Bless ye God in the congregations,

Even the Lord, ye that are of the fountain of Israel.

There is little Benjamin their ruler,

The princes of Judah and their council,

The princes of Zebulun,

The princes of Naphtali."

"Into the sanctuary" (Psalms 68:24). This was not the temple. It was not constructed until the times of Solomon, but the sanctuary to which the ark of the covenant was carried from Obed-Edom was the tabernacle, the site of which had been purchased by David, and upon which, later, the temple was built.

"The singers ... minstrels ... damsels playing timbrels, and ... all ye of ... Israel" (Psalms 68:25-26). This is a description of the great host of people who joined in the procession bringing home the ark to Jerusalem.

"Benjamin ... Judah ... Zebulun ... Naphtali" (Psalms 68:27). These seem here to stand for "all Israel" as indicated in the preceding verse. It has been pointed out that Benjamin might have been mentioned first because from that tribe came Saul, Israel’s first king. If that is true, it would indicate a magnanimous gesture on David’s part to have thus honored his predecessor.

Another thought here is that the children of Jacob’s two wives, Rachel and Leah, as well as the children of a concubine are all included in these four names.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:24. They refers to the enemy before whom the wonderful goings or acts of God had been displayed.

Psalms 68:25. David was a great man for musical instruments; used especially in service to God. He represented the victory as being celebrated with the music.

Psalms 68:26. God is the fountain of all good, whether material or immaterial. The children of Israel had come from that fountain, hence they were told to bless God.

Psalms 68:27. Both large (Judah) and small (Benjamin) groups with their rulers or leaders had come from God. The same was true of other tribes so they should praise God.

Verses 28-31

Psa 68:28-31

Psalms 68:28-31


"Thy God hath commanded thy strength:

Strengthen, O God, that which thou hast wrought for us.

Because of thy temple at Jerusalem

Kings shall bring presents unto thee.

Rebuke the wild beast of the reeds,

The multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the peoples:

Trampling under foot the pieces of silver:

He hath scattered the peoples that delight in war.

Princes shall come out of Egypt;

Ethiopia shall haste to spread out her hands unto God."

"Thy temple at Jerusalem" (Psalms 68:29). David conceived the idea of building God a temple, and here envisioned the completion of it, two great steps toward that objective already having occurred: (1) David had purchased the site where the temple would be built; and (2) now the ark of the covenant was about to be enshrined in the temporary temple called the tabernacle. The tabernacle was often called "the temple" in Scripture, as we have repeatedly pointed out.

"Kings shall bring presents unto thee" (Psalms 68:29). David’s prophecy here was gloriously fulfilled. King Herod in the ages to come would spend millions of dollars on a single gift of the "golden doors" of that later temple.

"Wild beast ... bulls ... calves" (Psalms 68:30). "These are symbols for foreign kings,” which were hostile toward God’s people. The "bulls" were the kings and generals, and the "calves" were the people led by them.

"Trampling under foot the pieces of silver" (Psalms 68:30). This indicates that, "God treats the tribute of the heathen with contempt.”

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:28. What strength these groups had was by the decree of God. David prayed for continuance of that favor to the nation.

Psalms 68:29. The temple was the headquarters of the Lord’s kingdom. The recognition of that government was to be done by the kings of the earth. It would be indicated by their presents. See the meaning of that in comments at Genesis 32:13.

Psalms 68:30. The reference to dumb creatures was to show the low estimate David had of his enemies. He prayed for God to rebuke them so completely that they would pay the customary tribute or "present," which they would do with pieces of silver.

Psalms 68:31. This verse means that notable persons in Egypt and Ethiopia would soon acknowledge the supremacy of God.

Verses 32-35

Psa 68:32-35

Psalms 68:32-35


"Sing unto God, ye kingdoms of the earth;

O Sing praises unto the Lord; (Selah)

To him that rideth upon the heaven of heavens, which are of old;

Lo, he uttereth his voice, a mighty voice.

Ascribe ye strength unto God:

His excellency is over Israel,

And his strength is in the skies.

O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places:

The God of Israel, he giveth strength and power unto his people.

Blessed be God."

"To him that rideth upon the heaven of heavens" (Psalms 68:33). As noted above, the pagan deity Baal was honored by his worshippers as the one "who rideth upon the clouds," but here the God of Israel is extolled as the true Ruler of the universe, not Baal.

Whereas the first six verses of this psalm are Israel’s alone, this last paragraph is universal.

"These verses reassert the cosmic power of God but remind us that He is still the God of Israel. The Psalm by its almost uncontainable enthusiasm bears witness to its grasp of reality, this union of immense power, with intense love and care for his people. His majesty is over Israel.”

"Ascribe ye strength unto God" (Psalms 68:34). These words are addressed to all the kingdoms of men. "The kingdoms of the earth are summoned freely to confess the Lord’s omnipotence.”

"Blessed be God" (Psalms 68:35). Appropriately, the psalm closes on this note. Only God is entitled to the worship and adoration of his human creation; and no higher occupation of human ability can be imagined than that of its employment in the worship and service of God through Christ.

E.M. Zerr:

Psalms 68:32 This was rather in the nature of a command or demand. The kingdoms of the earth were called upon to recognize God. See comments at Psalms 3:2 for Selah.

Psalms 68:33. Rideth upon, etc., was to indicate the over-all jurisdiction of God. In view of that authority the nations were directed, in the preceding verse, to give due praise unto the God of Israel.

Psalms 68:34. The strength of God is greater than that possessed by any other being. That strength was contributed to the oversight of Israel. Clouds had reference to the regions of creation, and God’s strength was manifested therein.

Psalms 68:35. Terrible is from YARE and means that God is worthy to be respected for his might. He is able to give strength and power unto his people. These words have practically the same meaning and are used together for emphasis.

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Psalms 68". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/psalms-68.html.
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