Joshua 10:1-27. Defeat and Death of the Five Kings.—Here we have the account of the famous battle of Bethhoron. Five kings band themselves together against Gibeon; the Gibeonites send for help to Joshua, who comes upon the enemy suddenly and completely routs them. It is hardly necessary to say that the adjuration to the sun to stand still is purely poetical, and is to be compared with the words of Deborah's song, "The stars in their courses fought against Sisera." The compiler of this book, however, took it as an actual prayer that was really granted, as is seen from the words, "So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven." Mr. Stanley Cook would omit the third line and make the fourth line part of the appeal, which would then run, "Sun, stand thou still at Gibeon, and thou, moon, on the valley of Aijalon, till Yahweh (not the people) hath avenged himself on his enemies." He also gives the interesting information that "Syrian peasants still cry in song to the sun to hasten his going down that they may rest" (EBi, article "Jashar)." For the book of Jashar, see p. 45.
Joshua 10:12. Valley of Aijalon: p. 31.
Joshua 10:15 must be omitted; it is not in the LXX and is suspicious for other reasons.
Joshua 10:28-40. Conquest of S. Canaan.—This section is late and is from the hand of the Deuteronomist. Well-known passages in this and other books show it to be quite unhistorical. In 33 the king of Gezer (Judges 1:29*, 1 Kings 9:16*,) is said to have been slain with all his people, though from Joshua 16:10 we know that Gezer maintained its independence, and from Kings it appears that it did so till the time of Solomon. In Joshua 10:36-39 Hebron and Debir are taken, and all the inhabitants destroyed, though later on, in Joshua 15:13, we read that Caleb goes up against these towns and takes possession of them. According to the tradition in Judges 1 this happened after the death of Joshua.
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Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Joshua 10". "Arthur Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Lent