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Bible Commentaries
Leviticus 7

Peake's Commentary on the BiblePeake's Commentary

Verses 1-10

Leviticus 7:1-10 . Supplementary Regulations for guilt offerings and priestly dues. Leviticus 7:1-7 supplements Leviticus 5:16 b. The blood of the victim is to be dashed (not sprinkled) round the altar. The fat, as in other offerings, is to be carefully removed and offered to Yahweh. The priests’ dues are the same with the guilt offering as with the sin offering. (Every guilt offering is also a sin offering, though the reverse, of course, is not the case.) The notice about priests’ dues is fragmentary (see Leviticus 7:28-34). The priests are to have the hide of the victim; in the sacrificial tariffs of Marseilles and Sippar the hide goes to the priests; at Carthage, to the offerer. Baked, tried, and “ griddled” meal offerings ( cf. Leviticus 2:4-7) go to the officiating priest, meal offerings with or without oil to the priests as a whole; presumably a larger offering is here referred to.

Verses 1-38

Leviticus 6:8 to Leviticus 7:38 . Special Manual for Priests, given to “ Aaron and his sons” ( Leviticus 6:9; Leviticus 6:14; Leviticus 6:25, etc.; contrast Leviticus 4:2, etc.). The peace offering is here placed last. It may be noted that two sections ( Leviticus 7:7-10 and Leviticus 7:22-27) seem to break the connexion; they are perhaps insertions from independent laws. None of these provisions affect laymen.

Verses 11-21

Leviticus 7:11-21 . The Peace Offerings.— These are of two kinds, thanksgiving and vow or free-will offerings. The former is specially connected with the “ bread” or meal, in its character of a banquet ( cf. Leviticus 3:1 ff.). But the relative portions of priest and offerer are here more closely defined. One cake is to be lifted up from the rest, as a “ heave-offering” ( Numbers 5:9 *), the due of the officiating priest. The second class of peace offerings is holier, and greater precautions are needed against the flesh going bad. The meal is to begin on the day of offering; and no part is to be kept more than one clear day. There may be a reminiscence of the early limitation of the duration of a festival to two days. (For another suggestion, see RS 2 , p. 387.) Special care is needed to avoid the touch or presence of any uncleanness in connexion with this sacrifice. The caution was doubtless necessitated by the licence of the older sacrifices, where the circumstances of the feasts might easily be and actually were ( cf. Amos 2:7 f.) conducive to much worse things than ritual uncleanness. Hence the sternness of the tone here.

Verses 22-27

Leviticus 7:22-27 . General Prohibition of Eating Fat and Blood ( cf. Leviticus 3:6).— The fat of sacrificial animals is to be offered to Yahweh; the fat of other animals may be used for anything except food. For disobedience to this prohibition, no atoning sacrifice avails. One of the most distinguishing marks of Judaism has been its avoidance of all save “ kosher” meat.

Verses 28-34

Leviticus 7:28-34 . Continuation of Peace Offerings.— An addition to the provisions of Leviticus 7:8-10. The breast and the thigh go to the priests, the latter to the officiator, the former to the priests in general ( cf. 1 Samuel 2:13-16, Deuteronomy 18:3); here, a still larger portion is surrendered by the offerer. The breast is to be “ waved,” moved backwards and forwards in the direction of the altar; the thigh is simply “ heaved,” i.e. lifted out of the rest of the offering and laid aside, as in Leviticus 7:14.

Verses 35-38

Leviticus 7:35-38. Conclusion.—“ Portion” ( mg.) is correct, not “ anointing portion.” Leviticus 7:36 is therefore a gloss ( cf. also 620). The priests have not yet been anointed. The mention of Sinai ( Leviticus 7:38; contrast Leviticus 1:1) shows that the words are intended to form the conclusion of Leviticus 7:6 f. only.

Bibliographical Information
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Leviticus 7". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/pfc/leviticus-7.html. 1919.
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