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Bible Commentaries
Judges 13

Benson's Commentary of the Old and New TestamentsBenson's Commentary


A.M. 2843. B.C. 1161.

Samson was an eminent believer, (Hebrews 11:13 ,) and a glorious type of him who with his own arm wrought salvation. The occasion of raising him up, Judges 13:1 . His birth foretold by an angel, Judges 13:2-5 . His mother relates this to his father, Judges 13:6 , Judges 13:7 . The angel repeats it to them both, Judges 13:8-14 . Manoah offers to entertain him, and asks his name, Judges 13:15-18 . He discovers himself at parting, Judges 13:19-23 . Samson is born, Judges 13:24 , Judges 13:25 .

Verse 1

Judges 13:1. The children of Israel did evil again That is, fell into idolatry, not, it seems, after the death of Abdon, the last judge, but in the days of the former judges. The Lord delivered them into the hand of the Philistines These were a very inconsiderable people. They had but five cities of any note. And yet, when God used them as a staff in his hand, they were very oppressive and vexatious. Forty years To be computed, not from Abdon’s death, but before that time. This is the longest oppression which the Israelites ever sustained, but Sir John Marsham and others think it is not different from that mentioned Judges 10:7-8, but one and the same with it; the Philistines harassing the Israelites in the west, while the Ammonites oppressed them in the east; and that, though the tyrannical treatment of them by the Philistines lasted longer, yet it began at the very same time with the other, and rendered their distress the greater. Others suppose, that it did not begin till after Jephthah’s death, and that the great slaughter of the Ephraimites made by him greatly encouraged the Philistines to rise against Israel, one of Israel’s chief bulwarks being so much weakened.

Verses 2-3

Judges 13:2-3. Of the family of the Danites That is, of that tribe or people. His wife was barren, and bare not An emphatical repetition of the same thing in other words, which is a usual elegance both in Scripture and other authors. The angel The Son of God, yet distinguished from the Lord, because he appeared here in the form of a servant, as a messenger sent from God. The great Redeemer did in a particular manner concern himself about this typical redemption.

Verse 4

Judges 13:4 . Now therefore beware She was to conform to the manner of life observed by the Nazarites, while she carried her infant in her womb, and perhaps while she nursed him; because, as it follows in the next verse, he was to be a perpetual Nazarite to God, from his conception to his death; which would have bear impossible if she had drunk wine or strong drink, because a child in the womb and its mother subsist by the same nourishment. Drink not wine nor strong drink Under which are comprehended the other particulars mentioned Numbers 6:2-4. And eat not any unclean thing Any of those meats forbidden Leviticus 11:0. These were forbidden to all, but especially to the Nazarites. In all probability the Israelites were negligent at that time in observing the precept with relation to meats, otherwise there would have been no need to mention this.

Verse 5

Judges 13:5. The child shall be a Nazarite Consecrated to God’s service in a peculiar manner. He shall begin to deliver Israel He did not complete the deliverance of the Israelites from the servile yoke of the Philistines; but the work was carried on and perfected by others, namely, by Eli, Samuel, and Saul, and especially by David. Samson galled them severely, but they still continued to oppress Israel, as they did when he was born, and the oppression continued, more or less, till the memorable victory of Ebenezer, recorded 1 Samuel 7:13, when they were subdued, and their tyranny of forty years ended. Thus God chooses to carry on his work gradually, and by several hands. One lays the foundation of a good work, another builds, and perhaps a third brings forth the top-stone.

Verse 6

Judges 13:6. A man of God came unto me A prophet, or sacred person, sent with a message from God. Like the countenance of an angel, very terrible Or venerable, awful, full of majesty. Though Manoah’s wife had never seen an angel before, yet she might well say this, as it was a prevailing opinion among all people, that celestial beings were more excellent in their nature than mankind, and bore an extraordinary majesty in their countenances, which struck the human beholder with awe and admiration. But I asked not whence he was, &c. The lustre of his aspect infused such an awe into her, as rendered her incapable of making such inquiry.

Verse 8

Judges 13:8. Then Manoah entreated the Lord, &c. Not hesitating or doubting, on account of his wife’s long barrenness, he believed the heavenly message, and looked upon the thing as quite certain, only he desired that the man of God might appear to them again, to instruct them in what manner they should treat the child when it should be born. And God graciously answered his humble petition.

Verse 12

Judges 13:12. Now let thy words come to pass Or, thy words shall come to pass. I firmly believe thy promises shall be fulfilled. How shall we order the child? Houbigant renders this, What shall be the method of educating the child? What rules shall we observe in bringing him up? How shall we do unto him? What profession shall we prepare him for, or how shall we instruct him, so as to make him fit to be the deliverer of Israel?

Verses 13-14

Judges 13:13-14. Of all that I said, let her beware While the child is in the womb, and after the child is born, let her observe the same orders. We may observe that the angel gives no answer to Manoah’s question, how the child should be educated, &c., as willing that they should not be solicitous about that at the present, but leave it to the care of Providence, which, in proper time, would so direct matters in regard to the child, as that he should be fitted for the great purpose he was intended for. He therefore only repeats his injunctions to the woman how she should act during her pregnancy.

Verses 15-16

Judges 13:15-16. Until we shall have made ready a kid He supposed him to be a man and a prophet, to whom he would in this manner express his respect, as was usual to strangers. I will not eat of thy bread That is, meat, as bread is commonly taken in Scripture. If thou wilt offer a burnt- offering As Manoah had made no mention of a burnt-offering, but only desired the angel, whom he took for a prophet, to accept of a repast with them, Le Clerc’s translation of this passage is to be preferred. But (not and, as we render it) if thou wilt offer a burnt-offering to the Lord, do it: that is, if thou desirest to express thy thankfulness to the Lord, thou mayest do it by offering a burnt-offering.

Verses 17-18

Judges 13:17-18. That when thy sayings come to pass, we may do thee honour Either by making honourable mention of thee, or by showing respect to thee by a present, such as they usually gave to prophets. Seeing it is secret Meaning, not only, that it would be of no importance or service to him to know his name; but that his name was hidden from mortal men, and wonderful, as the word פלאי peli signifies, and is translated Isaiah 9:6, where it is applied to Christ, the wonderful child born, and son given, who has the government upon his shoulders, and is the mighty God. The angel means, My nature and essence, often signified by name in the Scriptures, are incomprehensible. This shows, that this was the Angel of the covenant, the Son of God, that spoke to Manoah.

Verses 19-20

Judges 13:19-20. And offered it upon a rock The presence and command of the angel being a sufficient warrant for the offering of sacrifice by a person who was no priest, and in a place otherwise forbidden. Vitringa, however, supposes that “it was the angel who upon this occasion performed the principal functions of the priest; the most essential of which was to put the fire to the burnt-offering.” Manoah, he observes, “dared not to perform the offices of the priesthood in the presence of a personage whom he took for an extra-ordinary prophet, commissioned from God. All that he did was done by order of the angel, or as his minister; just as the Israelites obeyed Elijah afterward,” 1 Kings 18:34. The angel, or rather he, (for there is nothing for angel in the original,) did wondrously Bringing fire out of the rock, as in the case of Gideon, Judges 6:21, to consume the burnt-offering, and then ascending in the midst of the flame, hereby manifesting his nature and essence to be spiritual. Off the altar That is, from that part of the rock which served instead of an altar, upon which the sacrifice was laid. Manoah and his wife fell on their faces Partly out of reverence for so glorious a person manifested in so wonderful a manner, and partly out of a religious horror and fear of death; for the prevention whereof they fell down in the way of supplication to God.

Verse 23

Judges 13:23. If the Lord were pleased to kill us The reasoning of Manoah’s wife here is very just, and shows her to have been a woman of good understanding. Indeed, both of them seem to have been persons of eminent piety, who, amidst the prevailing corruption and idolatry of their people, retained their integrity, and adhered to the worship and service of the true God. And of such God is always mindful, both bestowing peculiar favours upon them, and communicating blessings to his church, and to the world, through their means. Nor would, as at this time, have told us such things This expression seems to have some emphasis in it, to enhance God’s mercy to them, as being afforded them in a time of such grievous calamity; and in a time when the word of the Lord was precious, and there was no open vision.

Verses 24-25

Judges 13:24-25. The Lord blessed him That is, endowed him with all those graces and gifts of mind and body which were necessary for the work he was designed for. The Spirit of the Lord began to move him To excite him to heroical designs and extraordinary actions, above the power of mere unassisted human abilities; to incline his heart to great attempts for the help and deliverance of God’s people; to give some essay of it to his brethren, and to seek all opportunities for it. At times Upon certain occasions, which might make known to the people that God intended to begin the work of their deliverance by this extraordinary person. In the camp of Dan A place so called, either from the expedition of the Danites, (Judges 18:11-12,) which, though recorded after this history took place before it, or from some other camp which the Danites had formed there to give some check to the incursions of the Philistines.

Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Judges 13". Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/rbc/judges-13.html. 1857.
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