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To be in subjection to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient (αρχαις εξουσιαις υποτασσεσθα πειθαρχειν). Remarkable double asyndeton, no κα (and) between the two substantives or the two verbs. Πειθαρχειν (to obey), old verb (from πειθομαι, αρχη), in N.T. only here and Acts 27:21.
To be ready unto every good work (προς παν εργον αγαθον ετοιμους εινα). Pauline phrase (2 Corinthians 9:8; 2 Timothy 2:21; 2 Timothy 3:17), here adjective ετοιμος (2 Corinthians 9:5), there verb.
To speak evil (βλασφημειν). See Colossians 3:8; 1 Timothy 6:4.
Not to be contentious (αμαχους εινα). "To be non-fighters" (1 Timothy 3:3), originally "invincible."
Gentle (επιεικεις). See 1 Timothy 3:3.
Meekness (πραυτητα). Πραοτητα. See Colossians 3:12.
Aforetime (ποτε). "Once" in our unconverted state as in Ephesians 2:3.
Foolish (ανοητο). See Romans 1:14; Romans 1:21.
Disobedient (απειθεις). See Romans 1:30.
Deceived (πλανωμενο). Present passive participle of πλαναω though the middle is possible.
Divers lusts (ηδοναις ποικιλαις). "Pleasures" (ηδοναις from ηδομα, old word, in N.T. only here, Luke 8:14; James 4:1; James 4:3; 2 Peter 2:13). Ποικιλαις (old word) is many-coloured as in Mark 1:34; James 1:2; 2 Timothy 3:6, etc.
Living (διαγοντες). See 1 Timothy 3:6 (supply βιον).
In malice (εν κακια). See Romans 1:29.
Envy (φθονω). See Romans 1:29.
Hateful (στυγητο). Late passive verbal from στυγεω, to hate. In Philo, only here in N.T.
Hating one another (μισουντες αλληλους). Active sense and natural result of being "hateful."
The kindness (η χρηστοτης). See Romans 2:4 for this very word used of God as here.
His love toward man (η φιλανθρωπια). "The philanthrophy of God our Saviour." Old word from φιλανθρωπος, for love of mankind, in N.T. only here and Acts 28:2.
Appeared (επεφανη). See Titus 2:11 and here as there the Incarnation of Christ. See 1 Timothy 1:1 for σωτηρ with θεος (God).
Done (not in the Greek, only the article των), "not as a result of works those in righteousness which we did." Same idea as in Romans 3:20.
According to his mercy he saved us (κατα το αυτου ελεος εσωσεν). See Psalms 109:26; 1 Peter 1:3; Ephesians 2:4. Effective aorist active indicative of σωζω.
Through the washing of regeneration (δια λουτρου παλινγενεσιας). Late and common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only twice in the N.T. (Matthew 19:28 with which compare αποκαταστασια in Acts 3:21, and here in personal sense of new birth). For λουτρον, see Ephesians 5:26, here as there the laver or the bath. Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as in Romans 6:3-45.6.6, the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the new birth, not the means of securing it.
And renewing of the Holy Spirit (κα ανακαινωσεως πνευματος αγιου). "And renewal by the Holy Spirit" (subjective genitive). For the late word ανακαινωσις, see Romans 12:2. Here, as often, Paul has put the objective symbol before the reality. The Holy Spirit does the renewing, man submits to the baptism after the new birth to picture it forth to men.
Which (ου). Genitive case by attraction from ο (grammatical gender) to the case of πνευματος αγιου. We do not have grammatical gender (only natural) in English. Hence here we should say "whom," even if it does not go smoothly with εξεχεεν (he poured out, second aorist active indicative of εκχεω). The reference is to the great Pentecost (Acts 2:33) as foretold by Joel (Joel 2:28).
Richly (πλουσιως). Then and to each one in his own experience. See Romans 10:12; 1 Timothy 6:17.
Being justified by his grace (δικαιωθεντες τη εκεινου χαριτ). First aorist passive participle of δικαιοω and instrumental case of χαρις as in Romans 3:24; Romans 5:1.
That we might be made heirs (ινα κληρονομο γενηθωμεν). Purpose with ινα and first aorist passive of γινομα. See Romans 4:13; Romans 8:17.
The saying (ο λογος). In verses Titus 3:4-56.3.7.
I will (βουλομα). See 1 Timothy 2:8.
That thou affirm confidently (σε διαβεβαιουσθα). Indirect command. For the verb see 1 Timothy 1:7.
That they may be careful (ινα φροντιζωσιν). Sub-final use of ινα with present active subjunctive of φροντιζω, old verb, only here in N.T.
To maintain good works (καλων εργων προιστασθα). Present middle infinitive of προιστημ, intransitive use, to stand before, to take the lead in, to care for. Paul is anxious that "believers" may take the lead in good works.
Fightings about the law (μαχας νομικας). "Legal battles." See 1 Timothy 6:4; 2 Timothy 2:23. Wordy fights about Mosaic and Pharisaic and Gnostic regulations.
Shun (περιιστασο). Present middle imperative of περιιστημ, intransitive, step around, stand aside (2 Timothy 2:16). Common in this sense in the literary Koine.
Unprofitable (ανωφελεις). Old compound adjective (α privative and οφελος), in N.T. only here and Hebrews 7:18.
Heretical (αιρετικον). Old adjective from αιρεσις (αιρεομα, to choose), a choosing of a party (sect, Acts 5:17) or of teaching (2 Peter 2:1). Possibly a schism had been started here in Crete.
Refuse (παραιτου). Present middle imperative of παραιτεω, to ask from, to beg off from. See same form in 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 5:11. Possibly an allusion here to Christ's directions in Matthew 18:15-40.18.17.
Is perverted (εξεστραπτα). Perfect passive indicative of εκστρεφω, old word to turn inside out, to twist, to pervert. Only here in N.T.
Self-condemned (αυτοκατακριτος). Only known example of this double compound verbal adjective (αυτοσ, κατα, κρινω).
When I shall send (οταν πεμψω). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν and the first aorist active subjunctive (or future indicative) of πεμπω (same form).
Artemas (Αρτεμαν). Perhaps abbreviation of Artemidorus. Nothing more is known of him.
Or Tychicus (η Τυχικον). Paul's well-known disciple (Colossians 4:7; Ephesians 6:21; 2 Timothy 4:12).
To Nicopolis (εις Νικοπολιν). Probably in Epirus, a good place for work in Dalmatia (2 Timothy 4:10).
I have determined (κεκρικα). Perfect active indicative. I have decided.
To winter there (εκε παραχειμασα). First aorist active infinitive of παραχειμαζω, a literary Koine word for which see Acts 27:12; 1 Corinthians 16:6.
Zenas the lawyer (Ζηναν τον νομικον). Possibly abbreviation of Zenodorus and may be one of the bearers of the Epistle with Apollos. Probably an expert in the Mosaic law as the word means in the Gospels. A converted Jewish lawyer. The Latin term is jurisconsultum for νομικον.
Apollos (Απολλων). Paul's friend (Acts 18:24-44.18.19; 1 Corinthians 1:12).
Set forward (προπεμψον). First aorist active imperative of προπεμπω, old verb, to send on ahead (1 Corinthians 16:6; 1 Corinthians 16:11; Romans 15:24).
That nothing be wanting unto them (ινα μηδεν αυτοις λειπη). Purpose with ινα and present (or second aorist λιπη, some MSS.) subjunctive of λειπω, old verb to leave, to remain, to lack. With dative case here (αυτοις).
Our people (ο ημετερο). "Our folks." The Cretan converts, not just Paul's friends.
Let learn (μανθανετωσαν). Present active imperative, keep on learning how.
To maintain (προιστασθα). See verse Titus 3:8.
For necessary uses (εις αναγκαιας χρειας). "For necessary wants." No idlers wanted. See 1 Thessalonians 4:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:10.
Unfruitful (ακαρπο). See 1 Corinthians 14:14; Ephesians 5:11.
That love us (τους φιλουντας ημας). Paul craved the love of his friends as opposed to Titus 2:8.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Titus 3". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany