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Friday, April 12th, 2024
the Second Week after Easter
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Bible Commentaries
Luke 5

Ryle's Expository Thoughts on the GospelsRyle's Exposiory Thougths

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Verses 1-11

WE have, in these verses, the history of what is commonly called the miraculous draught of fishes. It is a remarkable miracle on two accounts.—For one thing, it shows us our Lord’s complete dominion over the animal creation. The fish of the sea are as much obedient to His will, as the frogs, and flies, and lice, and locusts, in the plagues of Egypt. All are His servants, and all obey His commands.—For another thing, there is a singular similarity between this miracle worked at the beginning of our Lord’s ministry, and another which we find Him working after His resurrection, at the end of His ministry, recorded by John. (John 21:1-6.) In both we read of a miraculous draught of fishes. In both the Apostle Peter has a prominent place in the story. And in both there is, probably, a deep spiritual lesson, lying below the outward surface of the facts described.

We should observe, in this passage, our Lord Jesus Christ’s unwearied readiness for every good work. Once more we find Him preaching to a people who "pressed upon Him to hear the word of God." And where does He preach? Not in any consecrated building, or place set apart for public worship, but in the open air;—not in a pulpit constructed for a preacher’s use, but in a fisherman’s boat. Souls were waiting to be fed. Personal inconvenience was allowed no place in His consideration. God’s work must not stand still.

The servants of Christ should learn a lesson from their Master’s conduct on this occasion. We are not to wait till every little difficulty or obstacle is removed, before we put our hand to the plough, or go forth to sow the seed of the word. Convenient buildings may often be wanting for assembling a company of hearers. Convenient rooms may often not be found for gathering children to school. What, then, are we to do? Shall we sit still and do nothing? God forbid! If we cannot do all we want, let us do what we can. Let us work with such tools as we have. While we are lingering and delaying, souls are perishing. It is the slothful heart that is always looking at the hedge of thorns and the lion in the way. (Proverbs 15:19; Proverbs 22:13.) Where we are and as we are, in season or out of season, by one means or by another, by tongue or by pen, by speaking or by writing, let us strive to be ever working for God. But let us never stand still.

We should observe, secondly, in this passage, what encouragement our Lord gives to unquestioning obedience. We are told, that after preaching He bade Simon "launch out into the deep and let down his net for a draught." He receives an answer which exhibits in a striking manner the mind of a good servant. "Master," says Simon, "we have toiled all the night and have taken nothing: nevertheless, at thy word I will let down the net." And what was the reward of this ready compliance with the Lord’s commands? At once, we are told, "they enclosed a great multitude of fishes: and their net brake."

We need not doubt that a practical lesson for all Christians is contained under these simple circumstances. We are meant to learn the blessing of ready unhesitating obedience to every plain command of Christ. The path of duty may sometimes be hard and disagreeable. The wisdom of the course we propose to follow may not be apparent to the world. But none of these things must move us. We are not to confer with flesh and blood. We are to go straight forward when Jesus says, "go;" and do a thing boldly, unflinchingly, and decidedly, when Jesus says, "do it." We are to walk by faith and not by sight, and believe that what we see not now to be right and reasonable, we shall see hereafter. So acting, we shall never find in the long run that we are losers. So acting, we shall find, sooner or later, that we reap a great reward.

We should observe, thirdly, in this passage, how much a sense of God’s presence abases man and makes him feel his sinfulness. We see this strikingly illustrated by Peter’s words, when the miraculous draught convinced him that One greater than man was in his boat. We read that "he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying, depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord."

In measuring these words of Peter, we must of course remember the time at which they were spoken. He was, at best, but a babe in grace, weak in faith, weak in experience, and weak in knowledge. At a later period in his life he would, doubtless, have said, "Abide with me," and not, "depart." But still, after every deduction of this kind, the words of Peter exactly express the first feelings of man when he is brought into anything like close contact with God. The sight of divine greatness and holiness makes him feel strongly his own littleness and sinfulness. Like Adam after the fall, his first thought is to hide himself. Like Israel under Sinai, the language of his heart is, "let not God speak with us, lest we die." (Exodus 20:19.)

Let us strive to know more and more, every year we live, our need of a mediator between ourselves and God. Let us seek more and more to realize that without a mediator our thoughts of God can never be comfortable, and the more clearly we see God the more uncomfortable we must feel. Above all, let us be thankful that we have in Jesus the very Mediator whose help our souls require, and that through Him we may draw near to God with boldness, and cast fear away. Out of Christ God is a consuming fire. In Christ He is a reconciled Father. Without Christ the strictest moralist may well tremble, as he looks forward to his end. Through Christ the chief of sinners may approach God with confidence, and feel perfect peace.

We should observe, lastly, in this passage, the mighty promise which Jesus holds out to Peter: "Fear not," He says, "from henceforth thou shalt catch men."

That promise, we may well believe, was not intended for Peter only but for all the Apostles,—and not for all the Apostles only, but for all faithful ministers of the Gospel who walk in the Apostles’ steps. It was spoken for their encouragement and consolation. It was intended to support them under that sense of weakness and unprofitableness by which they are sometimes almost overwhelmed. They certainly have a treasure in earthen vessels. (2 Corinthians 4:7.) They are men of like passions with others. They find their own hearts weak and frail, like the hearts of any of their hearers. They are often tempted to give up in despair, and to leave off preaching. But here stands a promise, on which the great Head of the Church would have them daily lean: "Fear not, thou shalt catch men."

Let us pray daily for all ministers that they may be true successors of Peter and his brethren, that they may preach the same full and free Gospel which they preached, and live the same holy lives which they lived. These are the only ministers who will ever prove successful fishermen. To some of them God may give more honor, and to others less. But all true and faithful preachers of the Gospel have a right to believe that their labor shall not prove in vain. They may often preach the Word with many tears, and see no result of their labor. But God’s word shall not return void. (Isaiah 55:11.) The last day shall show that no work for God was ever thrown away. Every faithful fisherman shall find his Master’s words made good: "Thou shalt catch men."



v4.—[Launch out into the deep.] Let us note that this command must have been peculiarly trying to a fisherman’s faith. The deep waters are not generally the waters in which fish are taken in lakes.

v6.—[Their net brake.] The word rendered "brake" would have been better translated, "began to break," just as a similar word in the next verse is translated, "began to sink." That the net did not actually break, is clear from the context. It "was breaking," or "on the point of breaking."

v10.—[Thou shalt catch men.] It has been often remarked, and with much justice, that the Greek word translated "catch," means literally "take alive." It is only used here and in one other place, 2 Timothy 2:26, a passage which is often much misinterpreted, but rightly understood is a remarkable parallel to our Lord’s words in this place.

Let us not forget, in reading this miracle, that holy and good men in every age have seen in it a remarkable type and emblem of the history of Christ’s Church in the world. They have regarded the ships as emblems of the Churches,—the fishers of Ministers,—the net of the Gospel,—the sea of the world,—the shore of eternity,—and the miraculous draught of the success attending work done in strict compliance with Christ’s word. There may be truth in all this. But it needs to be cautiously and delicately used. The habit of allegorizing and seeing hidden meanings in plain language of Scripture has often done great harm.

Verses 12-16

WE see in this passage, our Lord Jesus Christ’s power over incurable diseases. "A man full of leprosy" applies to Him for relief, and is at once healed. This was a mighty miracle. Of all ills which can afflict the body of man, leprosy appears to be the most severe. It affects every part of the constitution at once. It brings sores and decay upon the skin, corruption into the blood, and rottenness into the bones. It is a living death, which no medicine can check or stay. Yet here we read of a leper being made well in a moment. It is but one touch from the hand of the Son of God, and the cure is effected. One single touch of that almighty hand! "And immediately the leprosy departed from him."

We have in this wonderful history a lively emblem of Christ’s power to heal our souls. What are we all but spiritual lepers in the sight of God? Sin is the deadly sickness by which we are all affected. It has eaten into our constitution. It has infected all our faculties. Heart, conscience, mind, and will, all are diseased by sin. From the sole of our foot to the crown of our head, there is no soundness about us, but wounds, and bruises, and putrefying sores. (Isaiah 1:6.) Such is the state in which we are born. Such is the state in which we naturally live. We are in one sense dead long before we are laid in the grave. Our bodies may be healthy and active, but our souls are by nature dead in trespasses and sins.

Who shall deliver us from this body of death? Let us thank God that Jesus Christ can. He is that divine Physician, who can make old things pass away and all things become new. In Him is life. He can wash us thoroughly from all the defilement of sin in His own blood. He can quicken us, and revive us by His own Spirit. He can cleanse our hearts, open the eyes of our understandings, renew our wills, and make us whole. Let this sink down deeply into our hearts. There is medicine to heal our sickness. If we are lost it is not because we cannot be saved. However corrupt our hearts, and however wicked our past lives, there is hope for us in the Gospel. There is no case of spiritual leprosy too hard for Christ.

We see, secondly, in this passage, our Lord Jesus Christ’s willingness to help those that are in need. The petition of the afflicted leper was a very touching one. "Lord," he said, "if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean." The answer he received was singularly merciful and gracious. At once our Lord replies, "I willl: be thou clean."

Those two little words, "I will," deserve special notice. They are a deep mine, rich in comfort and encouragement to all laboring and heavy laden souls. They show us the mind of Christ towards sinners. They exhibit His infinite willingness to do good to the sons of men, and His readiness to show compassion. Let us always remember, that if men are not saved, it is not because Jesus is not willing to save them. He is not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.—He would have all men to be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth.—He has no pleasure in the death of him that dieth.—He would have gathered Jerusalem’s children, as a hen gathereth her chicks, if they would only have been gathered. He would, but they would not.—The blame of the sinner’s ruin must be borne by himself. It is his own will, and not Christ’s will, if he is lost forever. It is a solemn saying of our Lord’s, "Ye will not come unto me that ye might have life." (2 Peter 3:9. 1 Timothy 2:4. Ezekiel 18:32. Matthew 23:37. John 5:40.)

We see, thirdly, in this passage, what respect our Lord Jesus Christ paid to the ceremonial law of Moses. He bids the leper "go and show himself to the priest," according to the requirement in Leviticus, that he may be legally pronounced clean. He bids him offer an offering on the occasion of his doing so, "according as Moses commanded." Our Lord knew well that the ceremonies of the Mosaic law were only shadows and figures of good things to come, and had in themselves no inherent power. He knew well that the last days of the Levitical institutions were close at hand, and that they were soon to be laid aside forever. But so long as they were not abrogated He would have them respected. They were ordained by God Himself. They were pictures and lively emblems of the Gospel. They were not therefore to be lightly esteemed.

There is a lesson here for Christians, which we shall do well to remember. Let us take heed that we do not despise the ceremonial law, because its work is done. Let us beware of neglecting those parts of the Bible, which contain it, under the idea that the believer in the Gospel has nothing to do with them. It is true that the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth. (1 John 2:8.) We have nothing to do now with altars, sacrifices, or priests. Those who wish to revive them are like men who light a candle at noon day. But true as this is, we must never forget that the ceremonial law is still full of instruction. It contains that same Gospel in the bud, which we now see in full flower. Rightly understood we shall always find it throwing strong light on the Gospel of Christ. The Bible reader who neglects to study it, will always find at least that by the neglect his soul has suffered damage.

We see, lastly, in this passage, our Lord Jesus Christ’s diligence about private prayer. Although "great multitudes came together to hear, and to be healed by him of their infirmities," He still made time for secret devotion. Holy and undefiled as He was He would not allow the demands of public business to prevent regular private intercourse with God. We are told that "He withdrew himself into the wilderness and prayed."

There is an example set before us here, which is much overlooked in these latter days. There are few professing Christians, it may be feared, who strive to imitate Christ in this matter of private devotion. There is abundance of hearing, and reading, and talking, and profession, and visiting, and almsgiving, and subscribing to societies, and teaching at schools. But is there, together with all this, a due proportion of private prayer? Are believing men and women sufficiently careful to be frequently alone with God? These are humbling and heart-searching questions. But we shall find it useful to give them an answer.

Why is it that there is so much apparent religious working, and yet so little result in positive conversions to God,—so many sermons, and so few souls saved,—so much machinery, and so little effect produced,—so much running hither and thither, and yet so few brought to Christ? Why is all this? The reply is short and simple. There is not enough private prayer. The cause of Christ does not need less working, but it does need among the workers more praying. Let us each examine ourselves, and amend our ways. The most successful workmen in the Lord’s vineyard, are those who are like their Master, often and much upon their knees.



v12.[A man full of leprosy.] Gill, in his commentary on this passage, gives a long list of the symptoms and indications of leprosy, as laid down by Galen, Aretæus, Pontanus, Ægineta, Cardan, and others. Those who wish to study the subject are recommended to read what he has compiled. It will be found more interesting to medical men than to general readers.

The disease of leprosy is still to be found in some parts of the world, though comparatively unknown in England. There is said to be a small island on the coast of South Africa, near the Cape of Good Hope, which is appropriated by the Colonial Government to lepers. It is mentioned in "M’Cheyne’s Memoirs," p. 200.

v13.[I will.] It is remarked by Mr. Burgon that this "is the saying of God, and of God only,—the saying of Him, whose almighty will is the cause of all things. When His servants wrought miracles, far different were the phrases they used. Joseph says, ’It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace.’ " Genesis 41:16.

v16.[Withdrew himself.] Gualter remarks on this expression that it should teach ministers of the Gospel to beware of too much familiarity, and too frequent public intercourse with their hearers. He considers that excessive familiarity between ministers and hearers leads to contempt, and that habits of privacy and retirement are on every account essential to a minister’s position.

[and prayed.] This frequent mention of our Lord’s praying is peculiar to Luke. Wordsworth remarks, "a similar instance is seen in his narrative of our Lord’s baptism, and of the transfiguration. (Luke 3:21, and Luke 9:28-29.) The Gentiles, for whom Luke’s Gospel was especially designed, needed instruction in the duty and benefits of prayer. Accordingly this subject occupies a prominent place in his Gospel. It is eminently the Gospel of prayer." See Luke 6:12. Luke 9:18, Luke 9:28. Luke 11:1. Luke 18:1. Luke 22:41, Luke 22:46.

Verses 17-26

A THREEFOLD miracle demands our attention in these verses. At one and the same time, we see our Lord forgiving sins, reading men’s thoughts, and healing a palsy. He that could do such things, and do them with such perfect ease and authority, must indeed be very God. Power like this was never possessed by man.

Let us mark, firstly, in this passage, what pains men will take about an object when they are in earnest. The friends of a man, sick with the palsy, desired to bring him to Jesus that he might be cured. At first they were unable to do it, because of the crowd by which our Lord was surrounded. What, then, did they do? "They went upon the house-top, and let him down through the tiling, with his couch, into the midst before Jesus." At once their object was gained. Our Lord’s attention was drawn to their sick friend, and he was healed. By pains, and labor, and perseverance, his friends succeeded in obtaining for him the mighty blessing of a complete cure.

The importance of pains and diligence, is a truth that meets our eyes on every side. In every calling, and vocation, and trade, we see that labor is one prominent secret of success. It is not by luck or accident that men prosper, but by hard working. Fortunes are not made without trouble and attention, by bankers and merchants. Practice is not secured without diligence and study, by lawyers and physicians. The principle is one with which the children of this world are perfectly familiar. It is one of their favorite maxims, that there are "no gains without pains."

Let us thoroughly understand that pains and diligence are just as essential to the well-being and prosperity of our souls as of our bodies. In all our endeavors to draw near to God, in all our approaches to Christ, there ought to be the same determined earnestness which was shown by this sick man’s friends. We must allow no difficulties to check us, and no obstacle to keep us back from anything which is really for our spiritual good. Specially must we bear this in mind in the matter of regularly reading the Bible, hearing the Gospel, keeping the Sabbath holy, and private prayer. On all these points we must beware of laziness and an excuse-making spirit. Necessity must be the mother of invention. If we cannot find means of keeping up these habits in one way, we must in another. But we must settle in our minds, that the thing shall be done. The health of our soul is at stake. Let the crowd of difficulties be what it may, we must get through it. If the children of this world take so much pains about a corruptible crown, we ought to take far more pains about one that is incorruptible.

Why is it that so many people take no pains in religion? How is it that they can never find time for praying, Bible reading and hearing the Gospel? What is the secret of their continual string of excuses for neglecting means of grace? How is it that the very same men who are full of zeal about money, business, pleasure, or politics, will take no trouble about their souls?—The answer to these questions is short and simple. These men are not in earnest about salvation. They have no sense of spiritual disease. They have no consciousness of requiring a Spiritual Physician. They do not feel that their souls are in danger of dying eternally. They see no use in taking trouble about religion. In darkness like this thousands live and die. Happy indeed are they who have found out their peril, and count all things loss if they may only win Christ, and be found in Him!

Let us mark, secondly, the kindness and compassion of our Lord Jesus Christ. Twice in this passage we see Him speaking most graciously to the poor sufferer who was brought before Him. At first He addressed to him those marvelous and heart-cheering words, "Man, thy sins are forgiven thee." Afterwards He adds words, which in point of comfort, must have been second only to the blessing of forgiveness. "Arise," He says, "and take up thy couch, and go into thy house." First He assures him that his soul is healed. Then He tells him that his body is cured, and sends him away rejoicing.

Let us never forget this part of our Lord’s character. Christ’s loving kindness to His people never changes, and never fails. It is a deep well of which no one ever found the bottom. It began from all eternity, before they were born. It chose, called, and quickened them when they were dead in trespasses and sins. It drew them to God and changed their character, and put a new will in their minds, and a new song in their mouths. It has borne with them in all their waywardness and shortcomings. It will never allow them to be separated from God. It will flow ever forward, like a mighty river, through the endless ages of eternity. Christ’s love and mercy must be a sinner’s plea when he first begins his journey. Christ’s love and mercy will be his only plea when he crosses the dark river and enters home. Let us seek to know this love by inward experience, and prize it more. Let it constrain us more continually to live, not to ourselves, but to Him who died for us and rose again.

Let us mark, lastly, our Lord Jesus Christ’s perfect knowledge of the thoughts of men. We read that when the Scribes and Pharisees began to reason secretly among themselves, and privately charge our Lord with blasphemy, He knew what they were about and put them to an open shame. It is written, that "He perceived their thoughts."

It should be a daily and habitual reflection with us that we can keep nothing secret from Christ. To Him apply the words of Paul, "all things are naked and opened to the eyes of him with whom we have to do." (Hebrews 4:13.) To Him belong the solemn expressions of the 139th Psalm,—the Psalm which every Christian should often study. There is not a word in our mouths, nor an imagination in our hearts, but Jesus knows it altogether. (Psalms 139:4.)

How many searchings of heart this mighty truth ought to awaken within us! Christ ever sees us! Christ always knows us! Christ daily reads and observes our acts, words and thoughts!—The recollection of this should alarm the wicked and drive them from their sins! Their wickedness is not hid, and will one day be fearfully exposed, except they repent. It should frighten hypocrites out of their hypocrisy. They may deceive man, but they are not deceiving Christ. It should quicken and comfort all sincere believers. They should remember that a loving Master is looking at them, and should do all as in His sight. Above all, they should feel that, however mocked and slandered by the world, they are fairly and justly measured by their Savior’s eye. They can say, "Thou, Lord, who knowest all things, knowest that I love Thee." (John 21:17.)



v17.—[To heal them.] We must not suppose that this means "to heal the Pharisees." Mr. Burgon remarks: "To heal whom? The Pharisees and doctors of the law? Clearly not. The truth is, the whole scene rose up before the Evangelist, while he wrote, so that he used the word ’them,’ with reference to the many sick persons who had been brought to our Saviour on this occasion, and were waiting for an opportunity of being healed."

v19.—[Let him down through the tiling.] In order to understand this we must remember the construction of houses in the countries where our Lord preached. It was, and is now, a common practice to construct them with a flat roof, and a small square or court yard in the midst of the building. Access was obtained to the roof by a stair-case outside, so that a person might ascend to the roof without entering the house. Around the sides of the courtyard a shelter was provided, extending from the walls of the house towards the middle. Sometimes this shelter was made of canvass or cloth, sometimes of light tiling. The use of this shelter was to enable people to sit in the open air of the court-yard, and at the same time to be protected against the rain or sun.

In the case before us, our Lord appears to have been preaching and teaching in the court-yard of the house, under cover of the tiling projecting from one of the sides. The friends of the paralytic man being unable to make their way into the court-yard, because of the crowd, carried him up the stair-case outside the building, and so reached the flat roof of the house. They then removed that portion of the tiling which was above the place where our Lord was preaching, and let down their friend in his bed by ropes into the court-yard below.

Unless we entirely dismiss from our minds all conceptions of a house drawn from the construction of houses in England, the whole history of the circumstances of the miracle must be unintelligible. Bearing in mind what Eastern houses both were and are, it becomes clear and plain.

v26.—[They were all amazed.] The word so rendered might be more literally translated, "Amazement took them all." The word used for amazement is the same that is translated in three places as "a trance." (Acts 10:10. Acts 11:5. and Acts 22:17.) Suicer quotes Epiphanius to show that it is the word used concerning "the highest sort of admiration or wonder."

[Strange things.] The word so translated is only used,, in this place in the New Testament. It is literally "paradoxes," things contrary to all common opinion and ordinary experience.

Verses 27-32

THE verses we have now read, ought to be deeply interesting to every one who knows the value of an immortal soul, and desires salvation. They describe the conversion and experience of one of Christ’s earliest disciples. We too are all by nature born in sin, and need conversion. Let us see what we know of the mighty change. Let us compare our own experience with that of the man whose case is here described, and by comparison learn wisdom.

We are taught, in this passage, the power of Christ’s calling grace. We read that our Lord called a publican named Levi to become one of His disciples. This man belonged to a class who were a very proverb for wickedness among the Jews. Yet even to him our Lord says, "Follow me."—We read furthermore, that such mighty influence on Levi’s heart accompanied our Lord’s words, that although "sitting at the receipt of custom," when called, he at once "left all, rose up, followed" Christ, and became a disciple.

We must never despair of any one’s salvation, so long as he lives, after reading a case like this. We must never say of anyone that he is too wicked, or too hardened, or too worldly to become a Christian. No sins are too many, or too bad, to be forgiven. No heart is too hard or too worldly to be changed. He who called Levi still lives, and is the same that He was 1800 years ago. With Christ nothing is impossible.

How is it with ourselves? This, after all, is the grand question. Are we waiting, and delaying, and hanging back, under the idea that the cross is too heavy, and that we can never serve Christ? Let us cast such thoughts away at once and forever. Let us believe that Christ can enable us by His Spirit to give up all, and come out from the world. Let us remember that He who called Levi never changes. Let us take up the cross boldly, and go forward.

We are taught, secondly, in this passage, that conversion is a cause of joy to a true believer. We read, that when Levi was converted, he made a "great feast in his own house." A feast is made for laughter and merriment. (Ecclesiastes 10:19.) Levi regarded the change in himself as an occasion of rejoicing, and wished others to rejoice with him.

We can easily imagine that Levi’s conversion was a cause of grief to his worldly friends. They saw him giving up a profitable calling, to follow a new teacher from Nazareth! They doubtless regarded his conduct as a grievous piece of folly, and an occasion for sorrow rather than joy. They only looked at his temporal losses by becoming a Christian. Of his spiritual gains they knew nothing. And there are many like them. There are aways thousands of people who, if they hear of a relation being converted, consider it rather a misfortune. Instead of rejoicing, they only shake their heads and mourn.

Let us, however, settle it in our minds that Levi did right to rejoice, and if we are converted, let us rejoice likewise. Nothing can happen to a man which ought to be such an occasion of joy, as his conversion. It is a far more important event than being married, or coming of age, or being made a nobleman, or receiving a great fortune. It is the birth of an immortal soul! It is the rescue of a sinner from hell! It is a passage from life to death! It is being made a king and priest for evermore! It is being provided for, both in time and eternity! It is adoption into the noblest and richest of all families, the family of God!

Let us not heed the opinion of the world in this matter. They speak evil of things which they know not. Let us, with Levi, consider every fresh conversion as a cause for great rejoicing. Never ought there to be such joy, gladness, and congratulation, as when our sons, or daughters, or brethren, or sisters, or friends, are born again and brought to Christ. The words of the prodigal’s father should be remembered:—"It was meet that we should make merry and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found." (Luke 15:32.)

We are taught, thirdly, in this passage, that converted souls desire to promote the conversion of others. We are told that when Levi was converted, and had made a feast on the occasion, he invited "a great company of publicans" to share it. Most probably these men were his old friends and companions. He knew well what their souls needed, for he had been one of them. He desired to make them acquainted with that Savior who had been merciful to himself. Having found mercy, he wanted them also to find it. Having been graciously delivered from the bondage of sin, he wished others also to be set free.

This feeling of Levi will always be the feeling of a true Christian. It may be safely asserted that there is no grace in the man who cares nothing about the salvation of his fellow men. The heart which is really taught by the Holy Ghost, will always be full of love, charity, and compassion. The soul which has been truly called of God, will earnestly desire that others may experience the same calling. A converted man will not wish to go to heaven alone.

How is it with ourselves in this matter? Do we know anything of Levi’s spirit after his conversion? Do we strive in every way to make our friends and relatives acquainted with Christ? Do we say to others, as Moses to Hobab, "Come with us, and we will do you good"? (Numbers 10:29.) Do we say as the Samaritan woman, "Come, see a man that told me all that ever I did"? Do we cry to our brethren as Andrew did to Simeon, "We have found the Christ"?—These are very serious questions. They supply a most searching test of the real condition of our souls. Let us not shrink from applying it. There is not enough of a missionary spirit amongst Christians. It should not satisfy us to be safe ourselves. We ought also to try to do good to others. All cannot go to the heathen, but every believer should strive to be a missionary to his fellow men. Having received mercy, we should not hold our peace.

We are taught, lastly, in this passage, one of the chief objects of Christ’s coming into the world. We have it in the well-known word, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."

This is that great lesson of the Gospel which, in one form or another, we find continually taught in the New Testament. It is one which we can never have too strongly impressed upon our minds. Such is our natural ignorance and self-righteousness in religion, that we are constantly losing sight of it. We need to be frequently reminded, that Jesus did not come merely as a teacher, but as the Savior of that which was utterly lost, and that those only can receive benefit from Him who will confess that they are ruined, bankrupt, hopeless, miserable sinners.

Let us use this mighty truth, if we never used it before. Are we sensible of our own wickedness and sinfulness? Do we feel that we are unworthy of anything but wrath and condemnation? Then let us understand that we are the very persons for whose sake Jesus came into the world. If we feel ourselves righteous, Christ has nothing to say to us. But if we feel ourselves sinners, Christ calls us to repentance. Let not the call be made in vain.

Let us go on using this mighty truth, if we have used it in time past. Do we find our own hearts weak and deceitful? Do we often feel that "when we would do good, evil is present with us"? (Romans 7:21.) It may be all true, but it must not prevent our resting on Christ. He "came in to the world to save sinners," and if we feel ourselves such, we have warrant for applying to, and trusting in Him to our life’s end. One thing only let us never forget: Christ came to call us to repentance, and not to sanction our continuing in sin.



v27.[A Publican named Levi.] The person called Levi here, is called Matthew in Matthew’s Gospel, and Levi in Mark’s. It is almost universally agreed that it is one and the same person, Matthew the apostle. Like some others in the Bible, he had two names.

It is hardly necessary to observe that a publican means a collector of public taxes.

[At the receipt of custom.] The Greek word so translated does not necessarily mean that Levi was in the very act of receiving money. It might be rendered with equal correctness, "At the place where taxes were received." This seems the more probable meaning.

v28.[He left all, rose up, &c.] We must be careful not to suppose that Levi neglected his duty to the government, and inflicted loss on his employers, by this sudden action here recorded, in leaving his post. It is highly probable that, like many tax gatherers and toll collectors, he hired the tolls, at the place where our Lord found him, by the year, and paid in advance. This being the case, if he chose to leave his post, he did so entirely at his own loss, but the government was not defrauded. Watson remarks, "Had Levi been a government servant hired at a salary like our custom-house officers, to collect the duties, he must in justice have remained until a successor was appointed. But having himself purchased the tolls and dues for a given period, he was at liberty to throw up the office of exacting them at pleasure."

v29.[A great feast.] The word translated "feast," is only used here and Luke 14:13. It means a kind of large reception banquet, such as only wealthy people could give, and at which the guests were numerous. The worldly sacrifice which Levi made in becoming Christ’s disciple, was probably greater than that made by any of the apostles.

v32.[Call...to repentance.] Let it be carefully noted here, as well as elsewhere, that our Lord’s call to sinners is not a bare call to become his disciples, but a call "to repentance."

Stella, the Spanish annotator, remarks on this verse: "You must not understand from this, that Christ found some who were righteous. For the sentence of Paul is true; ’all have sinned.’ Christ calls these Scribes and Pharisees righteous, not because they were really so, but only according to the common estimation and appearance of them."

Verses 33-39

WE should observe in these verses, that men may disagree on the lesser points of religion, while they agree on its weightier matters. We have this brought out in the alleged difference between the disciples of John the Baptist, and the disciples of Christ. The question was put to our Lord, "Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees, but thine eat and drink?"

We cannot suppose that there was any essential difference between the doctrines held by these two parties of disciples. The teaching of John the Baptist was doubtless clear and explicit upon all the main points necessary to salvation. The man who could say of Jesus, "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world," was not likely to teach his followers anything contrary to the Gospel. His teaching of course lacked the fullness and perfection of his divine Master’s teaching, but it is absurd to suppose that it contradicted it. Nevertheless there were points of practice on which his disciples differed from those of Christ. Agreeing, as they doubtless did, about the necessity of repentance, and faith, and holiness, they disagreed about such matters as fasting, eating, drinking, and manner of public devotion. One in heart, and hope, and aim, as they were about the weightier matters of inward religion, they were not entirely of one mind about outward matters.

We must make up our minds to see differences of this kind among Christians so long as the world stands. We may regret them much, because of the handle they give to an ignorant and prejudiced world. But they will exist, and are one of the many evidences of our fallen condition. About church government, about the manner of conducting public worship, about fasts and feasts, and saint’s days, and ceremonials, Christians have never been entirely of one mind, even from the days of the apostles. On all these points the holiest and ablest servants of God have arrived at different conclusions. Argument, reasoning, persuasion, persecution, have all alike proved unable to produce unity.

Let us, however, bless God that there are many points on which all true servants of God are thoroughly agreed. About sin and salvation, about repentance, and faith, and holiness, there is a mighty unity among all believers, of every name, and nation, and people, and tongue. Let us make much of these points in our own personal religion. These, after all, are the principal things which we shall think of in the hour of death, and the day of judgment. On other matters we must agree to differ. It will signify little at the last day what we thought about fasting, and eating, and drinking, and ceremonies. Did we repent, and bring forth fruits meet for repentance? Did we behold the Lamb of God by faith, and receive Him as our Savior? All, of every church, who are found right on these points, will be saved. All, of every church, who are found wrong on these points, will be lost for evermore.

We should observe, secondly, in these verses, the name by which our Lord Jesus Christ speaks of Himself. Twice He calls Himself "the Bridegroom."

The name "bridegroom," like every name applied to our Lord in the Bible, is full of instruction. It is a name peculiarly comforting and encouraging to all true Christians. It teaches the deep and tender love with which Jesus regards all sinners of mankind, who believe in Him. Weak, and unworthy, and short-coming as they are in themselves, He feels towards them a tender affection, even as a husband does towards his wife.—It teaches the close and intimate union, which exists between Jesus and believers. It is something far nearer than the union of king and subject, master and servant, teacher and scholar, shepherd and sheep. It is the closest of all unions, the union of husband and wife,—the union of which it is written, "what God hath joined together, let no man put asunder."—Above all, the name teaches that entire participation of all that Jesus is and has, which is the privilege of every believer. Just as the husband gives to his wife his name, makes her partaker of his property, home, and dignity, and undertakes all her debts and liabilities, so does Christ deal with all true Christians. He takes on Himself all their sins. He declares that they are a part of Himself, and that he who hurts them hurts Him. He gives them, even in this world, such good things as pass man’s understanding. And He promises that in the next world they shall sit with Him on His throne, and go out from His presence no more.

If we know anything of true and saving religion, let us often rest our souls on this name and office of Christ. Let us remember daily, that the weakest of Christ’s people are cared for with a tender care that passeth knowledge, and that whosoever hurts them is hurting the apple of Christ’s eye. In this world we may be poor and contemptible, and laughed at because of our religion. But if we have faith, we are precious in the sight of Christ. The Bridegroom of our soul will one day plead our cause before the whole world.

We should observe, lastly, in these verses, how gently and tenderly Christ would have His people deal with young and inexperienced Christians. He teaches us this lesson by two parables, drawn from the affairs of daily life. He shows the folly of sewing "new cloth on an old garment," or of putting "new wine into old bottles." In like manner, He would have us know, there is a want of harmony between a new dispensation and an old one. It is vain to expect those who have been trained and taught under one system, to become immediately used to another system. On the contrary, they must be led on by degrees, and taught as they are able to bear.

The lesson is one which all true Christians would do well to lay to heart, and none perhaps so much as Christian ministers and Christian parents. Forgetfulness of it often does much harm to the cause of truth. The hard judgments and unreasonable expectations of old disciples have often driven back and discouraged young beginners in the school of Christ.

Let us settle it in our minds, that grace must have a beginning in every believer’s heart, and that we have no right to say a man has no grace, because it does not come to full ripeness at once. We do not expect a child to do the work of a full-grown man, though he may one day, if he lives long enough. We must not expect a learner of Christianity to show the faith, and love, and knowledge of an old soldier of the cross. He may become by and bye a mighty champion of the truth. But at first we must give him time. There is great need of wisdom in dealing with young people about religion, and, generally speaking, with all young disciples. Kindness, and patience, and gentleness, are of the first importance. We must not try to pour in the new wine too quickly, or it will run over. We must take them by the hand and lead them on gently. We must beware of frightening, or hurrying them, or pressing them on too fast. If they have only got hold of the main principles of the Gospel, let us not set them down as godless, because of a few lesser matters. We must bear with much weakness and infirmity, and not expect to find old heads on young shoulders, or ripe experience in those who are only babes. There was deep wisdom in Jacob’s saying, "If men should over-drive them one day, all the flock will die." (Genesis 33:13.)



v33.—[Thine eat and drink.] We must not suppose from this expression, that the disciples of our Lord were charged with neglecting to pray. A careless reader might fancy it was so. It is evident from the whole tone of our Lord’s answer, that this was not the charge brought against them. The real charge was, that our Lord’s disciples "did not fast."

v34.—[Bridechamber...bridegroom.] There is a peculiar beauty in our Lord’s use of these figures about Himself and His people, when we remember that John the Baptist himself had used them when speaking of Him to his own disciples. (John 3:29.) If any of John’s disciples were among those who questioned Him on this question, His expression would doubtless remind them of their master’s teaching.

v35.—[Then shall they fast.] This expression has led many to suppose that from the time when our Lord Jesus Christ left the world, literal fasting from meats and drinks at certain seasons, was to be the duty of all Christians.

There seems no ground for this sweeping conclusion. That fasting and abstinence were occasionally practised by believers after our Lord’s ascension is clear and plain. That all who may find the practice useful and helpful to their souls at the present day are right in fasting, if they do it without ostentation, is also plain. But the utter absence of any direct injunction, or command to keep fasts in the Church of Christ, either in the Acts or Epistles, and specially in the Epistles to Timothy and Titus, makes it clear that the matter is one which should be handled with caution, and on which every one must be "persuaded in his own mind."

The words before us appear to have a deeper meaning than any mere abstinence from food. They seem to foretell that the period of time between our Lord’s first and second advent must be a time of mourning and humiliation to all true believers. They describe the state of mind in which all true Christians should live until their Lord returns. It is a time for daily and hourly self-denial, and mortification. The time of fulness and satisfaction cannot be until we see the Bridegroom amongst us again.

v36.—[He spake also a parable.] The parables of the new piece on the old garment, and the new wine into old bottles, are not without difficulty. It is curious to observe how variously they are interpreted and applied to the subject matter in dispute between our Lord and the Pharisees, by commentators on this passage.

It appears to me that, as in many of our Lord’s parables, so in the two before us, we must be careful not to press particular expressions too far, or to seek a spiritual meaning for each individual portion of the whole.

The general truth our Lord desires to enforce on His hearers is the acknowledged incongruity between things old and new, and the unreasonableness of expecting persons accustomed to one system immediately to adopt another as soon as it appears. If we insist on going beyond this point, and must assign a meaning to "the patch," "the rent" and the like, I think we shall only darken counsel, and take nothing by our toil. At any rate all who have attempted it, appear to me to have failed.

v39.—[The old is better.] It seems very likely that in this concluding verse our Lord specially refers to the disciples of John the Baptist. They had drunk of the "old wine" of John’s teaching, and could hardly be expected to become straightway attached to the "new wine" of our Lord’s kingdom.

Wordsworth remarks, that the beginning of this sentence is a pure Iambic verse, and may perhaps be a poetical proverb adopted by our Lord, of which Luke here gives the Greek form. He reminds us that even when our Lord appeared to Saul, on the way to Damascus, He condescended to use a Gentile proverb. (Acts 9:5.)

Bibliographical Information
Ryle, J. C. "Commentary on Luke 5". "Ryle's Expository Thoughts on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ryl/luke-5.html.
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