A beast riseth out of the sea with seven heads and ten horns, to whom the dragon giveth his power. Another beast cometh up out of the earth; causeth an image to be made of the former beast, and that men should worship it, and receive his mark.
Anno Domini 96.
Revelation 13:1.— In this chapter we have a further account of the state of the church and world, in the third period. The representation of the wild beasts, in this vision, refers to the same times with the two former visions, of the witnesses prophesying in sackcloth, and the woman flying into the wilderness. Power is given unto the beast to continue, or to make war, and prevail forty and two months. This vision gives a more distinct account of the manner and means by which the true church and worshippers of God should be persecuted, and so greatly oppressed, as is represented by the woman's flying into the wilderness, and the slaying of the witnesses: so that this representation, in conjunction with the two former, will afford us a sufficient description of the state of providence and the church, with the useful lessons of caution, patience, and faithfulness, in times of great corruption and danger: which seem to be the principal intentions of the Spirit of prophesy, in the whole of these revelations. See the following note.
Revelation 13:1-8. And I stood upon the sand, &c.— Here the beast is described at large, who was only mentioned before, ch. Revelation 11:7. And a beast in the prophetic style, is a tyrannical, idolatrous person or empire. The kingdom of Christ is never represented under the image of a beast. As the prophet, Daniel 7:2-3 beheld four great beasts, representing the four great empires, come up from a stormy sea (that is, from the commotions of the world); so St. John, Revelation 13:1 saw this beast, in like manner, rise up out of the sea. He was said, chap. Revelation 11:7 to ascend out of the abyss, or bottomless pit; and it is said, ch. Revelation 17:8 that he shall ascend out of the abyss, or Bottomless pit; but here he is said to ascend out of the sea; so that the sea, and abyss, or bottomless pit, are in these passages the same. No doubt is to be made that this beast was designed to represent the Roman empire; for thus far both ancients and moderns, Protestants and Papists, are agreed: the only controversy is, whether it was Rome pagan or Christian, imperial or papal. St. John saw this beast rising out of the sea, but the Roman empire was risen and established long before St. John's time; and therefore this must be the Roman empire, not in its then present, but in some future shape and form; and it arose in another shape and form, after it was broken to pieces by the incursions of the northern nations. The beast had seven heads and ten horns; which are well known marks of the Roman empire; the seven heads alluding to the seven mountains whereon Rome was seated, and to the seven forms of government which successively prevailed there; and the ten horns signifying the ten kingdoms, into which the Roman empire was divided. It is remarkable, that the dragon had seven croons upon his heads, ch. Revelation 12:3 but the beast has upon his horns ten crowns; so that there has been in the mean while a revolution of power, from the heads of the dragon to the horns of the beast; and the sovereignty, which before was exercised by Rome alone, was now transferred and divided among ten kingdoms: but the Roman empire was not divided into ten kingdoms till after it was become Christian. Althoughthe heads had lost their crowns, yet they still retained the names of blasphemy. In all its heads, in all its forms of government, Rome was still guilty of idolatry and blasphemy. Imperial Rome was called, and delighted to be called, the eternal or heavenly city, the goddess, and the goddess of the earth; and she had her temples and altars with incense and sacrifice offered up to her: and how papal Rome likewise has arrogated to herself divine titles and honours, will be shewn in the following part of this description. As the fourth beast, Daniel 7:7 was without a name, and devoured and brake in pieces the three former; so this beast is also without a name, (Revelation 13:2.) and partakes of the nature and qualities of the three former; having the body of a leopard, which was the third beast, or Grecian empire; and the feet of a bear, which was the second beast, or Persian empire; and the mouth of a lion, which was the first beast, or Babylonian empire; and consequently this must be the same as Daniel's fourth beast, or the Roman empire. But still it is not the same beast, the same empire entirely, but with some variation. And the dragon gave him his power,—or his armies; and his seat,—or, his imperial throne, and great authority, or jurisdiction over all the parts of his empire. The beast, therefore, is the successor and substitute of the dragon, or of the idolatrous heathen Roman empire: and what other idolatrous power has succeeded to the heathen emperors in Rome, all the world is ajudge and a witness. The dragon, having failed in his purpose of restoring the old heathen idolatry, delegates his power to the beast; and thereby introduces a new species of idolatry, nominally different, but essentially the same;—the worship of angels and saints, instead of the gods and demi-gods of antiquity. Another mark whereby the beast was peculiarly distinguished, was, one of his heads, as it were wounded, &c. Revelation 13:3. It will appear hereafter that this head was the sixth head; for five were fallen, ch. Revelation 17:10 before St. John's time: and the sixth head was that of the Caesars or emperors; there having been before, kings, and consuls, and dictators, and decemvirs, and military tribunes with consular authority. This sixth head was as it were wounded unto death, when the Roman empire was overturned by the northern nations, and an end was put to the very name of emperor in Momyllus Augustulus; or rather, as the government of the Gothic kings was the same as that of the emperors, with only a change of the name, this head was more effectually wounded to death, when Rome was reduced to a poor dukedom, and made tributary to the exarchate of Ravenna. But, not only one of his heads was wounded to death, but his deadly wound was healed. If it was the sixth head which was wounded, that wound could not be healed by the rising of the seventh head; the same head which was wounded must be healed; and this was effected by the pope and people of Rome revolting from the exarchate of Ravenna, and proclaiming Charles the Great, Augustus and emperor of the Romans. Then the wounded imperial head was healed again, and has subsisted ever since. At this time, partly through the pope, and partly through the emperor, supporting and strengthening each other, the Roman name again became formidable: and all the world wondered after the heart, and they worshipped the dragon which gave power to the beast, &c. Revelation 13:4. No kingdom or empire was like that of the beast; it had not a parallel upon earth, and it was in vain for any to resist or oppose it; it prevailed and triumphed over all; and all the world, in submitting thus to the religion of the beast, did in effect submit again to the religion of the dragon; it being the old idolatry with only new names: for the worshipping of demons andidols is in effect the worshipping of devils. Wonderful as the beast was, his words and actions are no less wonderful, Revelation 13:5-8. He perfectly resembles the little horn, Daniel 7:8; Daniel 7:21; Daniel 7:25. On comparing the passage in the prophet with this before us, we find, that not only the same images, but also the same words, are employed; and the portraits being so perfectly alike, it might fairly be presumed, if there were no other argument, that they were both drawn for the same person: it is the Roman beast, in his last state, or under his seventh head. And he hath a mouth speaking great things, and blasphemies: and what can be greater things and blasphemies than the claims of being "Universal bishop," "Infallible judge of all controversies,""Sovereign of kings," "Vicegerent of Christ," and "God upon earth?" He hath also power to continue, or rather, to practise, to prevail, and prosper forty and two months. It does not follow, that the beast is to continue, or to exist for no longer a term; but he is to practise, to prosper, and prevail forty and two months, as the holy city, ch. Revelation 11:2 is to be trodden down of the Gentiles forty and two months, which are the one thousand two hundred and sixty days, or years, of the reign of antichrist. But if by the beast be understood the heathen Roman empire, that empire, instead of subsisting one thousand two hundred and sixty, did not subsist four hundred years after the date of this prophesy. After this account of the blasphemies of the beast, there follows a specification of particulars. He opened his mouth in blasphemy against God; (Revelation 13:6.) blasphemy against God may not only consist in speaking dishonourably of the Supreme Being; but likewise in attributing to the creature what belongs to the Creator; which is often the sense of the word in scripture; as in Isaiah 65:7. He blasphemes the name of God, by assuming the divine titles and honours to himself, as it is expressed in Wisdom of Solomon 14:21. He blasphemes the tabernacle of God, his temple, and his church, by calling true Christians, who are the houseof God, schismatics and heretics, and anathematizing them accordingly.He blasphemes them that dwell in heaven, angels and glorified saints, by idolatrous worship and impious adoration; and disgraces their acts, and vilifies their memories, by fabulous legends and lying wonders. It was given unto him to make war with the saints and to overcome them, Revelation 13:7. And who can make any computation, or even frame any conception, of the number of pious Christians who have fallen a sacrifice to the bigotry and cruelty of Rome? In the war of the Albigenses and Waldenses, there perished of these poor people, in France alone, a million! From the first institution of the Jesuits to the year 1480, that is, in little more than thirty years, nine hundred thousand Christians were slain. In the Netherlands alone, the Duke of Alva boasted, that within a few years he had dispatched to the amount of thirty-six thousand souls by the hand ofthe common executioner. In the space of scarcely thirty years, the inquisition destroyed, by various kinds of tortures, one hundred and fifty thousand Christians! No wonder that the beast should, by these means, obtain an universal authority over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations, and establish his dominion in all the countries of the western Roman empire; and that they should submit to his decrees, and adore his person, except the faithful few, whose names, as citizens of heaven, are enrolled in the registers of life. Let the Roman catholics boast, therefore, that theirs is the Catholic church, and universal empire; this is so far from being any evidence of the truth, that it is the very brand infixed by the spirit of prophesy.
Revelation 13:9-10. If any man have an ear, &c.— It was customary with our Saviour, when he would have his auditors pay a particular attention to what he had been saying, to add, He who hath ears to hear, &c. St. John, as our Lord's amanuensis, repeats the same admonition at the end of each of his seven epistles to the seven churches, ch. Revelation 2:3 : and here, in the conclusion of his description of the beast, if any man have an ear, &c. and certainly the description of the beast is deserving of the higherattention,uponmanyaccounts;andparticularly,becausetherightinterpretation of this book turns upon it, as one of its main hinges. It is added by way of consolation to the church, that these enemies of God and Christ, represented under the beast, shall suffer the law of retaliation, and be as remarkably punished and tormented themselves as they punished and tormented others, Revelation 13:10.—Here is the patience and faith of the saints. Of all the trials and persecutions of the church, this would be the most severe, and exceed those of the primitive times, both in degree and duration. See as above.
Revelation 13:11-18. I beheld another beast, &c.— From the description of the ten horned beast, or Roman state in general, the prophet passes to that of the two horned beast, or Roman church in particular. The beast with ten crowned horns, is the Roman empire, as divided into ten kingdoms; the beast with two horns like a lamb, is the Roman hierarchy, or body of the clergy regular and secular. This beast is called the false prophet, Revelation 19 than which there cannot be a stronger or plainer argument to prove that false doctors or teachers were particularly designed. For the false prophet no more than the beast is a single man, but a body or succession of men, propagating false doctrines, and teaching lies for sacred truths. As the first beast rose up out of the sea, that is, out of the wars and tumults of the world; so this beast (Revelation 13:11.) groweth up out of the earth, like plants, gradually, silently, and without noise. He had two horns like a lamb; he had, both regular and secular, the appearance of a lamb; he pretended to derive his powers from the Lamb of God, and to be like the lamb, all meekness and mildness. But he spake as a dragon; he had a voice of terror like the Roman emperors, in usurping divine titles, in commanding idolatry, and in persecuting and slaying the true worshippers of God, the faithful servants of Jesus Christ. He is an ecclesiastical person, but intermixeth himself much in civil affairs. He is the prime minister, adviser, and mover of the first beast, or the beast before mentioned:—He exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, Revelation 13:12. He holdeth imperium in imperio, an empire within an empire; claims a temporal authority as well as a spiritual; and enforces canons and decrees with the sword of the civil magistrate. As the first beast concurs to maintain his authority, so he, in return, confirms and maintains the sovereignty and dominion of the first beast over his subjects; and causeth the earth, and them who dwell therein, to worship the first beast, &c. He supports tyranny, as he is by tyranny supported: he enslaves the consciences, as the first beast subjugates the bodies of men. Such is the power and authority of the beast. We shall now see what courses he pursues to establish it. He doeth great miracles, &c. (Revelation 13:13.) He pretends, like other false prophets, to shew signs and wonders, and even to call fire from heaven, as Elias did, 2 Kings 10:12. His impostures too are so successful, that he deceiveth them that dwell on the earth, &c. (Revelation 13:14.) In this respect he resembles St. Paul's man of sin, 2 Thessalonians 2:9 or rather, they are one and the same character, represented in different lights, and under different names. It is farther observable, that he is said to perform his miracles in the sight of men, in order to deceive them; and in the sight of the beast, in order to serve him; but not in the sight of God, to serve his cause, or promote his religion. Now miracles, visions, and revelations, are the mighty boast of the church of Rome; the contrivances of an artful cunning clergy, to impose upon an ignorant or credulous laity. Even fire is pretended to come down from heaven, as in the case of St. Anthony's fire, and other instances cited by Brightman, and other writers on the Revelation; and in solemn excommunications, which are called thunders of the church, and are performed with the ceremonyof casting down burning torches from on high, as symbols and emblems of fire from heaven. Miracles are thought so necessary, that they are reckoned among the notes of the Catholic church: but if these miracles were all real,we might from thence learn what opinion we ought to frame of them: and what then shall we say, if they are all fictions and counterfeits? They are so far from being any proof of the true church, that they are rather the proof of a false one; and, as we see, the distinguishing mark of antichrist. The influence of the two horned beast, or corrupted clergy, is farther seen, in persuading and inducing mankind to make an image of the beast, &c. that is, an image and representation of the Roman empire, which was wounded by the sword of the barbarous nations, and revived in the revival of a new emperor in the West. He had also power to give life and activity unto the image of the beast, Revelation 13:15. It should not be a dumb and lifeless idol, but should speak and deliver oracles, as the statues of the heathen gods were feigned to do; and should cause to be killed as many as would not worship and obey it. This image and representation of the beast, most probably, is the Pope. He is properly the idol of the church. He represents in himself the whole power of the beast, and is the head of all authority, temporal as well as spiritual. He is no more than a private person, without power, and without authority, till the two-horned beast, or the corrupted clergy, by choosing him Pope, give life unto him, and enable him to speak and utter his decrees, and to persecute even to death as many as refuse to submit to him, and worship him. As soon as he is chosen Pope, he is clothed with the pontifical robes, and crowned, and placed upon the altar; and the cardinals come and kiss his feet, which ceremony is calledadoration. They first elect, and then they worship him, as in the medals of Martin V. where two are represented as crowning the Pope, and two kneeling before him, with this inscription, Quem creant, adorant: "Whom they create, they adore." He is the principle of unity to the ten kingdoms of the beast, and causeth, as far as he is able, all who will not acknowledge his supremacy to be put to death. In short, he is the most perfect likeness of the ancient Roman emperors; is as great a tyrant in the Christian world, as they were in the Heathen; presides in the same city; usurps the same powers; affects the same titles; and requires the same universal homage and adoration. So that the prophesy descends more and more to particulars, from the Roman state or ten kingdoms in general, to the Roman church or clergy in particular; and still more particularly to the person of the Pope, the head of the state as well as the church, the king of kings, as well as bishop of bishops. Other offices the false prophet performs to the beast, in subjecting all sorts of people to his obedience; by imposing certain terms of communion, and excommunicating all who dare, in the least article, dissent from him. He causeth all, both small and great,—to receive a mark, &c. (Revelation 13:16-17.) We must recollect, that it was customary among the ancients, for servants to receive the mark of their master; and soldiers, of their general; and those who were devoted to any particular deity, of the particular deity to whom they were devoted. These marks were usually impressed on their right hand, or on their foreheads, and consisted of some hieroglyphic character, or of the name expressed in vulgar letters, or of the name disguised in numerical letters, according to the fancy of the imposer. It is in allusion to this ancient practice and custom, that the symbol and profession of faith in the church of Rome, as subserving to superstition, idolatry, and tyranny, is called the mark or character of the beast; which character is said to be received in their forehead, when they make open profession of their faith; and in their right hand, when they live and act in conformity to it. If any different from the stated and authorized forms, they are condemned and excommunicated as heretics, and in consequence of that, they are no longer suffered to buy or sell;—they are interdicted from traffic and commerce, and all the benefits of civil society. Thus Hoveden informs us, that "William the Conqueror would not permit any one in his power to buy or sell any thing, whom he found disobedient to the apostolic see." So the canon of the council of Lateran, under Pope Alexander III. made against the Waldenses and Abigenses, enjoins, upon pain of anathemas, "that no one presume to entertain or cherish them in his house or land, or exercise traffic with them." The synod of Tours in France issued the like interdiction, as did Martin V. in his bull after the council of Constance. In this respect the false prophet spake as the dragon. For the dragon, Dioclesian, published a like edict, "that no one should sell or administer any thing to the Christians, unless they had first burnt incense to the gods." Popish excommunications are therefore like heathen persecutions. Mention having been made of the number of the beast, or, the number of his name, (for they are both the same,) the prophet proceeds to inform us what that number is, leaving us from the number to collect the name. Here is wisdom; let him that hath understanding, &c. (Revelation 13:18.) It is not therefore a vain and ridiculous attempt to search into this mystery; but, on the contrary, it is recommended to us upon the authority of an apostle. For it is the number of a man, it is a method of numbering practised among men; as the measure of a man, ch. Revelation 21:17 is such a measure as men commonly use. It was a practice among the ancients to denote names by numbers; of which many instances might be given, if it were necessary to prove it. It has likewise been the usual method in all God's dispensations, for the Holy Spirit to accommodate his expressions to the customs, fashions, and manners of the several ages. Since then this art and mystery of numbers was so much used by the ancients, it is less wonderful that the beast also should have his number; and there was this additional reason for this obscure manner of characterizing him in the time of St. John,—that no other manner would have been safe. His number is six hundred and sixty-six. Several names might be cited which contain this number: butit is evident that it must be some Greek or Hebrew name; and with the name also, the other qualities and properties of the beast must all agree. The name alone will not constitute an agreement; all other particulars must be perfectly applicable, and the name also must comprehend the precise number, six hundred and sixty-six. No name appears more proper and suitable, than that famous one mentioned by Iraeneus, who lived not long after St. John's time, and was the disciple of Polycarp, the disciple of John. He says, "that the name Lateinos contains the number six hundred and sixty-six." Lateinos, with ei, is the true orthography; as the Greeks wrote the long i of the Latins, and as the Latins themselves wrote in former times. No objection therefore can be drawn from the spelling of the name, and the thing agrees to admiration. For, after the division of the empire, the Greeks and other Orientalists called the people of the Western church, or church of Rome, Latins, and they latinize in every thing: mass, prayers, litanies, canons, decretals, bulls, are conceived in Latin: the Papal councils speak Latin: women themselves pray in Latin; nor is the scripture read in any other language under Popery than Latin. In short all things are Latin; the Pope having communicated his language to the people under his dominion, as the mark and character of his empire. They themselves, indeed, choose rather to be called Romans, and more absurdly still, Roman Catholics: and probably the apostle, as he has made use of some Hebrew names in this book, (ch. Revelation 9:11, Revelation 16:16.) so might he in this place likewise allude to the name in the Hebrew language. Now Romiith is the Hebrew name for the Roman beast, or Roman kingdom; and this word, as well as the former word, Lateinos, contains the just and exact number of six hundred and sixty-six.
LATEINOS. ROMIITH. Λ . . . . . . . . 30 ר. . . . . . . 200 Α . . . . . . . . . 1 ו. . . . . . . . . 6 Τ . . . . . . . 300 מ. . . . . . . . 40 Ε . . . . . . . . . 5 י. . . . . . . . 10 Ι . . . . . . . . 10 י. . . . . . . . 10 Ν . . . . . . . . 50 ת. . . . . . . 400 Ο . . . . . . . . 70 —— Σ. . . . . . . 200 666 —— 666
It is really surprising that there should be such a fatal coincidence in both names in both languages. And, perhaps, no other word, in any language whatever, can be found to express both the same number, and the same thing.
Inferences.—Whoever is the beast intended, and whatever he meant by his image, his character beyond all controversy is very odious and detestable; for he is represented as blaspheming the name of God and his tabernacle, and as making war with the saints. There have arisen such impious monsters in the Christian church; and none among them have been more openly and enormously wicked and profane, than those who have made the loudest pretensions to be the vicegerents of Christ, and invested with his whole authority. Many of the saints of God have seemed to have been overcome by his antichristian tyranny; many have been led into captivity; many have been slain with the sword: but those who took them captive, continuing impenitent, shall be taken, and the slayers slain. But let us be not troubled and offended, to discern these usurpations in the course of divine Providence prevailing, and the time actually come, in many parts of the world, in which men can neither buy nor sell, nor are permitted to enjoy any other natural or civil privilege, if they will not give up their names to the beast, receive his mark, and implicitly submit to his authority. The prophesy justly removes all offence which might be taken at the event; and, discerning its accomplishment, we may embolden our hopes, that the triumphs of divine justice over these ministers of the dragon, as they are also foretold, will be fulfilled with the like punctuality. And O, may the church of God be secured from their artifices, and fortified against their terrors; and, in his own due time, may he break the jaw-bone of the wicked! May he utterly disarm all the power and policy of those who take counsel together against the Lord and his Anointed; and, though their confederacies may seem to mock all human opposition, yet, at his appearance, they shall melt away as snow before the sun, when the time to remember Sion, yea, the set time is come. (Psalms 102:13.)
REFLECTIONS.—1st, Another vision, relative to the same events as the foregoing, appears to St. John.
1. A beast rises out of the sea, with seven heads, ten horns, and crowns upon his horns, and names of blasphemy thereon; like a leopard, with the feet of a bear and the mouth of a lion, denoting the fierceness, cruelty, and strength of the antichristian, idolatrous, and blasphemous state, which should arise out of the commotions that had shaken the empire. To this beast, that is, to the Pope and his adherents, the devil would delegate his power and authority, enabling the man of sin to work his lying miracles, and establish his seat and capital at Rome, where, during the reign of Paganism, Satan especially dwelt.
2. A deadly wound was given to the beast; which some refer to the sacking of the city of Rome by the Goths, and the removal of the supreme authority from thence during the exarchate of Ravenna; and others, to the blow which the church of Rome received at the Reformation; and this wound was healed; either Rome itself, under the Papal government, rose to unexpected greatness, and was held in veneration by the wondering world; or, this may refer to the recovery of the Papal interests since the reformation; and which, it is supposed by some, will flourish for a very short time, as much as ever, before the final downfal of Popery.
3. The people, who wondered after the beast, worshipped the dragon; the idolatrous worship of the church of Rome being, in fact, the adoration of Satan himself; and they worshipped the beast, his delegate, ascribing divine honours and titles to the Pope, exalting him above all princes and potentates, and ascribing to him a kind of omnipotence upon earth: while he, by horrid blasphemies, assuming the very prerogatives of the most High God, pretended, by the plenitude of his power to forgive sins, to alter God's revealed will, to have dominion over men's consciences, and to enact canons equally binding as, or more obligatory than, the laws of God himself; blaspheming his name, and his tabernacle the church, and those that dwell in heaven, the citizens of the New Jerusalem, the faithful whom he anathematizes, or the saints and angels whose names he uses in his idolatrous worship. During the period of 1260 years his dominion will endure, and he will be permitted by divine Providence to make war with the saints who refuse to submit to his tyrannical yoke, and to overcome them. And all the inhabitants of the earth shall be so deluded with his artifices, or intimidated with his terrors, that they shall worship him, and submit to his idolatrous decrees; that is, all, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb who was slain in promise from the foundation of the world, or, in other words, all who do not perseveringly yield to be saved by grace.
4. For the comfort of God's people, a solemn note of attention is added, and they are called to hear. This anti-christian power, which enslaves and destroys others, shall as surely be subdued and destroyed in its turn; and God's saints, now with patience enduring their persecutions, must with faith confidently expect that this will be the issue. Note; It requires much faith and patience, in suffering times, to hold fast the promises of God, and wait their fulfilment.
2nd, Another beast, or the same power under another form, appears, like a lamb with two horns, the symbol of his dominion temporal and spiritual, who, with all pretended meekness and humility, has all the pride and rage of the old dragon, exercising all the power of the first beast, and causing all the earth to worship him, and own his universal, temporal as well as spiritual, jurisdiction, with lying miracles supporting his idolatrous worship, deceiving the inhabitants of the earth, and leading them to erect the image of the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed, and pay their adoration to the idol, blindly and implicitly submitting to the authority of the Pope, and the constitutions of Paganism revived in the chinch of Rome; giving life to the image of the beast, enforcing all the canons and laws of his idolatrous worship, by excommunications, fire, and sword; making it death to refuse obedience to the Papal power; setting a mark upon all the votaries of the beast, and excluding those who would not submit to make profession of this system of error and blasphemy, from all intercourse with the worshippers of the beast, as unworthy of every blessing of society. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man, and his number is six hundred threescore and six; concerning which see the Annotations and the Appendix. However dark and mysterious these prophetic hints may be, one thing we are sure of, which is plain and obvious, that God will always maintain his own cause in the world in defiance of opposition, and that all the enemies of his church shall finally become her footstool.
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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 13". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany