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God defendeth his church. Zion is exhorted to rejoice for the coming of Christ and his peaceable kingdom. God's promises of victory and defence.
Before Christ 517.
THIS chapter begins with announcing the fate of the Syrians, Sidonians, and Philistines, contrasted with the better prospects of the Jewish nation. It foretels the coming of the Messiah to Jerusalem, and the peace of his kingdom. The restoration of Israel and Judah is afterwards predicted, together with a series of glorious victories and great prosperity, which are set forth at large in this and the next chapter.
Zechariah 9:1-38.9.2. The burden, &c.— Houbigant renders these verses, The burden, &c. against the land of Hadrach, and against Damascus, which is opposite to it. For the Lord beholdeth all men, as well as the tribes of Israel; Zechariah 9:2. Hamath also, its neighbour, and Tyre and Zidon, because it is very wise. But Dr. Blayney translates the latter part of the first verse, When toward JEHOVAH shall be the eyes of men, observing—I cannot conceive how the original word can be made out to signify "the eyes of Jehovah over man," as represented by Houbigant and the ancient versions. The order of the words in the Hebrew, אדם עין ליהוה כי ki laiehovah ain adam, leads directly to our present English Translation, "when the eyes of man, as of all the tribes of Israel, shall be toward Jehovah." And this plainly implies that a time would come, when men, and the tribes of Israel in particular, should turn their eyes toward Jehovah, and look up to him, either in hopes of deriving some blessing from him, or in gratitude for mercies received from him. See Blayney, to whom I acknowledge myself indebted for much assistance in my Commentary on Zechariah. This chapter begins a new prophesy against Syria and the Philistines, against Tyre and Sidon, which were to be subjected by Alexander the Great. The prophet afterwards speaks of the coming of the Messiah. Hadrach was some part of Syria, not far from Damascus.
Zechariah 9:3. And Tyrus did build, &c.— It is very true, that Tyre did build herself a strong-hold, for her situation was very strong in an island; and, besides the sea to defend her, she was fortified by a wall of 150 feet in height, and of a proportionable thickness. She heaped up silver as the dust, being the most celebrated place in the world for trade and riches; the mart of nations, as she is called, conveying the commodities of the east to the west, and of the west to the east; and yet, behold, the Lord will cast her out: accordingly, Alexander besieged, took, and set the city on fire. The author of the Observations thinks that the energy of the image, silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets, is nowhere pointed out with the distinctness in which it is placed by the following quotation from the editor of the Ruins of Balbec, who, speaking of the village of Cara, says, that "it is pleasantly situated on a rising ground: the common mud, formed into the shape of bricks, and dried in the sun, of which its houses are built, has at some distance the appearance of white stone; the short duration of such materials is not the only objection to them; for they make the streets dusty when there is wind, and dirty when there is rain. These inconveniencies are felt at Damascus, which is chiefly built in the same manner." They are felt indeed; for Maundrell says, that, upon a violent rain at Damascus, the whole city becomes by the washing of the houses, as it were, a quagmire. See Observations, p. 96. Instead of, Will cast her out, Zec 9:4 we may read, Will dispossess her.
Zechariah 9:4. Will smite her power in the sea— The Sidonians, (according to Diodorus Siculus,) on the approach of the army sent against them by Ochus king of Persia, first of all destroyed their shipping at sea; and then, retiring within the walls of their city, when they found they could hold out no longer, they set fire to their houses, and burnt themselves, with all their families and effects together. Thus their wealth was effectually smitten, when, by burning their ships, their commerce, the source of their riches, was annihilated; and their last act of desperation completely fulfilled the remaining part of the prophesy. No wonder if their neighbours the Philistines were struck with consternation at seeing the disastrous fate of those on whose assistance they depended.
Zechariah 9:5. Ashkelon shall see it, &c.— "The cities of the Philistines, Ashkelon, Gaza, and Ekron, shall be very much terrified at the news of Tyre being destroyed; whence they hoped for succour against the enemy. Gaza was taken by Alexander after a siege of two months, ten thousand of the inhabitants were slain, and the governor Betis dragged round the city till he expired." See Joseph. Antiq. lib. 11: cap. ult. and Qintus Curtius, lib. 4: Instead of king, we may read governor or viceroy.
Zechariah 9:6. And a bastard shall dwell, &c.— And a foreigner or alien shall dwell, &c. Houbigant.
In Ashdod— Ashdod, or Azotus, was burned and destroyed by Jonathan brother of Judas Maccabeus, and nearly eight thousand of its men burned or slain. 1Ma 10:84-85. These were, probably, what was meant by "the pride of the Philistines," the prime or excellency of the ancient inhabitants, in whose room the strangers were introduced.
Zechariah 9:7. And I will take away his blood, &c.— The Hebrews had a horror of all those who ate their food with the blood: this was expressly forbidden in the law. The meaning is, that when the cities here spoken of shall belong to the Hebrews, the Philistines shall observe the law of the Lord, and there shall no more be seen among them idolatry, superstition, or cruelty. Many of the Philistines became proselytes to the Jewish religion after Alexander Jannaeus had subdued their principal cities, and made them part of his own dominions. Houbigant understands the passage very differently; he renders the last clause thus: "And ye shall be left for our God, and shall be in Judaea as an ox, and Ekron as his manger. The Philistine (says he) is spoken of, in the first part of the verse, as of a wild beast from whose mouth the prey is taken: it is therefore added, that this beast shall be in servitude as an ox; and Ekron, being taken, should be as a manger, whence Judea might have oxen to do its business; all which happened in the time of the Maccabees; but it never happened that the Philistine was a governor in Judah." However, that expression may well be justified, the prophet meaning that the two people should be so united, that the Philistine should be reckoned as one under the immediate government of Judah, partaking of the same religion, and ruled by the same laws.
Zechariah 9:8. And I will encamp, &c.— And I will inclose my house with a garrison, that none may pass by or repass; for no oppressor shall pass through them any longer, since now I look with mine eyes. This alludes to the Maccabees, who were defenders of the house of God against Antiochus Epiphanes. They were as a wall of brass round about the temple of the sanctuary. From their days, God preserved the temple against the profanation of strangers till after the death of the Lord Jesus Christ, when he forsook it intirely. See Calmet.
Zechariah 9:9. He is just, and having salvation— The righteous one, and the Saviour. After having foretold the victories of the Maccabees, the prophet in a sudden transport breaks forth into a joyful representation of the coming of the Messiah. Behold, thy King cometh, &c. namely, that Messiah so often described in the prophets as the king of Israel, and called elsewhere by the name of David their king. He is the righteous one and the Saviour; the Lord our Righteousness; who shall execute justice and judgment in the earth, and perfect the salvation of his faithful people: unlike the proud and ruinous conquerors of the earth, he shall not enter with a mighty cavalcade of horse, but shall come lowly and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass. To elucidate this remarkable circumstance, which was fulfilled by the blessed Jesus when he entered Jerusalem in the manner here foretold, the learned Bishop Sherlock recurs to that original command in the law, that the kings of Israel should not multiply horses to themselves; because, being under the immediate dominion and protection of the Lord, they were not to put their trust in external defence. See the note on Deuteronomy 17:16. The kings of Israel were exalted to the throne on condition that they should renounce the assistance of horses and horsemen, and depend on God for success in the day of battle. They who did so, were proportionally successful; they who did not, ruined themselves and their country. Now, in this view, look to the present prophesy: you see here, what the king foretold was, who was to save the people: consider then what sort of a king was to be expected. Is it possible to imagine that God would send a king to save them, who should be like the kings that had undone them? Is it not more reasonable to imagine, that he should resemble those who had indeed been deliverers of their country?—Kings who feared God, and therefore feared no enemy; who, though mounted on asses, and colts the foals of asses, were able to put to flight the thousands and ten thousands of chariots and horses that came against them? The king foretold by the prophet was, moreover, to be just, meek, and lowly: but how could he have deserved this character, had he appeared in the pomp and pride of war; surrounded with horses and chariots, in direct opposition to the law of God? Or how, as he was to bring salvation to the people, could he make use of those means which God never prospered, and which he had sufficiently declared he never would? You see then how essential it was to the character of a king of Israel, who was to be just, and lowly, and to bring salvation with him, that he should come riding on an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass. But, if any doubt can yet remain, let the prophet himself explain it, who, immediately after his description of the promised king, adds, And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem; plainly shewing that the character given of the Messiah, that he should ride on an ass, was in opposition to the pride of their warlike kings, who, by their great strength in chariots and horses, had ruined themselves and their people. To the same purpose speaks the prophet Hosea; ch. Zec 1:7 and Micah, ch. Zec 5:10-11 passages which mutually support and enlighten each other, and shew undeniably what the prophet had in view, when he foretold that the Messiah should ride on an ass.—And what is there in all this to make sport for unbelievers?—Does it appear from the Jewish law, and the Jewish history, to be a mere trifling circumstance in the character of a king of Israel, whether he had chariots and horses of war or no? Or, was it any reproach to Christ to ride into Jerusalem on the foal of an ass, when David, the greatest of his ancestors, and Solomon the wisest, as long as he was wise, rode in the same manner? Can the Jews object to this circumstance, and yet talk of the glories of David and the magnificence of Solomon, who, in the midst of all their glory and magnificence, did the very same thing?—Or, can they stumble at this character of the Messiah, without forgetting by what princes their ancestors were saved, and by what undone? See Bishop Sherlock on Prophesy, Dissert. 4: p. 379.
Riding upon an ass, &c.— The riding at all on a horse is esteemed a very honourable thing in the east. Accordingly, horses are used in no other motions there than that of walking in state, and running in full career. For this reason, Dr. Pocock tells us that the chous of the janizaries at Cairo always goes on an ass for greater speed, those creatures pacing along very fast: whereas it is contrary to the Turkish dignity to go on a horse faster than a foot-pace in the streets. Riding on horseback is in the Levant accounted an honourable thing; and they ride them accordingly in a very stately manner. And indeed, this has so struck some of our western travellers, Dr. Russell in particular, that they have frankly confessed, that a great man of the east, riding on horseback, and attended by his servants, has appeared much more stately and dignified to them, than one of ours does in his coach, loaded with footmen: in truth, the people of these countries must be allowed to be exquisite connoisseurs as to every attitude and every circumstance which serves to ennoble the appearance of a person, and render it stately and majestic. The prophet Zechariah seems accordingly to have supposed this sort of sensibility, when he describes the coming of the Messiah to Zion, as meek and lowly, because he was to make his entry on an ass: for, this attaching of stateliness and dignity to the riding on a horse obtained in Judaea before the time of Zechariah, though it had been always so in that country; the greatest personages, and on the most solemn occasions too, riding there in more ancient times on asses and mules. It seems to have begun in the reign of Solomon, in whose days we are told many horses were brought out of Egypt; and who evidently touches upon the pomp supposed to be in the riding upon horses, Ecclesiastes 10:7. We have already taken notice of this passage on 2 Kings 4:24. But Dr. Russell's account of persons of condition riding on horseback, with a number of servants walking before them, is a much more perfect illustration of a passage which speaks of those that ride, as riding on horses. I have seen servants riding in state, was the declaration of the wise man,—while persons of great birth, in countries where dignity is kept up with the nicest care, he had seen walking like servants before those that rode. See the Observations, p. 284.
Zechariah 9:10. From sea even to sea, &c.— That is to say, From the Mediterranean to the south sea; and from the river Euphrates, &c.
Zechariah 9:11. It is more than probable, that the remaining part of this prophesy, to the end of the next chapter, relates to matters of which the time is not yet come. It is but reasonable to presume, that as the prediction follows that of the Messiah's coming, the accomplishment was meant to take place in the same order of succession. But since the time of our Saviour's appearance on earth nothing has happened to the Jewish nation in any degree answerable to what is here predicted; no return from captivity, no victories, no successes, but an uninterrupted series of misfortunes and calamities. This has been thought to favour the notion of Jeremiah's being the author of these chapters, and of his foretelling the return of the Jews from Babylon, and their successes under the Maccabees, when they had to contend with the Macedonian kings of Syria, the successors of Alexander the Great, emphatically called king of Javan, or Greece, Daniel 8:21. But let it be noted, that the promise of restoration is here made not to Judah only, but also to Ephraim, that is, the ten tribes, who are still, we know, in their dispersions, and have never yet, in a national capacity at least, experienced any favourable change in their affairs since their first abduction. There is however good ground to expect from the writings of other prophets, as well as that before us, that the time will come, when "all Israel shall be saved," as well as Judah, and hereafter be brought back to dwell in their own land in the full enjoyment of the like national prosperity.
By the blood of thy covenant— When thou wast in the blood of thy covenant: that is, when thou wast yet wet with the blood that was sprinkled on thee in confirmation of the covenant which God made with thee. See Exodus 24:8. Hebrews 9:19-58.9.20.—The same form of speech occurs, Ezekiel 16:6. בדמיךֶ bedamaiik, "When thou wast yet in thy blood;" that is, stained with the blood of thy filthiness, like an infant not yet washed.
The pit wherein is no water— Anciently in great houses, and particularly in the east, deep dry pits, called dungeons, were appropriated for the confinement of prisoners. Into one of these Jeremiah was cast. Jeremiah 38:6. Here, I presume, the land of Egypt is metaphorically intended, in which the children of Israel were heretofore detained as in a prison, until God delivered them out of it, and at the same time entered into covenant with them. To this deliverance he compares that which was destined for them in future.
Zechariah 9:13. Greece— That Javan, or Ion (for the Hebrew word יון may be sounded either way, accordingly as it is differently pointed) means Greece, anciently Ionia, having its name from Javan, or Ion, the son of Japhet, and grandson of Noah, is sufficiently made appear in Bochart. Geograph. Sacra, lib. iii. c. 3. And by the sons of Javan or Greece are most probably meant here the same enemies of Israel, whose destruction is foretold, Ezekiel 38:0; Ezekiel 39:0 under the names of Gog and Magog; which many have understood to denote the Turks, who are now in possession of the same countries as were formerly called in Scripture Javan.
Zechariah 9:14. Shall be seen over them— Leading them on and protecting them, as when they came out of Egypt. Exodus 13:21.
His arrow shall go forth as the lightning— The lightnings are represented as the arrows of the Almighty, Psalms 18:14; Psa 77:17 and he is here said to go forth like the lightning, scattering and discomfiting all before him.
Whirlwinds of the south— The most vehement storms, to which Judaea was subject, came from the great desert country to the south of it.
Zechariah 9:15. They shall devour, &c.— They shall go and subdue with sling-stones; they shall drink blood as wine; they shall be wet [that is to say, with blood] as bowls,—as the horns of the altar. Houbigant.
Zechariah 9:16. For they shall be as the stones of a crown— Or rather, as consecrated stones. Both single stones, and heaps of stones set up by way of memorial, are frequently spoken of; and these might well be called נזר עבני abnei nezer, as being separated, set apart, or consecrated to a particular use. Thus we read that Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon it. Genesis 28:18. And twelve such stones were pitched in memory of the passage through Jordan. Joshua 5:15.
REFLECTIONS.—1st, When God comes with blessings to his people, he will execute vengeance on their enemies.
1. The neighbouring nations, who had been such oppressors of Israel, shall be punished.
[1.] Syria and Damascus come first under judgment; on them shall rest the wrath of God, a burden intolerable; and this on account of their ill usage of God's believing people (for such he had among the Jews) whose eyes, as the eyes of one man, are, or will be, toward the Lord, crying for help. Hamath, which borders thereby, shall meet the same fate. Some apply the words to a quite different sense, and suppose that they speak not wrath but mercy: that the word of the Lord is his Gospel, which shall rest in Damascus; and many of the inhabitants, as the Israel of God, shall look towards the Lord; and this was fulfilled, when St. Paul was, near Damascus, brought to the knowledge of Jesus, and immediately preached him in the synagogues. See the critical notes.
[2.] Tyre and Zidon, though supported by every human advantage, very wise, very strongly fortified, and very rich, shall fall; God will cast her out, destroy her power in the sea where she reigned queen of the ocean, and she shall be devoured with fire. Note; There is neither counsel nor might against the Lord.
[3.] The cities of the Philistines, Ashkelon, Gaza, and Ekron, shall be terrified at their neighbours' ruin, ashamed of the confidence that they reposed in Tyre; the king of Gaza shall perish; Ashkelon shall become desolate and uninhabited, and a bastard or stranger shall dwell in Ashdod; which was fulfilled when Alexander destroyed all these places, and took the inhabitants prisoners; and afterwards the Jews, under the Maccabees, subdued great part of these countries.
2. A remnant of these will yield to the power of divine grace. Their bloody enmity against God's people, and their abominable idolatries, shall then be removed; but he that remaineth, even he, shall be for our God, returning to him in true repentance, and converted by the preaching of the Gospel; and he shall be as a governor in Judah, dear to God, and honourable as the chiefs of Judah; and Ekron as a Jebusite, or inhabitant of Jebus, that is Jerusalem; the middle wall of partition being broken down, and no difference any longer subsisting between Jew and Gentile, both alike admitted into the church, and heirs together of the grace of life.
3. God's care over his believing people will eminently appear. I will encamp about mine house because of the army, because of him that passeth by, and because of him that returneth, which literally refers to the protection that God gave them against the army of the Greeks under Alexander, who, amidst his other ravages, favoured the Jews. And spiritually it speaks God's watchfulness over his faithful ones, who, amidst all the legions of hell, and the powers of earth combined against them, are preserved; and no oppressor shall pass through them any more, which cannot be fully understood of the Jewish people, since many enemies afterwards oppressed them; but is gloriously verified respecting the faithful Israel of God; who, being justified from all things by the blood and intercession of Jesus, are delivered from condemnation and the yoke of bondage: for now have I seen with mine eyes, which expresses his watchfulness over his believing people who cleave to him, and his delight in them; so that they are safe from all the powers of evil.
2nd, The former part of this chapter directed us to the salvation of the great Redeemer; in the latter part he appears in great humility, yet bringing joy to all his saints.
1. The adored Messiah appears; and the prophet cries, Behold him, that the eye of faith might be directed forward to that blessed time, which was now fast approaching: thy king cometh unto thee, the long-expected Son of David, to sit on his Father's throne; he is just, in himself perfectly righteous, and administering the kingdom of his grace with the highest justice; and having salvation, the author and finisher of it, procuring it by the infinite merit of his blood, and ascending to his throne to apply it to his faithful people's hearts, and make them partakers of his divine nature; lowly, humbling himself for our sakes to the form of a servant, and to the death of a slave; or poor and afflicted, as he appeared during all the days of his sojourning here below; and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass, or even upon a colt, for thus our Lord made his entry into Jerusalem, Mat 21:4-5 amid the Hosannahs of the multitude.
2. He will erect a glorious kingdom in the world, not by weapons of war, or outward force; but by the preaching of his Gospel, bowing the hearts of men to submit to his easy yoke; and under his government they shall be safe, nor need the chariot, horse, or battle-bow to defend them. And the heathen shall share the blessings of his government; for to them he shall speak peace, sending to them his Gospel of peace, and causing them to enjoy in their souls the peace of God which passeth all understanding, and making them men of peace and quiet in the land; and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth, reaching in process of time from pole to pole, especially in the last days, when all nations shall hear his Gospel, and become obedient to the faith.
3. The great deliverance to be wrought for the church is ascribed to the blood of the covenant, the blood of Jesus, which he shed upon the cross: it is called thy covenant, the church's, which is composed of all the faithful redeemed, because the blessings and benefits of it are hers, through Christ, who is the great Covenant-head to his believing people; and this blood was prefigured in all the sacrifices which the Jews offered of old. By virtue of this, I have sent forth thy prisoners, those who by nature are in a state of guilt and corruption, concluded under sin; but yielding to the calls and power of divine love, are quickened by the Holy Spirit through the infinite merit of the atoning Blood, to come forth out of the pit, wherein is no water; where they must have perished miserably, unless thus relieved. And all who are brought out thence, look back with wonder, love, and praise, when they consider the horrible pit from which the Lord hath drawn them. Therefore,
4. They are commanded to rejoice in the view of all these inestimable blessings; yea, to rejoice greatly, as well it becomes those to do who have seen the King in his beauty, and are made partakers of his great salvation.
3rdly, The promises delivered in this chapter seem not so much to belong to any happy state of the Jewish affairs, as to the times of the Gospel; at least then they shall most eminently receive their accomplishment, and particularly in the final restoration of the Jews.
1. Sinners are invited to turn to the strong-hold Christ Jesus, who alone is able to protect them from the assaults of their spiritual enemies, Satan, sin, and death; to save them from the wrath of God, the curse of a broken law; and to supply all their wants out of his fulness. They are called prisoners of hope; by nature enslaved by corruption, and condemned by guilt; their state in and of themselves desperate, and every effort to escape by the powers of nature fruitless: yet in the Gospel, hope beams into the prison, Jesus hath opened the doors by his blood, having obtained redemption from all sins for all who will repent and believe, having purchased eternal glory for all the faithful, by his grace calling the prisoners forth, and enabling those to arise who turn to him, quitting all other dependencies, and resting their whole salvation on him alone.
2. They are assured of all protection and favour. To-day do I declare that I will render double unto thee, twice as much as they hoped for; comforts far exceeding all their afflictions, and blessings double to any that their fathers had experienced; the spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus in heavenly things being unspeakably superior to the greatest temporal prosperity and earthly good things.
3. They shall in these last and glorious days be victorious under the divine guidance over every enemy, and be defended by almighty power, when I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, or filled Ephraim with the bow, strengthened their arms to bend it, and put the mighty weapons into their hands, the spiritual weapons of the Gospel, with which the apostles went forth, shooting the arrows of conviction into the stoutest hearts of sinners, and bringing them to the obedience of Christ; and raised up thy sins, O Zion, against thy sins, O Greece, the wise disputers of this world, for which Greece was famed, as the seat of human literature and science; but all this proud wisdom shall be humbled before the Gospel-word, and the wise (many of them) made willing to become fools that they may be wise; and made thee as the sword of a mighty man, so piercing and sharp is the word of God in the mouths of his ministers, when accompanied by the demonstration of the Spirit. And the Lord shall be seen over them, as when on the day of Pentecost the fiery tongues descended upon the apostles; or in the constant supports of grace and courage he ministered unto them, and still does minister to all his servants, evidently manifesting the divine power which makes their labours effectual; and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning, swift shall his Gospel spread, and fill the world with its light and glory: and the Lord God shall blow the trumpet, his ministers shall sound a terrible alarm in the ears of impenitent sinners, and shall go with whirlwinds of the south, executing judgment on all who obey not his word; or the trumpet is like the jubilee trumpet, a proclamation of pardon, peace, and liberty; and the whirlwinds, the powerful energy of the word preached, bearing down all opposition before it in the sinner's heart. The Lord of Hosts shall defend them from every foe, and they shall devour, and subdue with sling-stones; though they seem as unequal to contend with their enemies respecting wisdom and power, as David to cope with Goliath; yet like him, these weak things shall confound the mighty, and bring the most self-righteous and stout-hearted sinner to bow in the dust, and accept the grace of the Gospel; they shall drink deep at the fountain of truth, and of the consolations of the Spirit, and make a noise as through wine, full of joy and thankfulness, and songs of praise; and they shall be filled with the love of God, and a sense of the efficacy of the atonement of Jesus, as bowls with the blood of the sacrifice, and as the corners of the altar on which it was sprinkled, as our consciences are with the blood of Christ, sealing our pardon and peace. And the Lord their God shall save them in that day as the flock of his people, either the ministers above spoken of, whom the Lord sends to fight his battles, or rather those who are subdued by the sword of the Spirit, and now numbered with such as bear Christ's easy yoke, and share in the blessings of his people; whom like a shepherd he feeds, watches over, and protects from every evil; for they shall be as the stones of a crown, so precious in God's sight; lifted up as an ensign upon his land, trophies of the victories of Jesus, and, if perseveringly cleaving to him, monuments of his grace for ever and ever.
Some refer these promises to Israel after the flesh, when under the Maccabees they were victorious over Antiochus and their other foes; but the sense given seems far preferable, and affords a nobler view of the prophesy.
4. Genuine believers shall be filled with wonder, love, and praise. For how great is his goodness, in thus loving us, living, dying for us, and bestowing upon us the riches of his grace and the abundance of his blessings; and how great is his beauty! In every true believer's eye he is beyond compare; the chiefest of ten thousand, and altogether lovely: corn shall make the young men cheerful, and new wine the maids; true believers in Christ Jesus shall be vigorous, active, lively; going forth as refreshed with corn and wine, singing in the good ways of God, and fruitful, as it is by some translated, in every good word and work.
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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Zechariah 9". Coke's Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent